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. , , , , .60 , 98. , , . . contiones 99. - . . , , , , , 100.


PEOPLE, POWER AND LAW IN LATE REPUBLICAN ROME (On F. Millars Conception)

A. L. Smyshlyaev

During the last decades scholars have criticized severely the traditional view that Roman nobility exercised its control over comitia through their obedient clients, and that the political system of the Roman republic in the 3rd1st cc. BC was oligarchic in its essence. According to F. Millar, the most consistent critic of the traditional views, at that time Roman state system was a republican one with definite democratic traits. Its political life had its centre not at the Curia, but in the Forum, where comitia and contiones were held. Adopting laws, comitia exercised power over political life. The key figure of Roman political life was not the patron in command of obedient clients, but the orator trying to convince the crowd in the Forum. This crowd, representing the Roman people, was the only sovereign ruler of the Roman state, and in some respect an efficient government body. Power and influence of this crowd were especially strong in the last decades of the Republic, but at that very time it began to lose its connection with the majority of the people and to express the interests of city mob or to serve as an instrument in the hands of influential politicians. Thus, popular politics degenerated into crowd politics, and republic was succeeded by monarchy.

In the authors opinion, F. Millars conception is not free from contradictions. E. g. he seems to underestimate political influence of the aristocracy and the role of the senate in state government. Still, his ideas are more in line with modern view of Roman history, and its very existence helps to overcome the obsolete concepts.


