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Sacra Argeorum

: . . 12. , 2006. . 139156.

.139     . , , , , , , , - civitas.     , . , , , 1.

, , 2, . De lingua Latina, , (Sacra Argeorum Sacrificia Argeorum  Varro. L. L. 5. 4554). , , . , , .

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, ,   , , . () (Liv. I. 43. 13; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. IV. 14). (L. L. V. 45) . , (putant),   , .

. , ; , -, II . . . (eidem regioni adtributa Subura; in eo est Argeorum sacellum sextum. Suburam Iunius scribit ab eo, quod  L. L. V. 48), (V. 46). , (VII. 44 = Enn. Ann. 12021. Vahlen). , , , . . , . , , : Argei fiunt e scirpeis, simulacra hominum XXVII; ea quotannis de Ponte Sublicio a sacerdotibus publice deici solent in Tiberim (L. L. VII. 44).

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, , , 16 17 (itur ad Argeos  Fasti. III. 792). , 14 (simulacra) (Fasti. V. 62122). , , , . . . , (Fasti. V. 62732), , , (Fasti. V. 63334). , , (simulacra uirorum scirpea).

. , , , , (habeo etiam dicere quem contra morem maiorum minorem annis LX de ponte in Tiberim deiecerit  Pro Rosc. 100). , (Fasti. V. 636)4. (   Plut. Q. R. 83) , , .142 (XXII. 57. 6)5. .

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: , , , , 7. . , , , , , (Argea loca Romae appellantur, quod in his sepulti essent quidam Argivorum illustres viri  Fest. P. 18 L). , . , , , , (Sat. I. 11. 47). ,     (calator in sacerdotio augurali  Gram. 12). , , , , .143 8, .

, , , . , . , , , (coepisse Saturno cereos potius accendere et in sacellum Ditis arae Saturni cohaerens oscilla quaedam pro suis capitibus ferre  Sat. I. 11. 49). , , - ,   .

. , . , 15 . , , (στρατηγοί) , (τῶν ἄλλων πολιτῶν οὓς παρεῖναι ταῖς ἱερουργίαις θέμις  Ant. Rom. I. 38. 3). ,     . . , . , (Q. R. 32). , 14/15 .   , (ἢ ὅτι τῷ μηνὶ τούτῳ τὸν μέγιστον ποιοῦνται τῶν καθαρμῶν, νῦν μὲν εἴδωλα ῥιπτοῦντες ἀπὸ τῆς γεφύρας εἰς τὸν ποταμὸν πάλαι δ᾿ ἀνθρώπους  Q. R. 86).

, . , . . ( ) . ( .144 ) , . , ᾿Αργεῖοι  -, . .

, . , . . . , . sacella , , 9. . , 10. . . 11.

. III . . ., 12. . . 390 . . .13 , . , , arx (collegia arceorum), . III . . . -x c g. arcei argei . , 14. , , .145 (Liv. V. 48. 849. 3; Plut. Camil. 2829).

, , . , , , .   , , , , , (Ant. Rom. I. 38. 3):


ποντίφικες, ἱερέων οἱ διαφανέστατοι, καὶ σὺν αὐτοῖς, αἱ τὸ ἀθάνατον πῦρ διαφυλάττουσαι παρθένοι στρατηγοί τε καὶ τῶν ἄλλων πολιτῶν οὓς παρεῖναι ταῖς ἱερουργίαις θέμις εἴδωλα μορφαῖς.

, , 15. , (arcana sacra), . , 16. , , , . , , . , , sacra Argeorum.

,     . , . , ,   . , , , 17.

.146 . , ,   , . 14 , . 18.

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(Pater Tiberinus) . (Liv. I. 45. 6; Dion. Hal. I. 39, 40). (nam et a pontificibus indigitari solet  Serv. Ad Aen. VIII. 330). , , , , , , (Tiberinum, Spinonem, Almonem, Nodinum, alia propinquorum fluminum nomina  Cic. De nat deor. III. 52). , , , , 20. 21. , , : ! : ! (Tiberine pater, te sancte precor  Liv. II. 10. 11). , .147 , , .

