| |
.

*

Peter White. Julius Caesar in Augustan Rome. Phoenix, Vol. 42, No. 4 (1988), pp. 334356.
. . . . . .

I. 336
II. 343
III. 345
IV. 354

.334 1843 . obiter dicto[1], . , , 1. , , . : , ; , , , . , XIX XX . 2.

1988 . , . , , , ,  , , 3. .335 , , , . , , , . , , . , :

, , . , , , ; , , . , , , , , ( ) (Tacitus 1. 432433).

: ? , . . , . , , , . - , , :   , ,   , , ,  , . . Iulium sidus[2]  , (The Roman Revolution 317318).

: , . ? . , . , , , , . , . . . (Roman Papers 1. 214).

. . 4431 .  , .336 4  , , , , 5. , , , , , , , . , , , , , . , , , , , .



. 42 . , , . , . , 29 ., , 6.   , , , , 7. , , , 8.

.337 29 .9, 10. , , , 11. , 12.

, , . , . , , (Cass. Dio 51. 19. 2). 13, , .     ,   14. 42 ., , . , , .

.338 , , . , . , . -, , (56. 34. 2), , . , , . , , 42 . . ., , (Cass. Dio 47. 19. 2). , , (56. 46. 4). , . , . , , , (56. 34). , , , , .

, , . , . 29 . , (44. 5. 12, 47. 19. 1, 51. 22. 1). , , , (Cass. Dio 53. 27. 3).

, . : Divus Iulius; , , , 15. .339 ; , , , .

2 . . . , 42 . , , . , , , , , 16. . , , 17, , - 18.

, , .340 , . , 19. 12 , 20. 19 . . . , . , , , . . IV (377387) , .

, . , , , . , , . , , . , , . ; , 21.

.341 , , . , . , . , , , , , . ( , ): , ; , ; , , ; , 22. , , . , , , . . , , , . 23,   24. , , , , . (8. 4) (27. 2, 30. 1); (14. 1, 20. 3, 27. 2), (21. 1)25. , , , .

.342 , , , , , . 20- . , 26. . , , , : , , , , . 27. , , .

, . 28, , . , , . , ,   , , ( ) 29. , , , .343 30. , , .



, , , . , . , , , , .   .

, , (103116). , . , . , (QN 5. 18. 4) :

ingens naturae beneficium, si illud in iniuriam suam non vertat hominum furor: nunc quod de Caesare maiori vulgo dictatum est et a Tito Liuio positum, in incerto esse utrum illum magis nasci an non nasci reipublicae profuerit, dici etiam de ventis potest; adeo quicquid ex illis utile et necessarium est non potest his repensari quae in perniciem suam generis humani dementia excogitat[3].

, , , . , , , . -, , , , , ,   vulgo dictatum est et a Tito Livio positum[4]. , . , , , - , . ,   , . , .344 , 31. , . , ,   32. ,   , . , 33. , , , , , , 34.

, , , , . 35. , . , , 36. , , .345 , - .

. , , , . , , , , . , , 37.   , , , . , , 38. , , , 39. , , , 40. , - , , , - .   41.



, , , , .346, : , , . . , , : , , , , , , .


I:

(1) , , , , ; (2) , , , ; (3) , : (, ), ( , ); (4) , , .


