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Gesche H. Hat Caesar den Octavian zum Magister equitum designiert? (Ein Beitrag zur Beurteilung der Adoption Octavians durch Caesar) // Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte. Bd. 22. 3. 1973. S. 468478.
. .. .. . .

.468 , . , 1 , 2, - , , , . 3 , .469 . 4 5 . (= 6).

- , , 7, , . , , , . , 8, , ( , , ..) , , 9. , 10, , . : .470 11. , .

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a) Plinius, n. h. 7, 147: In divo quoque Augusto magna sortis humanae repetiantur volumina: repulsa in magisterio equitum apud avunculum et contra petitionem eius praelatus Lepidus[1].

b) Appian, BC 3, 9: Ὀκτάουιος δὲ ὁ τῆς ἀδελφῆς τοῦ Καίσαρος θυγατριδοῦς ἵππαρχος μὲν αὐτοῦ Καίσαρος γεγένητο πρὸς ἓν ἔτος[2].

c) Dio 43, 51, 78: καὶ ἔμελλε καὶ αὐτὸς [] δικτάτωρ ἐν ἀμφοτέροις αὐτοῖς ἄρξειν, τούς τε ἱππαρχήσοντας ἄλλον τέ τινα καὶ τὸν Ὀκτάουιον, καίπερ μειράκιον ἔτι καὶ τότε ὄντα, προχειρίσατο δύο ἀντ᾿ αὐτοῦ [] ἑτέρους, ἰδίᾳ γε ἑκάτερον, ἱππαρχῆσαι ἐποίησε[3].

( , ) 12 13 44 Magister equitum designatus[4].

14, , . , (γεγένητο), , , . 15, , (Nikolaos 5), , 16, . . , πρὸς ἓν ἔτος[5] , , .471 . , 17.

18. (7, 147) , . , , , , . , , 19, , .

7, 147 , , , . 20 , - 21. .472 . ,   , 22 .

(3, 9) (43, 51, 78).

, , , (γεγένητο), , (προχειρίσατο)23. , .. , , . , γεγένητο , 24. , ( ); γεγένητο , .. . , γεγένητο , πρὸς ἓν ἔτος. , , , , , . , 25, , . , 3, 9, 43, 51, 7, , . , , . , ,  7, 147, 3, 9 43, 51, 7,  , , , . , .473 - , .

43, 51, 78. , ἄλλον τέ τινα[6], .. , , . 26 , , , . 27, 28 44 (in insequentem annum = 43. ..) . , , , . , , (. ), : , ἄλλος τέ τις (?) , . , , . ἄλλον τέ τινα , , ( , ) .

, : δύο ἀντ αὐτοῦ [] ἑτέρουσ, ἰδιᾳ γε ἑκάτερον, ἱππαρχῆσαι ἐποίησε[7]. , ; ἰδιᾳ γε ἑκάτερον[8] 29, ,     30, . , , , ἰδιᾳ γε ἑκάτερον.

, , .474 . 31 , , , [ ]. 32 , , 33 .

44 .

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VT QVM M []IDVS PALVDATV[
CN DOMITIVS M F M N CALVIN[
IN INSEQVENTEM ANN [
ERAT NON INIIT

, 44., , 43., . , (. Dio 43, 51, 8).


C IVLIVS C F [C] N CAESAR V[
P COR[

, M [] IDVS 44. (Dio 43, 49, 1; Suet. Caes. 82); , . PALVDATV[S] , , (Dio 43, 51, 8; Appian 2, 107). , : ( ) 34. , , , - . , Dio 43, 51, 8, . , , 44. , (IN INSEQVENTEM ANN[VM]), , ; .475 . , Plinius 7, 147; Appian 3, 9; Dio 43, 51, 7, , .

, , 35. , , VT QVM , 36. 37:


[C. Iulius C. f. C. n. Caesar in perpetuum dict(ator) rei gerundae caussa]

[M. Aimilius M. f. Q. n. Lepidus III mag(ister) eq(uitum)]38

[C. Octavius C. f. C. n., qui postea Imp. Caesar Divi f.]