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. , 13 , , (mola salsa). , , . , . , , 27 . , , 29. . , . . . , , 30.

.149

, , , . sacraria (L. L. V. 45, 47), sacella (V. 48). . - , . (in tabernola  V. 47, 50),   in delubro, 31. (aedificium), , , 27 (aedificium solum est  V. 52). , in delubro (aeditumus).

, , , . (apud)     32. - , , , . , . , , 33, sacella34.   sacellum sacrarium, 35, , . , , , , . (aedificium), .150 , , , .

. , ( 13 ), , . , , . , 36. , . (secespita). (secespita autem est culter oblongus ferreus, quo [flamines], flaminicae, virgines pontificesque ad sacrificia utuntur  Ad Aen. IV. 262). . , , , , . , , 37. (sacrificia), . loca sacris faciundis  , , .

, . -, . -, :   ( )  16 17 . (runcatio) , , , (tum et segetes convenit purgare, sarire hibernas fruges maximeque far  Nat. hist. XVIII. 241). , , 13 . , 14 , . . , , .151 . , 15 . , 38.

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15 , , . (Ovid. Fasti. II. 33; Plut. Q. R. 19; Numa. 19) (Varro. L. L. VI. 34). 15 dies parentales, (Ovid. Fasti. II. 53370; Varro. L. L. VI. 13; Paul-Fest. p. 7576 L; Lyd. De mens. 4. 29). (Ovid. Fasti. II. 312; Plut. Rom. 21, Numa. 19; Macrob. Sat. I. 13. 3). (Varro. L. L. VI. 13, 34; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. I. 80; Plut. Rom. 21; Q. R. 68, 111; Fest. P. 75765 L), 39. , , 40.     , ( ) (13 ), . , . - 41, 42.

.152 , (Ovid. Fasti. II. 282),     (Gell. X. 15. 30; Plut. Q. R. 86). . 43, , . , .

1 , (His etiam coniunx apicati cincta Dialis / lucibus impexas debet habere comas  Ovid. Fasti. III. 397). , . , , 44. (15   VI. 22729). . ,     (VI. 106168).

, . 45, 46,   . , , , (). , , .

. , .153 , (insula Tiberina), (II. 5. 34). , , , . -, (fructum religiosum) . -, , , (cum stramento) (corbibus) . , , , , corbes messuarii, . , , . , . , , , 47.

, . , . , , , , , . , . , . (Plut. Q. R. 14). 48. , . . , , ( ) . , , , , .

, , , (15 ), . , (Fasti. VI. 2612). ,   .154 . , , , (Fasti. VI. 411), . (Casa Romuli), , , , (Dio Cass. XLVIII. 43. 4; καὶ πυρί ἄλλα τε τῆς πόλεως συχνὰ καὶ ἡ τοῦ Ῥωμύλου σκηνὴ ἐκαύθη, κοράκων κρέα ἐς αὐτὴν ἐκ βωμοῦ τινος ἔμπυρα ἐμβαλόντων  LIV. 29. 8). . . , , . , . , , .

, . , , , . . , ,   . : ? ? ,   . ,   , , 49.

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, II . . . 180 . . . . . , .155 , (complura sacella publicaque loca, occupata a privatis, publica sacraqae ut essent paterentque populo curarunt  XL. 51. 8). , . . , , , .

, , . , III . . . 50, . , , (RgdA. 20). , , - . . , , . .

, , . .   . , , , Caeriolensis , (Minervium  Varro. L. L. V. 47)51. 52. , , (-  captae delubra Minervae  Fasti. III. 835 sqq.). , Minervium Capta Minerva . , , , 241 . . . (Ovid. Fasti. III. 8434)53. , Minervium : III . . .

.156 , . , , . , . , , , , , (multa alia sacrificia locaque sacris faciendis quae Argeos pontifices vocant dedicavit  Liv. I. 21. 5). , , , 27 , , .