Verg. Ecl. 9. 4650, G. 1. 466497, Aen. 6. 792, 826835, 8. 681, (9. 642), Hor. Serm. 1. 3. 5, (1. 7. 35), 1. 9. 18, Carm. 1. 2. 44, 1. 12. 4648, Prop. 3. 11. 38, 3. 18. 34, (4. 1. 48), 4. 6. 5960, Ovid. Am. (2. 14. 18), 3. 8. 52, Met. 15. 745818 840851, Tr. 3. 1. 27, Pont. 2. 2. 84, 4. 5. 21, Fasti (1. 510), 1. 604, 2. 144, 3. 155166, (3. 202), 3. 697710, (4. 22), 4. 377384, 5. 569577, Epic. Drusi (245), Eleg. Maec. 177178, , Plin. HN 8. 155, Man. 1. 9, 798799, 913, 926, 4. 5762, 934.
: , 25 (JRS 69 [1979] 140), Verg. Ed. 5, Aen. 1. 286288, 6. 621, 6. 789, Tib. 2. 5. 7178, Hor. Carm. 1. 2. 1718, Epist. 1. 5. 9, Ovid. Met. 1. 200205.
Prop. 2. 32. 1116, 3. 11. 3538 68, 4. 8. 75, Verg. Aen. 6. 826835, Ovid. AA 1. 67, 3. 387, Pont. 4. 3. 4142, Fasti 1. 604605, (3. 202), Man. 1. 793794, 920921, 4. 5056, 5. 512.
Hor. Carm. 1. 12. 35, 2. 1. 24, Epist. 1. 19. 1214, Verg. Aen. 8. 670, Man. 1. 797, 4. 87.
: Verg. Aen. 6. 841.
Hor. Serm. 2. 3. 185, Carm. 1. 6, Epist. 1. 6. 26, 1. 12. 1 2627, Verg. Aen. 8. 682684, Epic. Drusi 6769, Ovid. AA 3. 391392, Man. 1. 797798.
: Verg. Aen. 1. 292293.
.347
, Anth. Pal. 9. 545, 6. 161, Prop. 3. 18, Verg. Aen. 6. 860886, Epic. Drusi 6568 441, Ovid. AA 1. 6970.
: Hor. Carm. 1. 12. 4546.
Prop. 4. 6. 8182, Eleg. in Maec. 172174, , Anth. Pal. 9. 59 297, Ovid. AA 1. 177216.
: Anth. Pal. 7. 626. 6, (Gow-Page, Garland of Philip 1. 276,  21), Ovid. Rem. 155156, ILS 137.
Hor. Epist. 1. 3. 2, 1. 8. 2 14, 1. 9, 1. 12. 2627, 2. 2. 1, Carm. (4. 4. 28), 4. 14. 1434, Epic. Drusi, Eleg. in Maec. 176, Ovid. Met. 15. 836837, Tr. (1. 2. 104), 2. 165178 229230, 3. 12. 4548, 4. 2, Pont. (1. 4. 55), 2. 1, 2. 2. 70 7980, (2. 2. 108), (2. 6. 18), 2. 8, 3. 1. 164, 3. 3. 8688, 3. 4, 4. 5. 23, 4. 9, 4. 13. 2730 38, (4. 15. 3) Fasti 1. 10, (531), 533, 613616 645650, , Anth. Plan. 61.
: , Anth. Pal. 9. 219, , Anth. Pal. 9. 287, , Anth. Pal. 9. 178, (Gow-Page, Garland of Philip 1. 276,  21).
, Anth. Pal. 6. 244. 5, , Anth. Pal. 9. 405, Hor. Carm. 4. 4, 4. 14. 912, Epic. Drusi, Eleg. in Maec. 1, 147150, 176, Ovid. Fasti 1. 597598, Tr. 4. 2. 39, Pont. 2. 8. 4750.
: Verg. Aen. 6. 824, (Kaibel Epigr. Gr. 810), (Gow-Page, Garland of Philip 1. 276,  21).
, Anth. Pal. 6. 244. 5, Hor. Carm. 3. 14. 56, Epic. Drusi, Eleg. in Maec. 175, Ovid. AA 1. 7172, 3. 391, Tr. 2. 161, 4. 2. 11, Pont. 1. 4. 55, 2. 2. 69, 2. 8. 4, 2930, 4150, 3. 1. 114166, 3. 3. 87, 3. 4. 95112, 4. 9. 107 110, 4. 13. 2930, Fasti 1. 536, 649650, 5. 157158, 6. 637640.
: (Gow-Page, Garland of Philip 1. 276,  21).
Prop. 3. 18. 12, 4. 11. 5960.
: (Gow-Page, Garland of Philip 1. 276,  21).