[appellatus est, magister equitum designatus erat]39,

ut, qum M. [Lep]idus paludatu[s exiisset, iniret. Non iniit]

Cn. Domitius M. f. M. n. Calvin[us mag(ister) eq(uitum)]

in insequentem ann[um      designatus]

erat. Non iniit

C. Iulius C. f. C. n. Caesar V [in m(agistratu) [M. Antonius M. f. M. n.]

occ(isus) e(st). In e(ius) l(ocum) f(actus) e(st)]

P. Cor[nelius P. f.  n. Dolabella]viii*


.. 44. .476 . , . ,   7, 147  , , , .

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, : , 41, 42. , , 43. , , ; , . 44 , . , .477 , , - 45. , 46. , . , , , .

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1. , , , , (Plinius 7, 147), (Appian 3, 9 Dio 43, 51, 7).

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, , . , , 47. .478 , , . , , 48. . , , , , , 49.


  • * 1971 .
  • 1Plinius, n. h. 7, 147; Appian, BC 3, 9; Dio 43, 51, 78 44 . ( Degrassi, Inscr. It. . 59; Fasten . 7879; Mommsen, CIL 12, . 28).
  • 2 , ( ): A. Alföldi, Studien über Caesars Monarchie, Lund 1953, . 18: ; ; T. R. Broughton, The magistrates of the Roman Republic, . II, New York 1952, . 319; A. Degrassi, Fasti Capitolini, Turin o. J. ( 1947), . 7879; , Inscriptiones Italiae, Vol. XIII 1, Rom 1947, . 59; H. Dessau, Prosopographia Imperii Romani, II, Berlin 1897, . 173; G. Ferrero, Julius Caesar, Wien/Leipzig 1925, . 144: () 44 ; K. Fritzler  O. Seeck, Augustus, RE X 1, Stuttgart 1918, . 279; M. Gelzer, Caesar, Wiesbaden 1960, . 287: [] , Th. Mommsen, Röm. Staatsrecht, . 1, Leipzig 1887, . 579 . 3; T. Rice Holmes, The architect of the Roman Empire, . I, Oxford 1928, . 1011; H. Siber, Cäsars Diktatur und das Prinzipat des Augustus, Savigny Ztschr. . 55, 1935, . 99158, . 114: . ; Lord Tweedsmuir, Augustus, Stuttgart 1955, . 19; Westermayer, Magister equitum, RE Suppl. V, Stuttgart 1931, . 639.  : J. Carcopino, Jules César, Paris 1968, . 559; , Les étapes de limpérialisme Romain, Paris 1961, . 152153; Ed. Meyer, Caesars Monarchie und das Principat des Pompeius, Stuttgart/Berlin 1919, . 523524, . 4, : [ ] Plin. VII 147 
  • 3., . T. E. Adcock, Caesars dictatorship, . 17 CAH . IX, Cambridge 1932, . 725726; M. E. Deutsch, Caesars son and heir, Univ. California Publ. . 9, . 149200, Berkeley 1928, . 195196; W. Drumann  P. Groebe, Geschichte Roms, . I, Leipzig 1899, . 406, . III, Leipzig 1906, . 615616; E. Gabba, Appiano e la storia delle guerre civili, Florenz 1956, . 155 . 3; V. Gardthausen, Augustus und seine Zeit, . I 1, Leipzig 1891, . 48, . II 1, Leipzig 1891, . 21; W. Schmitthenner, Oktavian und das Testament Cäsars, Zetemata 4, München 1952, . 6-7.
  • 4 , . 7: .
  • 5Drumann-Groebe III, . 615616.
  • 6 . . , De dictatoris Caesaris honoribus, Studia Romana, Berlin 1859, . 197266, . 239241, , , .
