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IVVI .

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.290 plumbata, (Veget. Ep. I. 17; II. 15, 16; III. 14; Anon. Bell. X; XI), hasta plumbata, . . , . mattiobarbula (Ep. I. 17). martiobarbula, . . , 1. r   μαρτζοβάρβουλον (Maur. Strat. XII. 5; 12; 16; 19; 20). . (mattiaci  Tac. Ann. XI. 20; Germ. 29) (Mattiarii iuniores; seniores  ND. Occ. V) , 2. . , μαρτζοβάρβουλον mattea maciuca μαζούκα 3. ῥιπτάρια (Strat. XII. 16) ῥίπτω , , , .

, IV  V .4 . , (286305 .) , . (Ep. I. 17). I Iovia II Herculia, IV . : , (ND. Or. XXXIX)5. , , . , , , .291 III .6 7.

. , , , (Ep. II. 15). . , , , , (Ep. I. 17). , (Ep. III. 14). , , . , . , (Ep. III. 15). (Ep. III. 15).   , (Ep. IV. 21; 29).

, VI .8 (μαρτζοβαρβούλοι) (Strat. XII. 5; 12; 19; 20), (Strat. XII. 2; 4; 6; 16) . ,   . , (Strat. XII. 6; 19). , (Strat. XII. 5).   , , , , , (Strat. XII. 16)  , , (Ep. I. 17). , , , , (Veget. Ep. II. 16; III. 14; Maur. Strat. XII. 12).

.292 , IV V .9 ,   (iaculi) (ex ligno, . . ), (sagittae), (venabuli) ; , , (Bell. X, . . . ). (plumbum), , . , , , , (X. 2; XI). , , (manus impetu) (comminus vadit  X. 1).

. , . , . , . 10. . , : 1 .11 , . , .

, , IIIVI .12 , (Bell. X). .293 , (), , (), (), () . . (), . , (), (), (). , () ()13. . . .

98 275 . 3 : 98 118 (7 );   135 162 (13 );   186 220 (5 ). , (255 , , 275 ) 14. . , . , , , 130 147 .,   350 . , IV . (Veget. Ep. I. 17), - (Maur. Strat. XII. 6; 19), , . , , , , 15.

. . , IIIII ., , . , 110 , , 94 . 50 , 16.

. , 1542 . De Rebus Bellicis (Cod. Monacensis lat. 10291. F 72). .294 , (Bell. I. 10). . , . , 150 , , 60   . , , (Bell. X. 1). . , , . 591 610 , , 27,5 ,   6473 17.

. . 27,5  , . , , , , , (Bell. X. 1). , . , , (Bell. X. 3). , . , , , , . , . , 51 . 61,3 ,   14 , (Ep. IV. 21; 29). , , 18.

, . . , . , .295 , . , , . , . , , 19.

. , , , , , 10 5 . 40 2,6 3,4 . , , 352 , 232  200  20. ,   42 % 23 % 19 % 21. , , . , (Ep. I. 16; .: Arr. Tact. 15. 2). , (Med. V. 26; VII. 55).

, , . (NH. X. 50. 97; XII. 85) , (plumbatis sagittis). (Coll. 33. 15), , (plumbatis iaculis). . 45 48 , 5 19 45 . .296 22. IIIII . , . , . , , , 23.

. , , 20 24, , (Veget. Ep. I. 20; II. 15), 5060 25, 26. , , . , . , , , , , . - , , , .

. 60  (Maur. Strat. XII. 16). , 27. (Veget. Ep. I. 4. 1417; Arr. Tact. 36. 34; 40. 7; 4143). (Arr. Contra alan. 25). , . (Kest. I. 1. 8081) , .297 . , , , . , , 28. , , (Caes. BC. III. 53; Suet. Iul. 68; Anon. Bell. 10). , . , , 10 29. , , , fulko (Maur. Strat. XII. 1; Iul. Afr. Kest. I. 1. 6973; Dio Cass. LXXV. 6). , , ?

. , , , , (Hdt. VI. 7; VII. 2. 2; SHA. XIX. 11. 8; Procop. Bel. Vand. I. 8. 27; Bel. Goth. II. 25. 4). , - . , . , , , 30. , , , . , , . , , . , , , , , , (Ep. I. 17).

. .298 , , , , , , . , , , . 1520 , , 60 , , 70 8 , 2800 . 71  39 , , (Dio Cass. LXXV. 6; LXXVI. 6). . , , , , . , , , . , , , , , 31. , , . , . - , 30 70 , , 32. , , , , (Amm. Marc. XXXI. 13. 2; 10. 8).

33. , IV . . . plumbata mamillata, , (Bell. 11). mamillata mamilla , , . . , , , , , 34. , .299 , , , . , . , , mamillata (rotundum et in acumen deductum ferrum), 35.