, . , , .   , , :   . , . , , , . , ,   .348 . , , , . . .

, . , , , . , . , , . , , . , , , , , . , ?   , , . , , , , , , . , ,   ,  , , . , , ,   42; , . ,  , - 43.

.349 , , . , .

, VI .


illae autem paribus quas fulgere cernis in armis,
concordes animae nunc et dum nocte prementur
,
heu quantum inter se bellum
, si lumina uitae
attigerint
, quantas acies stragemque ciebunt,
aggeribus socer Alpinis atque arce Monoeci
descendens
, gener aduersis instructus Eois!
ne
, pueri, ne tanta animis adsuescite bella
neu patriae ualidas in uiscera uertite uiris
;
tuque prior
, tu parce, genus qui ducis Olympo,
proice tela manu
, sanguis meus![5] 

, , , . , , socer generque[6]. , , , , . , . , , . , , .   , , ,  , , , . ,   concordes animae?

, , , . , , , . , , . , , . , ( 6. 777), (842) (789). , , ( , , .350 8. 668669), , . , , . , ,   , , ,   . proice tela manu, sanguis meus[7] , .

, , , . 44 , , 807 . 815816 , , . superbiam[8], , . 824 , , , , . : , ,  , , , , . , .

, , , 781782: illa incluta Roma / imperium terris, animos aequabit Olympo[9]. imperio[10] animis[11] 45. animi . , , ; , (730731). ,   , , , . , , , . , , , animos aequare Olympo[12] . , .351 . 730751, , , , , , .

, , . , , , , . , , , , .

, , , , . IX : , , , (4650). , , (466492). , , .

, ,  , , . , , , . , . I , , . , , [13]. , , : per magnos, Brute, deos te / oro, qui reges consueris tollere, cur non / hunc Regem iugulas? operum hoc, mihi crede, tuorum est[14] (Serm. 1. 7. 3335). , , , .

, . 12- I , . , , , ( , ), , .

, (quem virum aut heroa sumis celebrare, Clio? quem deum?[15]), , , , , .352 . , 46 (4548):


crescit occulto velut arbor aevo
fama Marcelli
; micat inter omnis
Iulium sidus
, velut inter ignis
luna minores
[16].

, , Iulium sidus[17] , , , . . , , . . , . (4952):


Gentis humanae pater atque custos,
orte Saturno, tibi cura magni
Caesaris fatis data: tu secundo
Caesare regnes[18].

Iulium sidus 47 .   quietum Pompili regnum (3334), superbos Tarquini fascis (3435), Catonis nobile letum[19] (3536), . 20- . , .

, ? , , ( , ) , . . , . , , 2732, , . , , . , , , , .

.353 , Iulium sidus  , .   . , , , , , 47 , . . , , 48. . (5. 1. 10, 9. 2. 4) divina opera[20] , 49. , , , , Divus Caesar , 50. , 51.

, , 12- I . , , 52. , , . , , . , , ,  . , , , , . , .


.354


, : - . , , , . , .

, -, , -. : , , . . 53. , , 54. () , 55. ; ,   .

, , , . 44 . . . , , (Phil. 1. 13); , , , , (Am. 3. 8. 5152); 56. : 57. 44 . . . , ( ), , .355 , . , , , 58.

, , . , , .

, , ,   59. , , , , , , . , , .

, , , , . , . , 42 . . . , , , (47. 18. 2). ,   concessum patri mundum deus ipse mereris[21] (1. 9). , , ; . , ;   , , , , . , , .356 . , , .

