| |
. .

: .

: . . 12. , 2006. . 157171.

.157 , 1. , (pax deorum) (Cic. Div. I. 89; Val. Max. I. 1. 1). , , , () (Lyd. Mag. I. Praef.). ( ) , 2. , , , . , , , , , praetor maximus (Fest. P. 152 L) magistratus minores (Gell. XIII. 15).   consul maior praetor maior  . (Fest. P. 154 L). . (I . . .) De auspiciis (Gell. XIII. 16, .: 15. 1). lustrum3. .

, : , , (Leg. II. 31). , , .158 4, , , , , 5. , . , , : , (.  . .) (ibid.)6. : , ( , .  . .) ,   , , , (Liv. I. 36. 6; .: Cic. Div. I. 95). 7. . , 8. , ( ) . , , . , .

.159 , , , . , ,   .   I . . . . , , . . , , ? , , , , . , , , . , . .   , . 9, 10, : , , , , , 11.

, , . , . 293 . . . . , , , . , ( ) (Liv. X. 40. 4; 910). , , , , (ibid. 11). , , .160 . - -12 , , , , augurium (ibid. 1214). , , (controverso auspicio) , (pocillum)   13. , .

(223 . . .), , . , , . , , , 14. , , 15. , , , , . , , . , , , .

, , , ,   . : (impetrativa), , (oblativa), . .161 . : auspicia maxima , , , auspicia minora  . maiores minores. . ( 53 . . .) 16. : , , 17. ,   18. . , , . . , .   ,   imperium (sive ductus) auspiciumque ( 19), .

: 20. , augurium auspicium 21. , 22, , . .162 , . : , , - () (Div. I. 28, .: N. D. II. 9). , , , . , , . , () .

spectio nuntiatio (obnuntiatio). Spectio ,   ( ). , spectio , , (Phil. II. 81). , 23. , , . spectio , , , . ( spectio), .  24, , ( ). , , , . spectio , , . . , spectio 25.

.163 nuntiatio , , , ( ). obnuntiatio26. 27, 28, , , 29.   ( )30.   , , , 168 . . . . , . (N. D. III. 11). , , - 31, , , .164 , . , , , , . alio die, , . , , .

. (Div. II. 71): Q. Fabi, te mihi in auspicio esse volo (. , , ), audivi, , (), . , , . . , , , , , (ibid. 7071). , :  70 (ius augurum) ,  71 , , ,  72 , (perfectus augur)32. , , , , .   , . , (imperare solet) , (L. L. VI. 95), inlicium, . . (   L. L. VI. 93; 94). , , ( inlicium) (accensus) (praeco).   (L. L. VI. 95), 33. , : , , , .165 , . 34, , ,   . 460 . . ., , : , , .

, , in auspicio sunt35, . . . : , (iusserit) (Leg. III. 43)36. (auspicio interesse, adesse) (X. 40. 4; 11), ( ) () . : augur consuli adest (L. L. VI. 95). , .

, spectio nuntiatio , , , , , , , , , : quorum (sc. Augurum) consilio rem gererent magistratus (Fest. P. 446 L, s. v. spectio). de facto , , de iure, . , . , , , .

, , , .   .166 , . , , . , 37: (vitium)  , , , . , .

. , , . : . , , , , , , vitium38. . , . , , . , 39. , . - (223 . . .)40. , . . (, , ), . . (Marcel. 4), , , .167 . , , , , .

217 . . . , , . (dictator comitiorum habendorum causa). , , , , (Liv. XXII. 33. 912). . , , . (ibid. 34. 311). , , : (foedus inter omnes nobiles ictum  ibid. 7). (ibid. 3), , (cum vitiosus dictator per augures fieret  ibid. 10). , () vitium (.: Liv. IV. 7. 3). ? - , . , , , , . (iussis) , , (Liv. XXII. 33. 12). , , . , vitium , , .

, , . , , . 162 . . . . . 41. . , .168 , (vitium) . ( ), (Cic. N. D. II. 10)  , . , . , . , . , . , , . , , 42, 43, . , , 44. , a priori , , , .