  • 7Schmitthenner . 1 . . 6; Adcock, CAH . 726: , , crown prince[9]; H. Bengtson, Grundrilß der Römischen Geschichte, München 1967, . 234: - ; . , Römische Geschichte, Braunschweig 1960, . 216, , . . . , Caesar, RE X 1, Stuttgart 1918, . 253 (. . 35). , Etapes, . 152153 ( , César, . 559) , . . F. B. Marsh, The founding of the Roman Empire, Cambridge 1959, . 172: His [Octavians] political position Caesar could not of course bequeath, though had he lived it is probable that he would have found a way to designate his grandnephew as the successor to the throne[10]. . , . 48.
  • 8 , . 6 .
  • 9., , Th. Mommsen, Römisches Staatsrecht, . II 1, Leipzig 1887, . 162:   ,   .
  • 10 , ., B. C. M. Hall, Nicolaus of Damascus life of Augustus, Northampton (Mass.) 1923, . 78 . 2 . 5.
  • 11 , . 7 Drumann-Groebe III, . 616 Gardthausen I, . 48.
  • 12Mommsen, CIL I2, . 28 710 .; StR 13 (1887), . 579, . 3.
  • 13Degrassi, Inscr. It., . 59 44 . Fasten, . 7879 . 44 . .
  • 14 , . 7.
  • 15, , I, . 48 (. II 1, . 21): , , ; . Hall . 78 . 2 . 5.
  • 16- , .
  • 17 . 6 . 2; , . 78 . 2 . 5 , . : The latter office [Magister equitum] would be considerably too responsible for a youth of 16 years[11].
  • 18., , Adcock, CAH, . 726: The tradition in Dio, and perhaps in Appian, is then to be explained as belonging to that war of propaganda which has done so much to confuse the history of Octavius rise to power[12]. , . . 476.
  • 19 3, 9 43, 51, 78 44 . . ., . , 45/44 . . .,     (. Degrassi, Fasten . 7879; v. Rohden, Lepidus, RE I 1, Stuttgart 1893, . 556; Westermayer . 639). , 44 , ( , 44 . . . Magister equitum II III, . Degrassi, Fasten . 7879 . 44 .), . 43 . (. , . 473);     16 (, , , . 78 . 2 . 5; I, . 48 ). ., , : Carcopino, Etapes, . 15253; Mommsen, StR I, . 579 . 3; Siber, . 114. 47/46 . . . Drumann  Groebe III, . 616.
  • 20Plinius, n. h. 7, 147150.
  • 21, , (Plin. 7, 147) ; (Plin. 7, 148) ; (Plin. 7, 148) ; , , , . (Plin. 7, 149). .
  • 22 Drumann  Groebe III, . 616: , , [] , .
  • 23 προχειρίζεσδαι  ., , Dio 44, 6, 4, H. Gesche, Die Vergottung Caesars, FAS 1, Kallmünz, 1968, . 31.
  • 24. Meyer, . 523524 . 4: , III 9, 30, .  Adcock, CAH . 725:, It is possible that Appian only means that he had been designated for the office and is repeating the same tradition as Dio[13].
  • 25., W. Soltau, Appians Burgerkriege, Philologus Suppl. VII, 1899, . 595634, . 598, . 629; , . 154, tradizione favorevole ad Ottaviano[14], , 9 3.
  • 26Drumann-Groebe III, . 615.
  • 27 . F. Münzer, Domitius, RE V 1 (1903) . 14221423 Suppl. III (1918) . 394; PIR2 III, . 42, 139; Drumann-Groebe III, . 3.
  • 28Mommnsen, CIL I2, . 28 710 .; Degrassi, Inscr. It., . 59 44 . . 133 .
  • 29. Broughton II, . 319.
  • 30Adcock, CAH . 726; Deutsch . 195 . 232; , ( , , , ) Carcopino, César . 559, Meyer . 523 . 4.
  • 31Drumann-Groebe III, . 616; Schmitthenner . 7; Deutsch . 196 . 235.
  • 32Mommsen, CIL I2, . 28; , StR I, . 579 . 3; Degrassi, Inscr. It., . 59; , Fasten . 7879; . Meyer . 523 . 4, , VT QVM ; Westermayer . 639.