  • * (   02-06-80115). , . . , , .
  • 1Gelzer M. Die Nobilität der römischen Republik. Lpz.B., 1912 (2. Aufl. Stuttgart, 1983) = idem. Kleine Schriften. Bd I. Wiesbaden, 1962. S. 15135. . : Gelzer M. The Roman Nobility. Oxf., 1969.
  • 2Münzer Fr. Römische Adelsparteien und Adelsfamilien. Stuttgart, 1920; Schur U. Scipio Africanus und die Begründung der römischen Weltherrschaft. Lpz., 1927; Scullard H. Roman Politics 220150 B. C. Oxf. 1951.  . Syme R. Roman Revolution. Oxf., 1939; Taylor L. R. Party Politics in the Age of Caesar. Los Angeles, 1949. : . . . ., 1986. . 45 .; Wallace-Hadrill A. Patronage in Roman Society: from Republic to Empire // Patronage in Ancient Society / Ed. A. Wallace-Hadrill. L.N. Y., 1989. P. 68 f.
  • 3 . , , ,   (Syme, Op. cit. P. 7).
  • 4Rouland N. Pouvoir politique et dependance personnelle dans lantiquité romaine. Genèse et rôle des rapports de clientele (Collection Latomus  166), Bruxelles, 1979. P. 258 suiv.; Brunt P. A. The Fall of the Roman Republic und Related Essays. Oxf., 1988. P. 30 ff.; 382 ff.; Wallace-Hadrill. Op. cit. P. 69 ff.; Lintott A. The Constitution of the Roman Republic. Oxf, 1999. P. 178 ff.
  • 5Seager R. Factio: Some Observations // JRS. 1972. 62. P. 53 f.; Brunt. Op. cit. P. 36 ff., 443 ff.; Lintott. The Constitution P. 170 ff.
  • 6Hopkins K., Burton G. Political Succession in the Late Republic (24950 B. C.) // Hopkins K. Death and Renewal. Cambr., 1983. P. 32 ff., 45, 55 ff., 66, 113.
  • 7Ibid. P. 62, 112 f., 117.
  • 8Ibid. P. 114.
  • 9 . , (Patterson J. Rev.: Yakabson A. Elections and Electioneering in Rome: A Study in the Political System of the Late Republic. Stuttgart, 1999 // JRS. 2002. 92. P. 230).
  • 10  . . .  // . 1999.  4. . 223; . .  // . . 4. . 1991. 5. . 69 .
  • 11Millar F. Rome, the Greek World, and the East. V. I. The Roman Republic and the Augustan Revolution / Ed. H. M. Cotton, G. M. Rogers. Chapel Hill  London, 2002 (Studies in the History of Greece and Rome). P. 158.
  • 12Millar. The Roman Republic P. 92, 111, 124 ff., 145 f.; idem. The Crowd in Rome in the Late Republic. Ann Arbor, 1998 (Jerome Lectures, 22). P. 7 ff.
  • 13Millar. The Roman Republic P. 92 f.
  • 14. . 12.
  • 15Millar F. The Political Character of the Classical Roman Republic, 200151 B. C. // JRS. 1984. 74; idem. Politics, Persuasion and the People before the Social War (15090 B. C.) // JRS. 1986. 76; idem. Political Power in Mid-Republican Rome: Curia or Comitium? // JRS. 1989. 79; idem. Popular Politics at Rome in the Late Republic // Leaders and Masses in the Roman World: Studies in Honor of Zvi Yavetz / Ed. J. Malkin, L. W. Rubinsohn. N. Y., 1995.
  • 16. . 11. : Millar F. Rome, the Greek World and the East. V. II. Government, Society and Culture in the Roman Empire; V. III. The Greek World, the Jews and the East.
  • 17 1 III .
  • 18 Political Power in Mid-Republican Rome ( . 3 ) - (revue article) , . IVIII . . .
  • 19Millar. The Roman Republic P. 143; idem. The Crowd in Rome P. IX, 4.
  • 20Idem. The Roman Republic P. 94 f., 99 ff., 123, 144, 151 ff., 166, 169 f., 173, 178; idem. The Crowd in Rome P. 54, 69, 138, 209 f., 217.
  • 21Idem. The Roman Republic P. 139, 166, 170 f.; idem. The Crowd in Rome P. 19, 24, 48, 92, 204, 206.
  • 22Idem. The Roman Republic P. 90 f., 108, 141 f., 171, 179; idem. The Crowd in Rome P. 19, 25, 31, 38 ff., 44, 57 f., 71, 87, 111 f., 117, 120, 123, 125 f., 136, 147, 170, 191, 214, 220, 224.
  • 23Idem. The Roman Republic P. 99, 149; idem. The Crowd in Rome P. 49.
  • 24Idem. The Crowd in Rome P. 13, 57, 91, 178, 217.