. abdicare45. () , , , , (sc. consules) abdicaverunt vs. (sc. reges) exacti sunt. abrogare (), , , 46. abdicatio , , 47. , (coactus .169 abdicare se48), , . , abdicatio (Liv. IX. 33. 4).   (sc. magistratu) abire49, (IV. 7. 3; IX. 34. 13). abire abdicare , 50. , , . . , , .

, , . : . , , , 51. , : , , () (magistratus vitio creatus nihilo setius magistratus  L. L. VI. 30). , cursus honorum52. .  - , . . , , , , . , , , .

. .170 -. , , , , , . , . , , , . . , : . , , , 53.

, . , , , . , , 54, . . .

.   .171 , . , : , , , (, , ) ( 104/103 . . .) .   . , ( ) , - . , , . .


Andrey M. Smorchkov (Moscow).
The augural control over the magistrates auspicies: theory and reality

The general problem raised in the article is the role of the augurs in the political system of Republican Rome. The idea of augurs prominent political significance became a part of the roman myth. The main task is to investigate the real force of the augural decrees and acts in the sphere of the magistrates auspices. The first problem concerns the correlation of the magistrates and augurs authority during divination. At the performance of this act the augur had a subordinate position and obeyed the orders of the magistrate. The other problem concerns the role played by the augural college at the abdication of the faulty (vitio) elected magistrates. The implementation of the colleges decree in this case depended on the decree of the senate and on the consent of the magistrate itself. These conclusions prove the dominance of the political sphere over sacral one. Nevertheless the competent opinion of the augurs was very important because it inspired the people with confidence of gods help and shifted the potential clash from the political sphere to the sacral one.


