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Surikov I. E.
The archaic Greek colonization: economic and political causes (on the example of early Athenian colonizing activities)

Greek colonization of the Archaic period was conditioned by a number of various prerequisites. Usually, scholars put in the foreground those causes of colonizing activities, which are of economic character, such as acquisition of new territories in order to rid of surplus population, or trading interests. The author of the article attempts to demonstrate, that of no less importance were causes of political character. First of all, permanent internal struggle (stasis) in Archaic cities often made the defeated faction leave for a colony, to seek luck there. Questions of inter-state policies could also be relevant to foundation of Greek settlements abroad. Even causes of purely ideological character did exist, such as typical Greek competitiveness, growth of interest in epic and heroic during the Archaic Age, or influence of the Delphic oracle.

The article deals with early colonizing expeditions of Athens, from the late 7th to the late 6th centuries B. C. Analyzed are such Athenian foundations as Sigeion by the Hellespont, Salamis, the Thracian Chersonesos, and also Peisistratos activities in the North Aegean, and, finally, the Kleisthenic klerouchia in Euboea. The source data allow concluding that the main causes of the Athenian colonization of that period were the political ones. As to economic factors, there were not of major importance up to Peisistratos time, and even later they were only supplementary to political prerequisites. Surely, the Athenian colonizing movement was not typical, as Athens in all respects was rather an exceptional polis. Nevertheless, we can see that such a variant of colonization was, in any case, theoretically and practically possible in the Archaic Greek world.


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