, , , , . , , , 0,73 10 36. , , , . IV . 130 0,09 , 147 0,13 37. . (  109 ,   147 ,   150 ), . , ,   255 ,   344 , . .  , VVI ., 38. . , , 530 . , , , 39.

. , . , . , , . μαρτζοβάρβουλον , . 40.

.300

Alexey V. Kozlenko (Minsk, Belarus). Plumbata in Roman Army IVVI A. D.

Plumbata, mattiobarbula and μαρτζοβάρβουλον were the names of a javelin with a lead weight. It was a part of standard military equipment of Late Roman soldiers. Vegetius, Maurice and Anonymous Reformer describe the plumbata as a throwing weapon with a range of throw superior to the javelin. Archaeological remains of plumbata looks like small barbed head on the iron stem and barrel shaped lead weight. Their length could vary from 98 mm to 275 mm long and weight from 130 gm to 350 gm. Modern reenactors reconstructed plumbata as a shot javelin with special way of usage. It was held in the tail and throw away by untwisting. Due to the good weight respecting to the small size, the energy consumption during the plumbata flight was smaller than that of the javelin. It helps to use the plumbata as the effective weapon of the first strike and explains Vegetiuss recommendations to this weapon as well.

. 1. . . 2. .


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  • 2Bishop M. C., Coulston J. C. N. Roman Military Equipment. From Punic Wars to the Fall of Rome. L., 1993. P. 162.
  • 3Kolias T. Byzantynische Waffen. Wien, 1988. S. 176.
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  • 7Bennett B. A. Op. cit. P. 61.
  • 8 . . . ., 2001. . 3943.
  • 9Cameron A. The Date of Anonymus De Rebus Bellicis // De Rebus Bellicis. Pt. 1. Aspects of the De Rebus Bellicis. Papers Presented to Professor E. A. Thompson / Ed. by M. W. C. Hassall. Oxf., 1979. P. 79.
  • 10Sherlock D. Plumbatae  A Note on the Method of Manufacture // De Rebus Bellicis. P. 102.
  • 11 . .  / . . , . . ., 2000. . 261.
  • 12Degen R. Plumbatae. Wurfgeschosse der Spatantike // Helvetia Archaeologica. 1992. Bd. 23. S. 141144.
  • 13Volling Th. Plumbata  mattiobarbulus  martzobarboulon. Bemerkungen zu einem Waffenfund aus Olympia // Archäologischer Anzeiger. 1991. S. 295.
  • 14Volling Th. Op. cit. S. 289.
  • 15Ibid. S. 288.
  • 16 . . . . 261.
  • 17Barker Ph. The Plumbatae from Wroxeter // De Rebus Bellicis. P. 99.
  • 18Eagle J. Testing Plumbatae // Roman Military Equipment. The Sources of Evidence. Ed. by C. van Driel-Murray. Oxf., 1989. P. 247253.
  • 19Baatz D. Schleudergeschosse aus Blei  eine waffentechnische Untersuchung // Saalburg Jahrbuch. 1990. Bd. 45. S. 59.
  • 20Ibid. S. 61.
  • 21Ibid.
  • 22Volling Th. Plumbatae sagittae? Anmerkungen zu Waffenfunden aus dem augusteischen Lager von Haltern // Boreas. 19911992. Bd. 1415. S. 296.
  • 23Bishop M. C., Coulston J. C. N. Op. cit. P. 65. Fig. 2, 50, 85.
  • 24Junkelmann M. Die Legionen des Augustus. Der römische Soldat im archäologischen Experiment. Mainz, 2000. S. 191.
  • 25Eagle J. Op. cit. P. 250.
  • 26Connolly P. The Reconstruction and Use of Roman Weaponry in the Second Century B. C. // Journal of Roman Military Equipment Studies. 2000. Vol. 11. P. 45.
  • 27Sumner G. Roman Army. Wars of Empire. L., 1997. P. 105.
  • 28Wheeler E. L. Firepower: Missile Weapons and the Face of Battle // Electrum. 2001. Vol. 5. P. 176177.
  • 29Gabriel R. A., Metz K. S. From Sumer to Rome: The Military Capabilities of Ancient Armies. L., 1991. P. 7075.
  • 30Goldsworthy A. K. The Roman Army at War 100 B. C.  A. D. 200. Oxf., 1996. P. 185, 188.
  • 31Wheeler E. L. Op. cit. P. 181.
  • 32Eagle J. Op. cit. P. 250.
  • 33Gabriel R. A., Metz K. S. Op. cit. P. 7075.
  • 34Barker Ph. Op. cit. P. 97.
  • 35Bishop M. C., Coulston J. C. N. Op. cit. P. 162.
  • 36Connolly P. Op. cit. P. 4445.
  • 37Volling Th. Op. cit. S. 295.
  • 38Ibid. S. 295296.
  • 39Eagle J. Op. cit. P. 247.
  • 40Kolias T. Op. cit. S. 177.
  • 1291159590 1291154476 1290959329 1304421097 1304459601 1304463289

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