  • 1Cic. Har. Resp. 19; De nat deor. II. 8; III. 5; Sall. De coniur. Cat. 12. 34; Gell. II. 28. 2; Polyb. VI. 56. 615; Plut. Marcel. 45; Tertul. Apol. 25; Ad nat. II. 17; Augustin. De civ. Dei. IV. 810.
  • 2Cic. N. D. III. 5; Div. I. 3; 28; Liv. I. 36. 6; VI. 41. 4; 8; Val. Max. II. 1. 1; Plin. Nat. hist. X. 49; Serv. Ad Aen. I. 346; IV. 340.
  • 3Fest. P. 366 L, s. v. Referri diem prodictam.  .: Linderski J. The Augural Law // ANRW. 1986. 2. 16. 3. P. 2187; 21892190. . , , auspicato.
  • 4 . . : , , , (. . . . ., 1966. . 120). , , ( ).  .: Lindersky J. Op. cit. P. 21972198.
  • 5. . , : Szemler G. J. The Priests of the Roman Republic. Bruxelles, 1972. P. 26; 44. Note 1. , , . , .
  • 6 : Leg. II. 21; III. 11; 43.
  • 7Mommsen Th. Römisches Staatsrecht. Bd. 1. Aufl. 3. Leipzig, 1887. S. 116 ( ); Behrends O. Ius und ius civile. Untersuchungen zur Herkunft des ius-Begriffs im römischen Zivilrecht // Sympotica Fr. Wieacker. Göttingen, 1970. S 20; . .  // . ., 2001. . 8899.
  • 8Lange L. Römische Alterthümer. Bd. 1. Aufl. 3. B., 1876. S. 340.  . : . 89.
  • 9Cic. Leg. II. 33; N. D. II. 9; Div. I. 28; 105; II. 7677.
  • 10( ): . ,   , (Cic. Div. II. 71; .: 7679).
  • 11Cic. Div. II. 70 (.: 43; 74; 75). , (ibid. I. 105).
  • 12. (176 . . .): Liv. XLI. 18. 714. , : Liv. VIII. 30. 1.
  • 13Liv. X. 42. 7 (.: Plin. Nat. hist. XIV. 91).
  • 14Liv. XXI. 63. 2; 7; 12; XXII. 3. 4; Zon. VIII. 20; Plut. Marcel. 4.
  • 15 , ( . . ) , . , (Hist. III. 22. 3; 4; IV. 13. 14).
  • 16Gell. XIII. 15. 4; 67. (P. 148 L, s. v. minora).
  • 17Gell. XIII. 15. 4; 16. 1; Val. Max. II. 8. 2. .: Cic. Ad Att. IX. 9. 3; Liv. VIII. 15. 9; XLIII. 14. 4; XLV. 43. 2; Serv. Ad Aen. IV. 103.
  • 18. : Catalano P. Contributi allo studio del diritto augurale. Torino, 1960. P. 447. Nota 27; 533. Nota 45; Bleicken J. Zum Begriff der römischen Amtsgewalt: auspicium  potestas  imperium // Nachrichten der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen. I. Philologisch-historische Klasse. 1981.  9. S. 265.
  • 19Imperium auspiciumque: Plaut. Amph. 192; Liv. X. 8. 9; XXII. 1. 5; 30. 4; XXVII. 44. 4; XXVIII. 27. 4; XXIX. 27. 2; XL. 52. 5; XLI. 28. 8; Val. Max. II. 8. 2. Ductus auspidumque: Liv. III. 1. 4; IV. 20. 6; V. 46. 6; VII. 32. 10; 40. 6; VIII. 12. 6; 31. 1; 33. 22; X. 7. 7; 18. 1; XXIV. 8. 18; XXVI. 41. 13; XXVIII. 12. 12; 16. 14; 38. 1; 41. 10; XXXI. 4. 1; XLI. 17. 3; 19. 2; 28. 1; XLV. 3. 2; Val. Max. VI. 5. 1; Hor. Carm. I. 7. 27; Vell. II. 39. 1. , (XXVIII. 27. 5).
  • 20Cic. N. D. I. 14; 122; Div. I. 107 (Ennius); II. 70; Leg. II. 20; 21; III. 43; Dom. 41; Off. III. 66; Phil. I. 31; II. 83. .: Fest. P. 17 L, s. v. auguraculum; 446 L, s. v. spectio.
  • 21Botsford G. W. The Roman Assemblies from the Origin to the End of the Republic. N. Y., 1909. P. 105. Note 1; Heuss A. Gedanken und Vermutungen zur frühen römischen Regierungsgewalt // Nachrichten der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen. I. Philologisch-historische Klasse. 1982.  10. S. 389; . . . ., 1998. . 58.