  • 33 , . 7.
  • 34 paludatus ., ., Cicero, Att. 4, 13, 2, : Crassum quidem nostrum minore dignitate aiunt profectum paludatum quam olim L. Paulum[15]; paludatus ; . Cicero, Pis. 13, 31: cum proficiscebamini paludati in provincias consules[16]; Cicero, Fam. 15, 17, 3: Pansa noster paludatus profectus est[17]; Cicero, Prov. Cos. 37; Caesar, BC 1, 6, 6: in reliquas provincias praetores mittuntur. Neque exspectant ut paludati exeant[18].
  • 35 , . 253: 43 . . , , . 241.
  • 36. , Drumann-Groebe III, . 616 . 3 , : Fasti Cap. CIL I2 26 mag. eq. designatus, , , , .
  • 37Adcock, CAH . 725 , possible, though not necessary[19], , 44 .,   43 . . .; (. 726) , , , in insequentum annum.  .
  • 38Mommsen, CIL I2, . 28 , Magister equitum II; Degrassi, . 7879 . 44 ., (= Magister equitum III) .
  • 39Degrassi, Inscr. It., . 59 134, , , . 7879 qui postea Imp. Caesar Divi f. appellatus est[20].
  • 40Drumann-Groebe III, . 616: ; Adcock, CAH . 726: seem to be decisive against the designation of Octavius[21].  Zumpt . 240.
  • 41., , Sueton, Caes. 82; Appian, BC 2, 115, ( !) 2, 118.
  • 42Mommsen, StR I, . 628 II 1, . 175176 . 6; . , . W. Liebenam, Dictator, RE V 1, Stuttgart 1903, . 383; Westermayer . 644 Deutsch . 163 . 62.
  • 43Cicero, Phil. I 1, 3; I 2, 4; II 36, 91; II 45, 115; Livius, ep. 116; Appian, BC 3, 25; Dio 44, 51, 2. , . , , . , 3, 25 , , (); , , , , . 44, 51, 2 ; , . . ., , - (?), , (?). , . , 44, 53, 67 , ; , , , , 44, 5, 3 , , , . (. Gesche . 49).
  • 44Cicero, Phil. I 1, 3; I 2, 4; II 36, 91; II 45, 115.
  • 45Res gestae 5, 1; Dio 54, 1; Sueton, Aug. 52.
  • 46 , , , ( ) ,  (Alföldi . 18); , , .
  • 47, , , . . Carcopino, Étapes . 153 Holmes I, . 1011.  - III, . 616  . 196 . 235  , , , , , . : -, (. Appian, BC 2, 107; Dio 43, 51, 8), ; , , () (. Velleius 2, 59, 4).
  • 48 , , V. Ehrenberg, Caesars final aims, Harvard Studies Class. Philol. 68, 1964, . 149161. (. 157) , . : His adoption of the young Octavius, whom by testament he made his private heir, does not mean that he saw in the boy of eighteen his successor as the ruler of Rome It is surprising to find that even such a great and realistic historian as Rostovtzeff (History of the Ancient World II 147) took the adoption as clear proof that Caesar regarded Octavian as his heir and inheritor of his position he [Caesar] made no attempt to arrange for his succession[22]. . . 7.
  • 49     . M. Lemosse, Ladoption dOctave et ses rapports avec les règles traditionelles du droit civil, : Studi in Memoria di E. Albertario, . I, . 368395, Mailand 1953, M.  H. Prevost, Les adoptions politiques à Rome, Paris 1949, ., . 33 , . G. Alfs, Adoptionen in der Zeit der römischen Republik bis auf die des Octavianus, Diss. Köln 1950, , .
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