, 60637


  • * 25 1988 . , , , , . ; .
  • 1Memorabile est Divi Iulii claram certamque mentionem nusquam [ab Horatio] factam esse praeterquam Od. 1, 2, 44, Caesaris ultor sine ullo epitheto, nullam a Propertio, tribus locis dumtaxat a Virgilio (Ecl. 9, 47, Ge. 1, 466, Aen. 6, 790) quasi timuissent, ne illo magnifice celebrato Augusti laudibus officerent easque obscurarent. Ac pariter Iulium sub Augustum deprimit Ovidius Met. 15, 750[22], Carm. 1. 12. 47. (18371838), (1843). (1850) Carm. 1. 2. 44.
  • 2 F. Plessis, La poésie latine (Paris 1909) 231; R. Pichon, Virgile et César, REA 19 (1917) 193198; F. Gundolf, Caesar: Geschichte seines Ruhms (Berlin 1924) 2426; W. M. Green, Julius Caesar in the Augustan Poets, CJ 27 (1932) 405411; J. W. Spaeth, Caesars Friends and Enemies among the Poets, Proceedings of the American Philological Association 64 (1933) lx.
  • 3 , , Caesar, the Senate, and Italy, PBSR 14 (1938) 2=Roman Papers 1. 89, The Augustan Aristocracy (Oxford 1986) 443. , ,  The Roman Revolution (Oxford 1939) 317318, Tacitus (Oxford 1958) 1. 432434. A Roman Post-Mortem, Roman Papers 1. 212214, History in Ovid (Oxford 1978) 140141.
  • 4 . . (E. S. Ramage Augustus Treatment of Julius Caesar, Historia 34 [1985] 223245), , , 40- .
  • 5Post-Mortem, Roman Papers 1. 213. , : , , (The Roman Revolution 318).
  • 6P. Zanker, Forum Romanum. Monumenta Artis Antiquae 5 (Tübingen 1972) 1214; P. Gros, Aurea Templa: Recherches sur larchitecture religieuse de Rome a lépoque dAuguste (Rome 1976) 8491.
  • 7Zanker, . . 1516.
  • 8   Ovid. Met. 15. 841842 semper Capitolia nostra forumque / Divus ab excelsa prospectet Iulius aede[23], Pont. 2. 2. 8485 [Castor et Pollux] quos proxima templa tenentis / divus ab excelsa Iulius aede videt[24], Stat. Silvae 1. 1. 2224 hinc obvia limina pandit / qui fessus bellis adscitae munere prolis / primus iter nostris ostendit in aethera divis[25].
  • 9   36 ., , (M. Crawford, Roman Republican Coinage 1 [Cambridge 1974] 537,  540) 42 . (προκαταβάλλεσθαι, Cass. Dio 47. 18. 4) . , , , , . 28 ., , .
  • 10A. Degrassi, Inscriptiones Italiae 13. 2, . 497; V. Ehrenberg  A. H. M. Jones, Documents Illustrating the Reigns of Augustus and Tiberius, 2- . (Oxford 1955) 35 50.
  • 11Cass. Dio 51. 22, Plin. HN 35. 27 91, Aug. Anc. 21. 2.
  • 12ILS 8963. , 40 . 39 . (Plut. Ant. 33. 1), 30 .
  • 13Front. Aq. 129. 12 ( 9 . . .).
  • 14Cass. Dio 54. 35. 45 ( ) 56. 34. 4 ( ). , , , , (53. 30. 5) (54. 28. 35  , , ). (55. 2. 2), , , ( ).