  • 25Idem. The Roman Republic P. 112, 124, 136, 142, 150, 158, 161, 178, 180 f.; idem. The Crowd in Rome P. 92, 224 f.
  • 26Idem. The Roman Republic P. 87 ff.
  • 27Ibid. P. 104, 107.
  • 28Ibid. P. 110 f.
  • 29Ibid. P. 111.
  • 30Ibid. P. 112.
  • 31Ibid. P. 113 ff., 117 f.
  • 32Ibid. P. 132.
  • 33Ibid. P. 114 ff., 119 f.
  • 34Ibid. P. 115, 132 f.
  • 35Ibid. P. 115, 120 ff.
  • 36Ibid. P. 122 ff.
  • 37Ibid. P. 112, 115.
  • 38Ibid. P. 140.
  • 39Ibid. P. 112, 123 f., 136 f., 140 ff.
  • 40Ibid. P. 141.
  • 41. . 6.
  • 42Millar. The Roman Republic P. 126 f.
  • 43 , , argumentum e silentio .
  • 44Millar. The Roman Republic P. 131.
  • 45Ibid. P. 133 ff.
  • 46Ibid. P. 135 ff.
  • 47Ibid. P. 141 f.
  • 48. , , , (23. 14. 1) (Ibid. P. 141).
  • 49Ibid. P. 111 f., 139 ff.
  • 50Burckhardt L. A. The Political Elite of the Roman Republic: Comments on Recent Discussion of the Concepts nobilitas and homo novus // Historia. 1990. XXXIX, 1. P. 89 ff.
  • 51Ibid. P. 98.
  • 52Lintott A. Democracy in the Middle Republic // ZSS, 1987, 117.
  • 53Ibid. P. 49 f.
  • 54Walbank F. W. Polibius Perception of the One and Many // Leaders and Masses in the Roman World: Studies in Honor of Zwi Yavetz / Ed. J. Malkin, L. W. Rubinsohn. N. Y., 1995. P. 221 f.; Brunt. Op. cit. P. 18. Not. 33; North J. A. Democratic Politics in Republican Rome // Past and Present. 1990. 126. P. 10, 15 f.
  • 55Millar. The Roman Republic P. 89.
  • 56Ibid. P. 90 ff.
  • 57Ibid. P. 98.
  • 58Ibid. P. 104 ff.
  • 59Ibid. P. 101 ff.
  • 60 20 000 (Millar. The Crowd in Rome P. 37, 223 f.). III . . . 250300 . (Nicolet C. Rome et la conquête du monde méditerranéen. 26427 av. J.-C. T. I. Les structures de lItalie romaine, 3e éd. P., 1987. P. 89).
  • 61. . . . 159 .; Yakabson A. Secret Ballot and its Effects in the Late Roman Republic // Hermes, 1995. 123, 4. P. 426 ff. . Millar. The Crowd P. 26 f.
  • 62 , , .
  • 63Nicolet. Op. cit. P. 381.
  • 64, , (VI. 14. 410), . . , (VI. 14. 1011). . , , .
  • 65 , , , (Polyb. VI. 11. 1; Walbank. Op. cit. P. 214). , . , .
  • 66 . .
  • 67Millar, The Roman Republic P. 143 f., 148 ff.
  • 68Ibid. P. 148, 150, 155.
  • 69Ibid. P. 149, 160.
  • 70Ibid. P. 152 f., 157.
  • 71Ibid. P. 152 ff.
  • 72Ibid. P. 149, 151 f., 158 ff.
  • 73Ibid. P. 161.
  • 74 (98 . . .), , . (Lintott. The Constitution P. 62, 104, 210; idem. Violence in Republican Rome. 2nd ed. Oxf., 1999. P. 134 f., 140 f.).
  • 75Millar. The Crowd in Rome P. 1, 95.
  • 76Ibid. P. 2.
  • 77Ibid. P. 27 ff.
  • 78Ibid. P. 37, 223 f.
  • 79Ibid. P. 30 ff., 37.
  • 80Ibid. P. 36, 48, 150.
  • 81Ibid. P. 101 ff.
  • 82Ibid. P. 104.
  • 83Ibid. P. 35, 215; idem. The Roman Republic P. 179 f.
  • 84Millar. The Crowd in Rome P. 208.
  • 85Ibid.
  • 86Ibid. P. 225 f.
  • 87 , (Ibid. P. 125).
  • 88Ibid. P. 202.
  • 89 46 . . . (Fam. IX. 15. 3), , : , (. .   . .) (. . , .  . .). ?
  • 90Millar. The Crowd in Rome P. 6.
  • 91Idem. The Roman Republic. P. 195.
  • 92Idem. The Crowd in Rome P. 119, 133, 151, 156, 158, 209, 219; idem. The Roman Republic. P. 163 f.
  • 93. . 83.
  • 94Cic. Att. IV. 1, 46; Dom. 3. 512. 31; Dio Cass. 39. 9.
  • 95Millar. The Crowd in Rome P. 156.
  • 96. Bradley K. Rev.: Millar F. The Crowd in Rome // Phoenix. 1999. LIII. 12. P. 144 f.
  • 97 , .
  • 98Millar. The Roman Republic P. 164.
  • 99Pina Polo F. Contra arma verbis. Der Redner vor dem Volk in der späten römischen Republik. Stuttgart, 1996. . : . . // , 1999,  4. . 199205.
  • 100 . . . , , (Bradley. Op. cit. P. 146).
  • 1292504941 1292595518 1292283273 1305823894 1306055928 1306056423

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