  • 22.: Wissowa G. Auspicium // RE. Bd. 2. 1896. Sp. 25802581; Kunkel W. Zum römischen Königtum // Idem. Kleine Schriften. Weimar, 1974. S. 357.
  • 23 in auspiciis distributum est qui habent spectionem, qui non habeant (Varro. L. L. VI. 82); de caelo auspicari ius nemini est praeter magistratum (Varro ap. Nonius. P. 92 M); Fest. P. 446 L, s. v. spectio (.: . : Mommsen Th. Op. cit. Bd. 1. S. 109, Anm. 1).
  • 24Mommsen Th. Op. cit. Bd. 1. S. 109. Anm. 1; 3.  .: Linderski J. Op. cit. P. 22152216.
  • 25Mommsen Th. Op. cit. Bd. 1. S. 89. Anm. 3.
  • 26Terent. Adel. IV. 2. 67 (546547); Donat. Ad Terent. Adel. IV. 2. 9 (549); Cic. Post red. in sen. 11; Pro Sest 33; 78; 83; De prov. cons. 46; Div. I. 29; 30; Phil. II. 83; Asc. in Pis. P. 9; Suet. Iul. XX. 1.
  • 27Cic. Dom. 3940; Har. resp. 48; Pro Sest. 78; Phil. II. 83; Liv. XXII. 42. 8; Suet. Iul. XX. 1. , I . . ., : Cic. Pro Sest. 79; 83; Phil. II. 99; Ad Att. IV. 3. 34; 9. 1; 17. 4 (.: Ad Q. fr. III. 3. 2); App. B. C. III. 7.
  • 28Cic. Phil. II. 81. .: Fest. P. 446 L. S. v. spectio.
  • 29De vir. ill. LXXIII. 7: , , , ( ). . : Linderski J. Op. cit. P. 21952196.
  • 30Liv. V. 32. 67; Plut. Cam. 14; 30; Zon. VII. 23. 3 (); Suet. Nero. I. 1; Plut. Aem. Paul. 25 (); Cic. N. D. II. 6; III. 11; 13; Val. Max. I. 8. 1 (); Cic. Div. II. 8586 ( ); Macr. Sat. I. 11. 35 (); Liv. II. 36; Cic. Div. I. 55; Dion. Hal. V. 2. 68; Plut. Marc. 2425; Val. Max. I. 7. 4; Aug. De civ. Dei. IV. 26 (: , ).  .: Liv. V. 15. 1; XLIII. 13. 6.
  • 31 , , - , , - , ,   (in augurum certe disciplina constat neque diras neque ulla auspicia pertinere ad eos qui quamcumque rem ingredientes observare se ea negaverint, quo munere divinae indulgentiae maius nullum est) (Plin. Nat. hist. XXVIII. 17). , nuntiatio, . . , , : Valeton I. M. J. De modis auspicandi Romanorum // Mnemosyne. Vol. 17. 1889. P. 429. ( ) , : nam in oblativis auspiciis in potestate videntis est, utrum id ad se pertinere velit, an refutet et abominetur (Ad Aen. XII. 259, cp. 261; V. 530). .: Cato in oratione de sacrificio comisso (ap. Fest. P. 268 L, s. v. prohibere comitia); Cic. Div. I. 29; 103; II. 7778; In Vatin. 39; Liv. I. 7. 11; V. 15. 1; XXXVIII. 18. 10.  .: Valeton I. M. J. Op. cit. P. 428430. , . . , , , : Lindersky J. Op. cit. P. 2196; 2266. Note 472. : Vaahtera J. Roman Augural Lore in Greek Historiography: A Study of the Theory and Terminology. Stuttgart, 2001. P. 144145.
  • 32. : Linderski J. Op. cit. P. 2191. . silentium. : Wissowa G. Augures // RE. Bd. 2. 1896. Sp. 2336.
  • 33. : Linderski J. Op. cit. P. 21942195. , . . . : Wissowa G. Augures Sp. 2336.
  • 34 augures iussos adesse ad Regillum lacum fama exierat locumque inaugurare (Liv. III. 20. 6).
  • 35Cic. Rep. II. 16; Div. II. 71; Ad Att. II. 12. 1; Gell. XIII. 15. 4.
  • 36 , . . , . .: . . . . ., 1966. . 147.
