| | | |
. .

, qui bona fide serviunt.

: , 1978, 3, . 2037.
.

.20 -   qui bona fide serviunt. , , , - . , bona fide serviunt, , . , , , : , .

, . , qui bona fide serviunt, . . . , 1. , -, , , bona fide, , . ., , , . . , , , . , qui bona fide serviunt, , : , , , , , .

, qui bona fide serviunt, . . .21 . , - ( , - , , ), , ,  . . II . . .  II . . . . , . - . , , , , , , , . , , 2, . , , a priori , , - , , . . . , .

, - ( , , ). , ( ) , , , . , , , , , , . , . , , . , , . . . .

, . . 3. .22 , . . : 蔅, . . , , . , , , , 4. , , . . , , 5. . . . , , , .

, , . . . . . , . . .

. . 6. , .   obaerati, mercennarii, operarii, politores. locatio-conductio operarum, , locatio-conductio operis, , , ; . locatio-conductio, , , , . , ( ), , . , , , . , , , , , (, Dig. XXXVIII, 1, 6; 9, 1).

  , , . . 7. , , . .23 ( ) sui iuris. , , , , , . , , .

, , . . , , , . . , , , , , terra sigillata . , , , , , , , , , , , ( ). , . . .

. . . . 8. , , , . . . . 9. , , 10. . . , . , , . . . . , . 11. , , II . . .

.24 . .   12. , , 13. . - ,   , , . . 14. . . , , , . , . II . . .  I . . .,   IIII . . ., , ,  IIIII . , , , , . , , .

, ,   , qui bona fide serviunt.

. . , , , qui bona fide serviunt. 15. , , , . . , , , qui bona fide serviunt, . , , . . 16. , qui bona fide serviunt, , , ,   .

, qui bona fide serviunt, , , . , . , , , , , . , bona fide, , , (Dig. XLIX, 16, 8). , , ( ). , , usus fructus, , .25 (Dig. VII, 8, 2) , , (Dig. VII, 8, 4). , qui bona fide serviebat, , , (manumittam), , , , ? , . , , , , , , , , , (Dig. XII, 4, 3, 5). , . ,   , . , qui bona fide serviunt, , , , . , , . ? , , ?

XII , , . , . . , 326 . . . , . . , . , , , . II . . ., , 25 ( 20 ). IV . . . , , . , , , , . , , bona fide (Dig. XII, 4, 3, 5; XLI, 3, 44).

,   alumni17, , . - , . , qui bona fide serviunt, , . .

, , bona fide serviunt? .26 . , , qui bona fide serviunt. , . , , , , . , , . . , , , , . , . . , , . , , , IIII ., , 18.

qui bona fide serviunt . , , , - , , , . , , qui bona fide serviunt, , , , , . .

, . . , , , , - (Dig. L, 16, 5, 1). , (opera   Dig. XXXVIII, 1, 3), . , , . , , , ,   obsequium. , , qui bona fide servit, . , .27 , , qui bona fide serviunt, . . 19. . , qui bona fide serviunt, , , ( ) , , .

. .

, , - , qui bona fide serviunt, , . I  II . , , , , , . , , bona fide, , , (de mandato  , , ), () (Dig. III, 5, 18, 2), . , , ,   in potestate (. .   Dig. XLI, 2, 23, 2), , , , in potestate, (), , , (Dig. XLI, 2, 43, 1). , , , - , , , . , bona fide , , , (Dig. XXXVII, 1, 50), , (Dig. XLV, 1, 118), (. . , - . . Dig. IX, 2, 13, 1). , , , bona fide , - (Dig. XLV, 1, 19; 3, 33). , , I . . . bona fide . , , , , ; , qui fide bona serviunt. , , , . . , , , .28 . , , , (Dig. XXVIII, 5, 60).

III . . , , II III . III . , -, -, honestiores humiliores (, ) , , . -, -, , , . ., , , , , , , , , , .

liberi, qui bona fide serviunt, III ., , (in loco servorum),   in potestate  (Dig. VII, 8, 4; XXI, 1, 25, 2), , , , ( , ,  XXXII, 75, 1).   in potestate (Dig. XXVIII, 1, 20, 1), , qui bona fide serviunt, . , , , (Dig. XLIII, 29, 3, 4), . . , in loco servorum. , bona fide serviunt, (Dig. XI, 1, 13, 1), , , , , (Dig. XLVII, 2, 17, 20; XLVIII, 19, 11, 1), - ,  , , , , (Dig. XLI, 1, 54, 2; 3).   sui iure (Dig. XLI, 1, 54, 1), . , bona fide ,   - (usucapere possidendo), , , , (Dig. XLI, 1, 54; 54, 1; 4).