Olga V. Sidorovich (Moscow).
Sacra Argeorum as a sacerdotal document

Varro in his work De lingua Latina cites the document named Sacra Argeorum. This document illustrates Varros information about sacral topography of the earliest Roman territory related to the Argean ceremony. But the list of these sacred areas Varro referred to is incomplete. The document mentions only 14 out of the well-known 27 Argean territories. This circumstance puts the following questions: first, does this document relate to the sacerdotal one; second, when and with what purpose it was composed.

The analysis of the document, together with the attendant information from other sources, allows us to make the following conclusions. This document mentions only those sacred Argean areas that had been improperly used before. Two of them became residential places for some temple keepers. The other two were blocked inside some ligneous buildings constructed illegally in this territory. The rest were enclosed plots in the open air (sacella). They may have been attractive to the builders as they were located in the centre of Rome, and that is why they were included in the list. Livy notes that such situation was common for the Romans from the early II B. C. Thus, Varros document lists the most vulnerable Argean areas. The pontiffs who were in charge of the Argean ceremony drew up this record in the second half of the III B. C. As this document reflects the need for civitas to protect its sanctuaries, it focuses on those 14 sacred areas out of 27 that were influenced by other cults or private persons.

As the primordial sanctuaries belonged to Argei, they were enclosed plots used as sacred fields for cultivating cereals to prepare flour meant for sacrifice of the Citys purification. The only roofed over construction (aedificium) mentioned in the document was the place of restoration of sacred utensils used for flour production.