  • 15 J.-B. Giard, Bibliothèque Nationale: Catalogue des monnaies de lempire romain 1 (Paris 1976) 190191,  12921309 (Divus Iulius ), . 87 ( , ) . 115  555559 ( ) , C. H. V. Sutherland, The Roman Imperial Coinage, 2- , 1 (London 1984) 44,  3738; 48,  102 (Divus Julius); 66,  337340 (); 74,  415 (). , 17 . . ., , , (. Julius Obsequens, . 181 Rossbach, Cass. Dio 54. 19. 7, ). , , ; , ;  . H. Mattingly, Rare and Unpublished Roman Coins in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, NC 6 (1956) 176177 A. A. Boyce, A New Augustan Aureus of 17 B. C., Numismatic Notes and Monographs 153 (1965) 111 ( , , ). ; ,   , , , , , (Roman Imperial Coinage, 1- ., 1 [London 1923], 77,  173). , , 14 . . . , , .   , : . K. Fittschen, Zur Panzerstatue in Cherchel, JDAI 91 (1976) 175210, 182189.
  • 16Suet. Aug. 29. 12, Ovid. Fasti 5. 545598, Xiph. 101 = Cass. Dio 55. 10. 25.
  • 17  . Suet. Vit. 8. 1. , , , (Les statues du temple de Mars Ultor à Rome, RA [1899] 3743; . (P. Zanker, Forum Augustum: Das Bildprogramm, Monumenta Artis Antiquae 2 [Tübingen 1970] 1820 . [, . 6] 168, . 114) , , . , . , : . Tac. Ann. 3. 18. 2, Suet. Cal. 24. 3 Cass. Dio 59. 22. 67. , , , : (Tr. 4. 4. 15), res est publica Caesar[26].
  • 18 ; . Degrassi, Inscriptiones Italiae 13. 3 (Rome 1937) 1214; (5), - .
  • 1917   45 .; 27   47 .; 6   46 .; 2   49 . 47 .; 9   48 .  . A. Degrassi, Inscriptiones Italiae 13. 2 (Rome 1963) 368369, 372374 559560, , .
  • 20 , , . 372374. , , .
  • 21, , , , , . , , , , . , . , , , 28 . . . (Cass. Dio 53. 2. 5). , . , , , , . , , . , , ; . , , . 6 . . . , (Cass. Dio 55. 25. 5).
  • 22 2, 10. 2, 15. 1 20. 3. , , 19. 1, 21. 2, 34. 2, 35. 1.
  • 23 8. 2 22. 2, . , , , 27. 3 29. 1.
  • 24 8. 4 ( ), 27. 2 ( ) 30. 1 ( ); 12. 2 16. 2.
  • 25 , , , , , , , (22. 1 22. 3). , , . , . , . , , , ., , 26. 3, 26. 5 30. 2.
  • 26 ́  . Suet. Aug. 85. 1 Suda s. v. Αὔγουστος Καῖσαρ 1. 410 Adler; Verg. Ecl. 9. 46 , II .
  • 27 PIR2 I 215.
  • 28Cass. Dio 44. 35. 3, Plin. HN 2. 9394 Servius Auctus Verg. Ecl. 9. 46.
  • 29 90 FGrHist, 2A; Bios Kaisaros 125130, . 391420.
  • 30 , , (Jacoby, FGrHist, . 2C, . 263265), (G. Dobesch, Nikolaos von Damaskus und die Selbstbiographie des Augustus, GB 7 (1978) 91174. . (M. Toher, The Date of Nicolaus Bios Kaisaros, GRBS 26 (1985), 199206, , , . , , , , .
  • 31 ,   : Cass. Dio 44. 3, 44. 7. 3, Plut. Caes. 57. 23, Brut. 9. 8, Ant. 12, Nic. Dam., FGrHist 90, 2A, . 130, . 67. , , , (56. 38. 4).
  • 32 omnibus magnis viris[27] (Suas. 6. 21).
  • 33 si quis virtutibus vitia pensaret[28] , .
  • 34 : est natura candidissimus omnium magnorum ingeniorum aestimator T. Livius[29], Suas. 6. 22. . , , Livius über Caesar, Livius: Werk und Rezeption. Festschrift für Erich Burck zum 80. Geburtstag, . E. Lefèvre E. Olshausen (Munich 1983) 265291. , Schlussurteil[30] , . , , , , , .
  • 35. Suda Ἀσίννιος Πωλίων 1. 381 Adler. 60 . (Hor. Carm. 2. 1. 18) 43 . (Sen. Suas. 6. 2425).