, liberi, qui bona fide serviunt . . , (Dig. XLVIII, 18, 1, 9), , , .29 - (Dig. II, 1, 7, 3). (Dig. XLIX, 10, 8). ( ) (Dig. XLVIII, 15, 1), , bona fide serviunt, , , , , (Dig. XLI, 1, 54, 3a). , , , , , - , , (CI, VII, 14, 14; 16, 16), , . , , , , , , , , , , . .;   officiales operae  , : ; (Dig. XXXVIII, 1, 6; 1, 9, 1). , , - , (Dig. XLV, 1, 118; CI, 18, 65, 22), liberi qui bona fide serviunt, , , , . ,   servilia ministeria, servitutis obsequium  (CI, IV, 19, 22; VII, 14, 2; 16, 10). , , .

, , , , , - , : , , , . .20, . . , , , .

, . , , . ,   in servitio sunt, , qui bona fide serviunt,   , in potestate (Dig. XXI, 1, 25, 2). , , , . , in potestate, . pater familias. , qui .30 bona fide serviunt, ,   , 21.

, , , , : , , , , , . , , pater familias , , , qui bona fide serviunt, , in potestate, . , , qui bona fide servit, , . : , pater familias ,   ,   non teneri noxali actione  , , bona fide serviat, (Dig. XI, 1, 13, 1). bona fide . : , qui bona fide servit, [ ], , , . . , (Dig. XLVII, 16, 15, 48). , ,   , . , ; , , , . , , qui bona fide servit, , , bona fide serviunt, . , , 22.

, qui bona fide serviunt, , . 23. . , (mandatum) , . .31 , , , . , , , , . , , liberi, qui bona fide serviunt. , , , , , 24. , , .

, , . , , , qui bona fide serviunt, , , .

, , , , . . , qui bona fide serviunt, . , . , qui bona fide serviunt25.

, qui bona fide serviunt, - , . , , . , , qui bona fide servit, ; , , qui bona fide servit (Dig. XLI, 1, 19).

, , qui bona fide servit, , , , bona fide servit, , . , . , , qui bona fide serviunt, 26.

, qui bona fide serviunt, . , qui bona fide serviunt, , . , , .32 , (Dig. XLI, 1, 54, 1). , qui bona fide serviunt, , . , , ; , (Dig. XLI, 1, 54, 4). , , , , , qui bona fide serviunt. , bona fide, . 27. , , , , , , qui bona fide serviunt (Dig. IX, 2, 27, 3). , (Dig. XI, 3, 1, 1). , , , qui bona fide serviunt, - , , .

, qui bona fide serviunt,   , qui bona fide servit, ,  , , bona fide, , , ( ) , (Dig. XLV, 1, 118). , qui bona fide servit, , sui iuris, , , ; , . . , , bona fide, (Dig. XLI, I, 26, 2).

, qui bona fide servit, , . , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . , , , , , , , . , .33 , , , in potestate . , ( ), , , in potestate -. , , qui bona fide serviunt, , . , qui bona fide serviunt, , , , , , . , , qui bona fide serviunt, , . , , , , .

, bona fide serviunt, . . - , qui bona fide servit28.

, , qui bona fide serviunt, , , bona fide serviunt, . .

, , , , qui bona fide servit,  . , ( ), .

.34 , qui bona fide serviunt, . qui bona fide serviunt , , , , , , , , . ( ), . , qui bona fide serviunt, , , , - (qui inopia laborant), (Dig. II, 1, 7, 3).

, , , , .

, , , , , , . , , , ( ) , . , , (. . , , , ) . obsequium  , , ,   humiliores  . - , , , qui bona fide serviunt, , . , , . - , , , , , , . - , , ,   in loco servorum. , - . , liberi qui .35 bona serviunt, .

, qui bona fide serviunt, , , . , .

, qui bona fide serviunt, , . , , , , . . , bona fide serviunt, , , . , , liberi homines qui bona fide serviunt. , , , - . , qui bona fide serviunt, , , , 29.

, , , , , , .

, - , . . , , . (, , , - , ,   ), , , , .

.36 , , qui bona fide serviunt, . , . ; , , . , , , , , ( , ). , - , pater familias ́ , , , . - , .

, qui bona fide serviunt, , , , . , , . , -    , ,   . , qui bona fide serviunt, , . , , , , : , , -, -, , bona fide serviunt.


