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, , . , - , , ( ) , ; : . . , , divide and conquer, . , , 5. , , , . , , VIII , (ἔχειν δ᾿ ἀμφοτέρους ἐᾶν δίχα τὴν ἀρχήν ἐπανισοῦν τοὺς Ἕλληνας πρὸς ἀλλήλους  : VIII. 46. 1 VIII. 57. 2) (τρίβειν πρῶτον ἀμφοτέρους τρίβειν αμφοτέρους  VIII. 46. 4 VIII. 56. 2) . , , : , , , (σκοπεῖν ὅπως τῶν ῾Ελλήνων μηδὲ οἵτινες ἰσχυροὶ ὦσιν, ἀλλὰ πάντες ἀσθενεῖς, αὐτοὶ ἐν αὑτοῖς στασιάζοντες  Hell. I. 5. 9). (, ) (IV. 134, 138139) (X. 51). , , - , , , , .68 , , , . . , , , , , .

: -, , -   - ; -, , , , . , , , . , , , , .

: . , , I, , ἄγγελος, , ἀποπεμφθεὶς ὑπὸ Μαρδονίου (VIII. 140). , πέμπει ἐς Σαλαμῖνα Μουρυχίδην ἄνδρα ῾Ελλησπόντιον, , (IX. 4). , , : βασιλεύς πέμπει ἐς Λακεδαίμονα Μεγάβαζον ἄνδρα Πέρσην (I. 109). πρεσβευτής . , (πρέσβεις, πρεσβεία), πρεσβευσάμενοι , , , ἄγγελος . TLG πρέσβεις 98 , πρεσβευτής  8 , πρεσβεία  14 ; πρεσβευσάμενοι  2 .

, , . , 412 . . . - , πρεσβευτής ( .69 ), (   πέμψαντος Φαρναβάζου  VIII. 6. 1). , , , . , , , , , , , . , , . IV . . . (Hell. III. 5. 1) , πέμπει Τιμοκράτην τὸν ῾Ρόδιον εἰς ῾Ελλάδα, : ὁ παρὰ τοῦ βαρβάρου πεμφθεὶς (Hell. Oxy. XXI. 1).

  , , , ,   .   , . . , , , ,     .

- , , , , , . , (VII. 139). , , . (IX. 2), , - : . .70 . (IX. 41) : , . , , , . , . , , , , , . , , , , , , . .

, I (Hdt. VIII. 140144), 6. , , , , . , 479 . . . , (VIII. 140). , . , , : , , , (VIII. 144). , - , . , , I , 10 . (Aristodem. FGrH. 104. F. l = P. Oxy. XXVII. 2469). 479 . . . .   , , ( : IX. 45). (XVIII. 204) , 7.

.71 , (τὸν χρυσὸν τὸν ἐκ Μήδων εἰς Πελοπόννησον ἤγαγεν  Demosth. Philip. III. 42). , , IV . . ., , (Dem. IX. 41; XIX. 272; Din. II. 2425; Aesch. III. 258259). . , , I 491 . . . (Schol. Aesch. Persae. sch. hyp. 15). 480 . . . (Schol. Ael. Arist. III. 327). , , , : -, ; -, 8.

,   . , - , , 9. , 479 . . . 50 . (50 : Plut. Arist. 18. 7; 40 .: Aristodem. FGrH. F. 1. 2. 3 = P. Oxy. XXVII. 2469 s. 2). 490 . . ., . , 10. , 479 . . ., , .72 (Plut. Arist. 13). , , , , , 480 . . . .

, . . , , . , , , , .   ( 458456 . . ., ). (I. 109. 4). : -, ; -, ( I , , , ) - . , , , . : , (Thuc. I. 109. 4). , - : - . , , , , 11.

, , . , .73 , , , , . , 425 . . . I - . ( , ), (, , ,   Thuc. IV. 50. 13). , ( παρὰ βασιλέως πορευόμενον ἐς Λακεδαίμονα, ). (Paus. VI. 6. 6 = Androtion. FGrH. 324 F. 46). , , , ( 396 . . .).

395 . . . . , , 12. , 50 (10 ) , , (Xen. Hell. III. 5. 1; Hell. Oxy. X. 2, 5; Paus. III. 9. 8; Plut. Ages. 15; Artax. 20. 3; Lys. 27; Moral. 211b)13. , . , .74 , . , , , , . , , , , , , , 395386 . . . (Hell. Oxy. X. 5).

386 . . . . , , , , , . , , - , .

, 370- . . . 30 , , , , (Nep. Epam. 4; Plut. Moral. 193c).

, 360- . . . , , , , II. , , , (ὡς ἰδίᾳ), (Xen. Ages. VIII. 34; Plut. Moral. 213e). 369/8 . . .14 , , , , (Xen. Hell. VII. 1. 27; Diod. XV. 70. 2). , .75 , , . , , , , (Xen. Ages. II. 25) .

, . . (.: Dem. XIV. 27), , , , (Heges. ap. Athen. VI. 58. P. 251ab; Plut. Pel. 30. 12). , , , , , (XIX. 273), 50 . , (δωροδοκήματα), 393/2 . . . (Plato. CAF. I. F. 119).

, , , . 367 . . . , , , , 15. , , , , (Plut. Pel. 30). (VH. I. 22), , (φιάλαι) , , (μάχαιρα), , .

.76 ? , 10000 , , , , 80   , , , , 4 (Plut. Artax. 22. 56; Pel. 30. 6; .: Dem. XIX. 137). , , (Xen. Hell. VII. 1. 38; Plut. Pel. 30; Artax. 22; Dem. XIX. 137, 191; Suda. s. v. Τιμαγόρας). , , II, 340 . .. . 300 , , ([Ps-Plut.] Vit. X Or. 847 F; Aesch. III. 239) ([Ps-Plut.] Vit. X Or. 848 E).

, ; , ( , !), , , , . , . , , , , . , , , , , . , , , ( - ). , , , . , .77 , ( )16.

Eduard V. Rung (Kazan). The informal Persian diplomacy toward the Greeks and the importance of Persian gold in the Greco-Persian foreign relations

The article is devoted to the Persian informal diplomatic missions and the impact of the Persian gold upon the Greek interstate relations. The beginning of Persian informal diplomacy may be dated to the last period of Xerxes invasion when the Greek naval victory of Salamis in 480 B. C. opened the new phase in the Greek war with Persia. The informal missions became regular in the Persian diplomatic practice toward the Greeks in the V and IV B. C. The Persian emissaries in their visits to Greece established contacts with prominent and influenced Greek politicians. They intended to provide the Greeks with the Persian gold and prompted them to conduct the policies in accordance with the Persian ends. There were a number of Persian informal missions to Greece (Arthmius of Zeleia, Megabazus, Artaphernes, Timocrates of Rhodes, Philiscus of Abidus, etc.), which were not always fruitful. The Greeks were eager to use the Persian financial support, but they rarely could be actually bribed. In fact, they preferred to use the Persian help for the conduct of policy in their own interests.


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