  • 1  .: . . : III  I . . . ., 2005.
  • 2 . . 6172, 7781, 274.
  • 3Frazer G. The Fasti of Ovid. L., 1929. Vol. 4. P. 76.
  • 4 , 390 . . ., , (Fest. P. 452 L).
  • 5 , I , (Marcel. 3). (Nat. Hist. XXVIII. 12) (IV. 13).
  • 6Ovid. Fasti. V. 645660. (Fest. P. 450 L), , , , .
  • 7Multa alia sacrificia locaque sacris faciendis, quae Argeos pontifices vocant, dedicavit  , 蔻 (Liv. I. 21. 5). . . , , , . .: . . 29. . quae, vocant, sacris faciendis, dat. commodi. . . . , , , ( . . 39).
  • 8 (Q. R. 32) , .
  • 9Mommsen Th. Römisches Staatsrecht. Bd. 3. S. 114.
  • 10Gjerstad E. Legends and Facts of Early Roman History. Lund, 1962. P. 22.
  • 11Wissowa G. Argei // RE. 1896. Bd. 2. Sp. 700.
  • 12De Sanctis G. Storia dei Romani. Torino, 1907. Vol. 1. P. 201.
  • 13Clerici L. Die Argei // Hermes. 1942. Bd. 77. S. 100.
  • 14Ibid. S. 9496.
  • 15. , , , , (Holland L. A. Janus and the Bridge. Roma, 1961. P. 314. Note 3).
  • 16 (arcani sermonis  Paul-Fest. p. 1415 L). , , (ap. Aug. C. D. 4. 31).
  • 17Fowler W. Warde. The Roman Festivals of the Period of the Republic. L, 1899. P. 116121. . (Burris E. Taboo, Magic, Spirits. A Study of Primitive Elements in Roman Religion. Westport, 1974. P. 137 f.). . (Frazer J. G. Op. cit. P. 85 f.).
  • 18 . , . lustratio urbis , 16 17 (Clerici L. Op. cit. S. 91). . . 27 ( 24) , ( . . . ., 1987. . 58, 61).
  • 19Clerici L. Op. cit. S. 94; . . 37.
  • 20A fontibus et fluminibus ac ceteris aquis dei, ut Tiberinus ab Tiberi (Varro. L. L. V. 71). - , , . .: Varro Tiberim a Thebri quodam vel a qui ibi perierit, dictum tradit (Ad Aen. VIII. 330). , - , .
  • 21Vosque Lares, tectum nostrum qui funditu curant / teque, pater Tiberine, tuo cum flumine sancto ( , , , , ,   Enn. Ann. I. 267268 Sk.).
  • 22  .: Cic. De nat deor. II. 9; De div. II. 77.  .: Suet. Jul. 81. 2.
  • 23Frazer J. G. Op. cit. P. 91 ff.
  • 24Palmer R. E. A. The Archaic Community of the Romans. Cambr., 1970. P. 15 ff.
  • 25Clerici L. Op. cit. S. 90.
  • 26Fowler W. Warde. The Number Twenty-Seven in Roman Ritual // CR. 1902. Vol. 16. P. 211 f.
  • 27 , , . . . .: . . . 3137.
  • 28Mastrocinque A. Lucio Iunio Bruto. Richerche di storia, religione e diritto sulle origini della repubblica romana. Trento, 1988. P. 90.
  • 29Holland L. A. Op. cit. P. 323 f.
  • 30Palmer R. E. A. Op. cit. P. 90.
  • 31  .: . . 30.
  • 32 . . apud , ( . . 30).
  • 33 , , , , (apud) , , , . . .: Varro. L. L. V. 47, 50, 52, 54.
  • 34Sacellum  , , . .: Wissowa G. Op. cit. S. 694.
  • 35 , sacrarium  , . .: sacrarium est locum, in quo sacra reponuntur (Dig. I. 8. 9. 2). (Dig. I. 8. 9. 1).
  • 36Sparge molam far et salem. Hoc nomen de sacris tractum est: far enim pium, id est mola casta, salsa ita fit: virgines Vestales tres maximae ex nonis Maiis ad pridie idus Maias alterius diebus spicas adoreas in corbibus messuariis ponunt easque spicas ipsae virgines torrent, pinsunt, molunt atque ita molitum condunt. Ex eo farre virgines ter in anno molam faciant, Lupercalibus, Vestalibus, idibus septembribus, adiecto sale cocto et sale duro (Serv. Ad Bucol. VIII. 82).
  • 37 (Fasti. VI. 313).
  • 38Matronara G. Mito storica ideologia nella Roma antica. Palermo, 1988. P. 179.
  • 39Michels A. K. The Topography and Interpretation of Lupercalia // TAPhA. 1953. Vol. 84. P. 48. , , , (ibid.).
  • 40 (Bailey C. Phases in the Religion of Ancient Rome. Berkeley, 1932. P. 19; Michels A. K. Op. cit. P. 48; Evans E. C. The Cults of the Sabine Territory. N. Y., 1939. P. 242; . . , ,  // . 1892. . 3. . 1. . 59), (Ogilvie R. M. The Romans and their Gods in the Age of Augustus. L., 1969. P. 77), (Weinstock S. Divus Julius. Oxf., 1971. P. 332). . , . . , .  .: Holleman A. W. An Enigmatic Function of the Flamen Dialis (Ovid. Fasti. II. 282) and the Augustan Reform // Numen. 1973. Vol. 20. P. 228.
  • 41 .  .: . . 251 . .  , , , V . . . (Wiseman T. P. Remus: A Roman Myth. Cambr., 1995. P. 85 f.).
  • 42  .: Burris E. Op. cit. P. 161; Bailey C. Op. cit. P. 19; . . 259.
  • 43 : Varro. L. L. VII. 44; Gell. N. A. X. 15. 26; Fest. P. 484486 L; Paul-Fest, p. 485 L; Serv. Ad Aen. IV. 137. . : Bonfante Warren L. Roman Costumes. A Glossary and Some Etruscan Derivations // ANRW. 1973. I. 4. P. 614.
  • 44 . . . .: . . 190 (Ad Aen. VIII. 285).
  • 45, . . , . .: . . 253.
  • 46 . . , . .: . . 197.
  • 47 . . , (Liv. I. 4. 4). .
  • 48Mastrocinque A. Op. cit. P. 89. N. 28.
  • 49 arcana . (Holland L. A. Op. cit. P. 329).
  • 50. , 27 urbs (Palmer R. E. A. Op. cit. P. 140).
  • 51 . . .: Serv. Ad Aen. VIII. 361.
  • 52Palmer R. E. A. Op. cit. P. 95; . . . . ., 1983. . 102.
  • 53 : Liv. V. 26. 327. 15; Plut. Camil. 10.  .: Clerici L. Op. cit. S. 95. Anm. 1.
  • 1303322046 1335253318 1304099984 1352999102 1352999375 1352999488

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