THE CATEGORY OF FREEMEN QUI BONA FIDE SERVIUNT

I. F. Delishcheva


This category, which is mentioned rather often in legal texts, included both bondsmen and free hired workers. Their common characteristic was the noncorrespondence of their factual with their legal status. Hence the difficulty in defining the category, a problem about which all students of the subject have written. Most often the condition of freemen qui bona fide serviunt has been likened to the condition of slaves, since persons of both categories might be transferred by inheritance, sold, or included in dotal property and were part of the masters familia. Less has been written about the differences between the two conditions. Freemen qui bona fide serviunt, if they worked for hire, were at any rate not .37 slaves in the ancient (classical) sense; they retained certain rights and had legal capacity in respect to property. The author attempts to determine as far as possible the role played by freemen qui bona fide serviunt in the late Republic and early Empire: the nature of the relations between them and slaveowners, between them and various other categories of exploited persons; what sort of evolution they underwent and what influence they had on the development of social relations in Rome.

Their condition is considered in relation to the development of commodity and money relations in Rome, the use of hired labour in small handicraft and in the middle-sized villa, where slave labour always coexisted with hired labour in one proportion or another. The spread of hired labour did not mean the same thing for the slave and the free worker. If the practice of hiring was a stimulating factor for slaves, for the free man, in the context of slavery, the growth of this practice meant a narrowing of opportunities for free labour. In an essentially natural economy based on slavery hired labour had a limited sphere of application, was merely a part of the slave system. The development of work for hire was hampered also by various aspects of the polis-type social structure. The influence of polis institutions was manifested in the tendency to conserve traditional forms of exploiting slaves, to find new forms of exploitation, such as the colonate, which were more in harmony with polis traditions than was the exploitation of hired labour.

The practice of hiring workers of different categories  slaves, free and half-free persons  did not weaken the institution of slavery but deepened and extended production relations based on slavery. In the course of time the category of freemen qui bona fide serviunt underwent considerable change. Persons belonging to it lost their civil-law rights and became dependents of their employers. The general disintegration of the old class and status structure was reflected in part in the convergence of the freemen qui bona fide serviunt with the slaves, a symptom of the general decomposition of the social structure of ancient society.


  • 1. . , , ., 1964, . 6061; . . , . . , . (), ., 1971, . 48.
  • 2. . . , II . . . ., 1973.
  • 3. . , . . ., . 3, . 57.
  • 4. . , . . ., . 3, . 192.
  • 5. . , . . ., . 3, . 197198.
  • 6. . , , , 1955,  1.
  • 7 , . 43.
  • 8. . , , , 1958,  2, 134135.
  • 9 , . 132, . 2.
  • 10 , . 137.
  • 11 , . 132.
  • 12, . ., . 134.
  • 13 , . 137.
  • 14 , . 137138.
  • 15. . . , . , ., 1978, . 178, 190 ., 210. . , . ., . 43. . . , , . . .
  • 16, , . ., . 24.
  • 17. , , . . , , ., 1941, . 589590.
  • 18. . , . , ., 1956.
  • 19. , , . ., . 20.
  • 20 . . (, , . ., . 5960, . 49).
  • 21. . , (Dig. XXI, 1, 25), , pater familias. , qui bona fide serviunt, in potestatem , , (Dig. XXVIII, 1, 20).  . . . , , 1950,  3, . 82, . 1.
  • 22 , , , ; , bona fide, (Dig. IX, 2, 27, 3). , . , , (serviat) bona fide (Dig. IX, 11, 8). : bona fide, (Dig. IX, 2, 13, 1).
  • 23 , bona fide, - , , , , , (quasi ex necessitate servile) (Dig. III, 5, 18, 2).
  • 24. . , , ., 1964, . 100.
  • 25 , . . , (bona fide serviunt), (Dig. XXXII, 75, 1). , , , bona fide serviunt, , , .
  • 26 [], bona fide, , , , ,   (Dig. XIV, 3, 35).
  • 27: , bona fide, , , , , . , , , ; , (Dig. XLI, 1, 54, 1). , , qui bona fide servit, , , , , ,   ipso iure obligari (Dig. XLI, 1, 54, 1). , , , . , qui bona fide serviunt, , . , , . , , bona fide nobis servit, , , , , (Dig. XLI, 1, 54, 24).
  • 28Gai, II, 86: , , ; , ; , (bona fide) 셻. 91. , , : , , , , . , , ; , - , , -. 92. , , , , , , . , , , , , ,   94. , , 95. , , , (. , . . . , ., 1888, . 7577). . : , , , ; , , , . , . . , , . . . . , , 1971,  2, . 196.
  • 29, . (M. Finley, The Ancient Economics, N. Y., 1974) , , , , , . . , , . . . . . .   , 1977,  2.
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    , .