  • 37Liv. IV. 7. 3; V. 17. 2; VI. 27. 5; 38. 9; VIII. 15. 6; 17. 4; 23. 14; 16; IX. 7. 14; X. 47. 1; XXII. 33. 12; 34. 10; XXIII. 31. 13; XXVII. 22. 1; XXX. 39. 8; Cic. N. D. II. 11; Div. II. 74; Phil. II. 84; III. 9; V. 9; Cato ap. Gell. XIII. 18. 1. . : Dion. Hal. XI. 62. 1; Plut. Marcel. 4; 5; Dio Cass. LIV. 24. 1; Zon. VIII. 20.
  • 38Linderski J. Op. cit. P. 21592160. . , , , : Wissowa G. Augures Sp. 2334. , . . , : Szemler G. J. Op. cit. P. 3536.
  • 39Liv. IV. 7. 3; VIII. 15. 6; 23. 14; 16; XXII. 34. 3; 10; XXIII. 31. 13; XLV. 12. 10. , explanatio post eventum: (XLI. 18. 814), . . . (IV. 31. 4).
  • 40Liv. XXI. 63. 12 (.: 7); Plut. Marcel. 4; Zon. VIII. 20.
  • 41Cic. N. D. II. 1011; Div. I. 33; II. 7475; Ad Q. fr. II. 2. 1; Val. Max. I. 1. 3 (.: IX. 3. 2); Plut. Marcel. 5; Ampel. XIX. 11; De vir. ill. XLIV. 2; Fast. Capitol.; Fast. Ant. a. u. c. 592.  .: Magdelain A. Recherches sur limperium. P., 1968. P. 4748; Linderski J. Op. cit. P. 2159. Note 37; 21602161; . .  // . . . . . , 1992. . 8083 ( ).  .: Linderski J. Op. cit. P. 2159. Note 37; p. 2160. Note 39.
  • 42Rem ad senatum retulit. Cic. N. D. II. 11; Val. Max. I. 1. 3.
  • 43Cic. N. D. II. 11; Val. Max. I. 1. 3; Plut. Marcel. 5.
  • 44 . , , nuntiatio () sacerdotum: Linderski J. Op. cit. P. 2159. Note 37.
  • 45Liv. V. 17. 3; VI. 38. 9 (.: 39. 1); VIII. 15. 6; 17. 4; XXIII. 33. 12; XXIII. 31. 14; XXX. 39. 8; Cic. N. D. II. 11; Div. II. 74; Leg. II. 31; Val. Max. I. 1. 3. , , a. u. c. 592 (), 471, 523, 662, 689, 690, 693, 704 ().
  • 46, , Collatino collegae Brutus imperium abrogavit (Off. III. 40, . Brut. 53) (II. 2. 310) , , , (abdicavit se consulatu  ibid. 10). (sc. consulatus) abrogabatur . (XXI. 63. 2), (Plut. Marcel. 4; Zon. VIII. 20). .: Liv. I. 59. 11; XXII. 25. 10; XXVII. 20. 11; 21. 4; XXIX. 19. 6; Ep. 67; Cic. Ad Q. fr. II. 3. 1; Vell. II. 20. 3; Asc. Pro Cornel. P. 69.
  • 47Liv. II. 2. 10; III. 29. 3; 7; IV. 34. 5; V. 9. 8; 31. 8; VI. 27. 5; VIII. 3. 4; IX. 10. 2; 26. 20; 34. 13; 14; XXIII. 23. 7; XXIV. 43. 4; XXVII. 6. 18; Cic. In Catil. III. 15; IV. 5; Vell. II. 22. 2.
  • 48Liv. Ep. 19; CIL. I. P. 434; Cic. In Catil. IV. 5. .: Fest. P. 21 L, s. v. abacti.
  • 49Cic. Ad fam. V. 2. 7; In Pis. 6; Liv. V. 9. 3; IX. 34. 15; XXXIX. 23. 1; Plin. Paneg. 65; Lex Acilia repetundarum. 9 (CIL. I.  198).
  • 50Liv. V. 9. 3 (.: 8); Lex Acilia repetundarum. 72 (CIL. I.  198).
  • 51Mommsen Th. Römisches Staatsrecht. Bd. 3. Leipzig, 1888. S. 365.
  • 52 . : Liv. XXIII. 31. 13; XXIV. 9. 3; XXVII. 22. 1; Fast. Capitol. a. u. c. 539. . : Liv. XXI. 63. 2; 12 (.: Plut. Marcel. 4; 6; Zon. VIII. 20). . .  : Fast. Capitol, a. u. c. 523 (.: Liv. XXIII. 30. 18; 34. 15; XXV. 5. 3; XXVII. 11. 10; XXVIII. 45. 2). , , . , , , .  (XXVII. 11. 912). . , , - . (Brut. 79).
  • 53, , 49 . . . , , (Cic. Ad Att. IX. 9. 3; 15. 2; Messala ap. Gell. XIII. 15. 4. 1). , (Ad Att. IX. 15. 2). , - (παρὰ τὰ πάτρια  Dio Cass. XLI. 36. 1). .: Cic. Ad Att. IX. 15. 2.
  • 54 460 ( ) (393?, 223?, 220?, 215, 162 . . .), , . . . . , ( . 89). 137 ( ) . , 162 . . . , , (. . 48 ).
  • 1290954303 1329830618 1303312492 1336853353 1336853852 1336854079

    , .