  • 36  . (Römische Studien [Leipzig 1922] 261269) , Kornoutos, Suda (3. 158 Adler) , . . (Suet. Tib. 61. 3), ; Cass. Dio 57. 24. 3 , .
  • 37 , FGrHist 90, 2A, . 130, . 5897. (AJ 16. 184), , , .
  • 38Vell. 2. 4157 89; , ; . 2. 48. 34 2. 56. 4.
  • 39 , : . Augustus Caesar C. Iulius Caesar.
  • 40, , , , ,  , : . Suet. Caes. 56. 4 Cic. Fam. 10. 31. 2. , , ( ) , .
  • 41 , , , , , : Cont. 4. 8, 6. 4, 7. 2, 10. 3 Suas. 67. , ,   . (  Cont. 10. 3, 1).
  • 42 , , ( ), , . , , , (Hor. Carm. 4. 4 4. 14, Ovid. AA 1. 177208, Tr. 2. 169178), , , (Ovid. Tr. 4. 2, Pont. 2. 1, 1. 8. 1124, 3. 4, 4. 7. 1754).
  • 43 ,   , ,   . , , , - . , , - .   , , , . , , , 14 . . . , 44 . . .
  • 44  . R. D. Williams, The Pageant of Roman Heroes  Aeneid 6. 756853, Cicero and Virgil: Studies in Honour of Harold Hunt, . J. R. C. Martyn (Amsterdam 1972) 207217, D. C. Feeney, History and Revelation in Virgils Underworld, PCPhS NS 32 (1986) 124.
  • 45, , . 832: ne tanta animis adsuescite bella[31].
  • 46 , (Fraenkel, Horace [Oxford 1957] 291296) , 37, 33.
  • 47 , III ., , spolia opima[32], . (Verg. Aen. 6. 855859) (Man. 1. 788. 48) , .
  • 48 . Cic. Rep. 6. 1316, 2426.
  • 49operibus suis aditum sibi ad caelum struxerat, Val. Max. 1. 7. 2; . [Caesaris] virtutes aditum sibi in caelum struxerunt 6. 9. 15.
  • 50Diod. Sic. 4. 19. 2; . 1. 4. 7, 5. 21. 2, 5. 25. 4, 32. 27. 1 3. (Catherine Rubincam) , The Organization and Composition of Diodorus Bibliotheke, EMC 31 (1987) 313328.
  • 51Ovid. Met. 15. 746758; : , .
  • 52 , Serm. 1. 7. 24, Carm. 4. 2. 4647.
  • 53stans celsa in puppi, geminas cui tempora flammas / laeta vomunt patriumque aperitur vertice sidus[33], Verg. Aen. 8. 680681, , , , .
  • 54perque patris pater Augustus vestigia vicit[34], Man. 1. 913, .
  • 55te Venus in patrio collocet ipsa sinu[35], Eleg. in Maec. 178.
  • 56Sen. Apoc. 9. 3. , : nil mortalibus ardui est: / caelum ipsum petimus stultitia[36], Carm. 1. 3. 3738.
  • 57 , .
  • 58   : Met. 14. 820851 ( ), Met. 15. 844850 (), Fasti 3. 699702 () Pont. 4. 13. 2326 ().
  • 59(  ) macte nova virtute, puer, sic itur ad astra, / dis genite et geniture deos. iure omnia bella / gente sub Assaraci fato ventura resident[37], Verg. Aen. 9. 642; vexit ipsa sui Caesaris arma Venus, / arma resurgentis portans victricia Troiae: / felix terra tuos cepit, lule, deos[38], Prop. 4. 1. 4648; ( , ) hos debet solos Martia Roma deos[39], Epic. Drusi 246; Caesar in urbe sua deus, quem Marte togaque / praecipuum[40], Ovid. Met. 15. 746747; (, , ) dique petitorum dixit salvete locorum / tuque novos caelo terra datura deos[41], Fasti 1. 509510; sit pater invictus patriae, sit Roma sub illo, / cumque deum caelo dederit non quaerat in orbe[42], Man. 1. 925926.
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    , .