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Smorchkov A. M.
Temple vow (votum) in Religious-Political Practice of the Roman Republic

The article deals with various problems concerning vows undertaking by magistrates, first of all concerning temples building. This was a required phase of public temples foundation in the Roman Republic. Taking a vow had always been an individual act, even if it was made according to the Senate decision. Vows undertaken by magistrates on own initiative are ambiguous. On the one hand such vow was a personal magistrates obligation to the gods, on the other society understood its own responsibility for the fulfillment of vows undertaken by the magistrates they elected, although it was partially. Such a responsibility feeling no doubt sharpened in the case of military defeats, epidemics etc. Thus a person and a society existed in a harmony: a citizen executing a vow that he undertook for the profit of a society could rely on societys help and support, however a society was independent of hasty words and acts of its member. Notwithstanding there are no evidence of formal control over the magistrates vows fulfillment (including ones concerning temples building). Society support wasnt rendered automatically, but every case required a special decision of the senate. This is a typical situation in the sacral sphere and it could be observed in various aspects of the religious life in Roman Republic.

Freedom Finance .


  • 1  .: Orlin E. M. Temples, religion and politics in the Roman Republic. Leiden; N. Y; Köln, 1997. P. 6870.
  • 2 : Liv. XXXIX. 2. 8, 11.  .: ibid. XL. 52. 1, 3. . . (op. cit. P. 73). , , (200 . . .) (196 . . .) . : Liv. XXXI. 21. 12; XXXIV. 53. 7; XXXV. 41. 8.
  • 3 . . , 80% : Orlin E. M. Op. cit. P. 20.
  • 4Ibid. P. 18.
  • 5 . , 43 , : Aberson M. Temples votifs et butin de guerre dans la Rome republicaine. Genève, 1994. P. 17. . ( ) : ibid. P. 3945; 4653 ( ).
  • 6Liv. II. 20. 12 (.: 42. 5); V. 21. 13; VII. 28. 4; X. 19. 17; 29. 14; 36. 11; 37. 1415 (Fabius Pictor); XXIX. 11. 13; 36. 8; XXXI. 21. 12; XXXII. 6. 7 (Valerius Antias); 30. 10; XXXIV. 53. 3, 57; XXXIX. 2. 8; 11; XL. 40. 10; 44. 9; 52. 1, 47; XLII. 7. 1. .: Flor. I. 19. 2; 20; Tac. Ann. II. 49; Plut. Mar. 26. (X. 42. 7): , . ( ) .: Aberson M. Op. cit. P. 241243, 252253.
  • 7Rüpke J. Domi militiae. Die religiöse Konstruktion des Krieges in Rom. Stuttgart, 1990. S. 155.
  • 8Liv. XXXII. 30. 10: Consul principio pugnae vovit aedem Sospitae Iunoni, si eo die hostes fusi fugatique fuissent. A militibus clamor sublatus compotem voti consulem se facturos, et impetus in hostes est factus. , , . : Liv. X. 19. 17; 36. 11.
  • 9. . 43: , , , .
  • 10. . (Plin. NH. VII. 97).   . , 146 . . ., , (CIL. I2. 626 = ILS. 20).
  • 11Liv. VI. 5. 8; IX. 43. 25; X. 1. 9; 46. 7; XXII. 33. 7; XXIII. 21. 7; XXXV. 9. 6; 41. 8 ( . ,   ); XXXVI. 36. 56; XL. 34. 46; 52. 4.
  • 12Aberson M. Op. cit. P. 19.
  • 13Liv. I. 12. 6; 27. 7; 38. 7; 55. 1, 2; Cic. Rep. II. 36; 44; Tac. Hist. III. 72; Plut. Rom. 16 (.: Liv. I. 10. 57); Dion. Hal. AR. II. 50. 3; III. 69. 1; IV. 59. 1; Macr. Sat. I. 8. 1; Zon. VII. 11.
  • 14Liv. II. 20. 12; 42. 5, .: Dion. Hal. AR. VI. 13. 4.
  • 15Dion. Hal. AR. VI. 17. 3; 94. 3; Tac. Ann. II. 49.
  • 16Liv. V. 21. 3, 5; 22. 7; Dion. Hal. AR. XIII. 3; Plut. Camil. 6.
  • 17 : Liv. V. 19. 6 (.: Plut. Camil. 5).
  • 18Plut. Camil. 42; Ovid. Fast. I. 641642.  .: Momigliano A. Camillus and Concord // CQ. 1942. Vol. 36. P. 115117; Ziolkowski A. The Temples of Mid-Republican Rome and their Historical and Topographical Context. Roma, 1992. P. 2223.
  • 19Liv. VII. 28. 4; Ovid. Fast. VI. 183184.
  • 20Liv. X. 19. 17. . : Ovid. Fast. VI. 201204; Plin. NH. XXXV. 12; CIL. I2. P. 192. No. 10.
  • 21Liv. XXII. 10. 10; 33. 7; XXIII. 21. 7; XXXI. 21. 12; XXXIV. 53. 7; XXXV. 41. 8; XL. 52. 4; XLII. 7. 1; Macr. Sat. I. 10. 10. . , : Liv. XL. 40. 10 (.: XXXIX. 56. 5; XL. 39. 1).
  • 22Liv. III. 55. 11; VII. 1. 6; VIII. 32. 3; Messala ap. Gell. XIII. 15. 6. .: Plin. Paneg. 77.
  • 23Liv. IX. 43. 25; X. 1. 9; XXXIV. 53. 3, 6; XXXVI. 36. 6; XL. 52. 13; XLII. 3. 1; 10. 5.
  • 24Liv. XXIX. 37. 2; XXXVI. 36. 34.
  • 25., : Ziolkowski A. Op. cit. P. 207208.
  • 26Ibid. P. 258260.
  • 27Ibid. P. 103, 261; Aberson M. Op. cit. P. 18.
  • 28Liv. II. 21. 2, 7; 27. 56 (.: Val. Max. IX. 3. 6); 40. 12; V. 50. 5; 52. 11; X. 46. 14.
  • 29Ziolkowski A. Op. cit. P. 201, 261.
  • 30 , , , : (Liv. X. 47. 67; Val. Max. I. 8. 2; De vir. ill. XXII. 1; Strabo. XII. 5. 3; Oros. III. 22. 5), (Ovid. Fast. VI. 209210), (Liv. XXII. 9. 10; 10. 10), (Ovid. Fast. IV. 157160).
  • 31Liv. XXII. 9. 811, . Ovid. Fast. VI. 245246.
  • 32Liv. VI. 5. 8: eo anno aedis Martis Gallico bello vota dedicata est a Tito Quinctio duumviro sacris faciendis.
  • 33Mommsen Th. Römische Staatsrecht. Leipzig, 1887. Bd. 23. S. 621. Anm. 1.
  • 34 . .  // . 2002.  1 (9). . 79.
  • 35Liv. IV. 27. 1; XXXI. 9. 9; XXXVI. 2. 3; XLII. 28. 9.
  • 36Liv. XXII. 10. 46; XXXVI. 2. 5.
  • 37Liv. IV. 27. 1; XXII. 10. 1; XXXI. 9. 610; XXXVI. 2. 35; XLII. 28. 9.
  • 38Liv. V. 25. 7 (.: 23. 8): adhibito Camillo visum collegio.
  • 39Rohde G. Die Bedeutung der Tempelgründungen im Staatsleben der Römer. Marburg, 1932. S. 11. . , , (ibid. S. 1011).
  • 40Liv. V. 19. 6; XXII. 10. 10 (. 9. 811). .: App. BC. I. 26; Macr. Sat. I. 8. 1.
  • 41Liv. IV. 12. 2; V. 19. 6; VI. 42. 12 (.: VII. 15. 12); VII. 11. 4; XXII. 10. 7 (.: 9. 1011; 10. 1); XXVII. 33. 8; XXX. 2. 8; 27. 11; XXXI. 9. 610; XXXVI. 2. 25; 36. 6; XL. 34. 46; XLII. 28. 89.
  • 42Liv. XXII. 9. 1011; XXXVI. 2. 25; 36. 6; XL. 34. 46; XLII. 28. 89.
  • 43Liv. XXVIII. 38. 14; XXXVI. 36. 12; XXXIX. 5. 710; XL. 44. 812; 52. 12.
  • 44  .: Orlin E. M. Op. cit. P. 5859.
  • 45Ibid. P. 60.
  • 46Weigel R. D. Roman Generals and the Vowing of Temples, 500100 B. C. // Classica et mediaevalia. 1998. Vol. 49. P. 137139.
  • 47Beseler G. Triumph und Votum // Hermes. 1909. Bd. 44. No. 3. S. 357358; Bardon H. La naissance dun temple // REL. 1955. Vol. 33. P. 168170; Eisenhut W. Votum // RE. 1974. Supplbd. 14. Sp. 965, 968 (5661). . (op. cit. P. 198, 218219, .: P. 235). ( ): Orlin E. M. Op. cit. P. 3575. . . , (op. cit. P. 33, 50, 75), .
  • 48Liv. V. 21. 2; Plut. Camil. 7.
  • 49Liv. V. 23. 811; Plut. Camil. 8.
  • 50Liv. VII. 28. 4. . voti reus . : Macr. Sat. I. 12. 31.
  • 51  .: Liv. I. 12. 6; X. 37. 15; Dion. Hal. AR. II. 50. 3; Tac. Ann. XV. 41; De vir. ill. II. 8. .: Cic. Cat. I. 33; Ovid. Fast. VI. 793794; Plut. Rom. 18; Flor. I. 1. 13.
  • 52Liv. XXVII. 25. 7; XXIX. 11. 13; Cic. Verr. II. 4. 123; Val. Max. I. 1. 8. ,   (, ),   .  .: Aberson M. Op. cit. P. 147.
  • 53  .: Orlin E. M. Op. cit. P. 155. Not. 155; 182183.
  • 54Liv. IX. 810; Cic. Off. III. 109; De inv. II. 91; Vell. II. 1. 5; Val. Max. VI. 1. 9; Plut. Tib. Gracch. 7; App. Iber. 83.
  • 55 : Liv. IX. 11.
  • 56Cic. Off. III. 109; De or. I. 181; Caec. 98; Liv. Per. 56; Vell. II. 1. 45; 2. 1; Flor. II. 18. 7; Plut. Tib. Gracch. 7; App. Iber. 83.
  • 57 .: Orlin E. M. Op. cit. P. 5053.
  • 58Liv. IX. 5. 15, .: Cic. Off. III. 109.
  • 59 votum stipulatio (sponsio) .: Watson A. The State, Law and Religion. Pagan Rome. Athens; London, 1992. P. 3943. . : Rohde G. Op. cit. S. 1011; Latte K. Römische Religionsgeschichte. München, 1960. S. 46 ( ); Orlin E. M. Op. cit. P. 35. Not. 1; P. 50. Not. 54; Beard M., North J., Price S. Religions of Rome. Cambr., 1997. Vol. I. P. 34.
  • 60Liv. X. 19. 17: Bellona, si hodie nobis victoriam duis, ast ego tibi templum voveo. duis, ast.
  • 61 , , , , , , . . , . . (op. cit. P. 127139, 148, 152153, 159161).
  • 1291154827 1261594326 1291160403 1349194600 1349194823 1349195681

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