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V . . . II . . .

: . . 12. , 2006. . 313333.

.313 , . , , , , .

. , , , , . . . , , . , , . , 1, . . 2. . .

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, :

  • ( );
  • ; σιταγωγοὶ ὁλκάδες, σιταγωγὰ πλοῖα (Hdt. VII. 191; Thuc. VI. 30);
  • ; ἱππαγωγὰ πλοῖα, ἱππαγωγαὶ νῆες (Hdt. VII. 21; Thuc. II. 56; IV. 42);
  • 3;
  • (Iust. Digesta. 14. 11. 4);
  • () (Iust. Digesta. 14. 1. 12).

. . , , , V . . . I . . ., , . . . , , .

, () . , , , , . , , , . . , . , (. 1)4 ( ), , , , . . ( 35 52 N, 23 20 E)  , , , , .315 5. , ( ) , , -, . .6  1 , .

 1
V . . . () 30 10 120
7 () 17.40 6.40
() 10 4 20
IV . . . () 14 4 25
8 () 17 6 30
III . . . 9 () 30
10 (43 18 N / 5 24 E) 24 9
11 () 20 5
IIIII . . . 12 () 23 7 80
III . . . 13 () 30/35 8 150

.316

I . . . 14 () 40 9 375
15 () 40.6 14.8 500
16 () 20 4 35
17 () 40 9 500
() 300
18 () 21 5.60 130
19 () 13 5 20
III . . . 20 () 30 9 150
II . . . () D21 14 6.5 15

. , , (. . . 2). (. 3), (, ) . , . , , , . , 22. , , .317 , , . , . , , .

, , , , , . , .

, (Digesta. 14. 1. 1. 12): , , , , , , . , ( ) (. .   . .; quaedam enim naves onerariae, quaedam [ut ipsi dicunt] ἐπιβατηγοὶ sunt). , , () , , , , , , (ad onera inhabiles, item quaedam fluvii capaces ad mare non sufficientes).

, . , .

, (ἐπιβατηγοὶ), , , 23. ( 1500 . . .), .318 , - () 24 (. 6, 7). - , , , . , .   . . XVII . (. 8). , , , . , (. 9, 10, 11). , II . . ., (ἐπιβατηγοὶ) . , ut ipsi dicunt, , , .   , , , . (Demosth. Contra Lacr. XXXV; Con. Tem. XLIX; NT. Acts. 2728 etc.). , . , , , , , . . . , , , , , , , , (Athen. 206d209d). 2.6 . , , .

, , , , , . , , . , , .319 , (diaetarii  Iust. Digesta. 4. 9. 3. . . ). (Digesta. 4. 9. 3). (IG. II. 19; IG. XII. 1273, 1274) . 10 , . , , , .

25 .  () . , , , (Demosth. Contra Lept. XX; SIG. II.  206). , IV . . . - , , , 25. III . . . I . . . , . . . , . , (quia ad summam rem publicam navium exercitio pertinet  Iust. Digesta. 14. 1. 1. 20). , , . -  , , .

, , 25 500 (.  1). , . . 100 .  : .320 , ( V . . . II . . .) . . 26 . 27. , IV . . .28 . . , V . . . 450 . , 1992 (425415 .) ( 120 , . 12), . , , 3000 4000 , ( ) 29.

, . , , , . .

V . . . 260 ( 415413 . . .). 10 . (VII. 25; . . . ). , , 30 , ( 480425 . . ., 1995 1996 .). , . 2×2 , , , , 1500 31. 50 .  . (351 . . .; Contra Lacr. XXXV). .321 , 32, , 120 .  . , . , . . IV . . . , (IG. XII Suppl. 348; SEG. 17. 417). 3000 (80 : , ),   5000 (130 : , , ). , V IV . . . 100 .

130 . , . 25 80 .  , . , XIX . , () 1567 1812 ., 33. 339 1567 ., 40 56 %, 60   82 % 100   4.7 %. , 1812 ., 2 %. 100 . , , , , . , ( , , ). .

, , . (σιταγωγός) , . . , , , (VI. 44): 30 .322 (σιταγωγοί), , , 100 (. . . ).   σιταγωγοί  ,   ὁλκάδες πλοῖα, . . . VI. 30. , , , (VII. 191): (σιταγωγῶν δὲ ὁλκάδων καὶ τῶν ἄλλων πλοίων διαφθειρομένων) (. . . ).   . (Contra Lacr. 35) ( 120 ) . , , , , . (Contra Phorm. 36), , (. . .   γεμίσας δὲ ναῦν μεγάλην σίτου).

, , . , 34. .

IV  . III . . . , ,   35. . (206d209d), , III . . . , . , . , , . , IIIII . . ., - , (   80 ,   150 ). .

.323 (Navig. V. 1VI. 7): , , . 60 ,   15 . 1200 , 500 .  (ἡλίκη ναῦς), , . , . ( 300 500 ) , , , (. 13) II  . I . . .

. . . , 36. ,  ,  , , .   (Claud. 18. 1). (naves mercaturae) :   -,   ,   (Claud. 19. 1). , , , (Instit. I. 32c; . . ): , , (. . 70   . .) , , , , (si navem marinam aedificaverint, quae non minus quam decem milia modior[um frumen]ti capi[a]t, eaque navis vel quae in eius locum substituta [sit, sex] annis frumentum Romam portaverit).

. , 70- , . . , . , , - (Suet. Claud. 18. 1). .324 , .

, 70 , 37 . . , I . . . , 27 . , , , 276- , . 150 .

, . , , 50000 (350 ) 10000 (70 ), (muneris pubici vacatio  Iust. Digesta. 50. 5. 3). (Heron Mech. Stereometrica. 1. 53; 2. 5052). , , , . :

  • 19200 .  . 140 ( 735 /3);
  • 12600 .  . 85 ;
  • 7680 .  . 50 ( ).

, , 350 .  . . , ,   .

100150- . - , .325 , , 350 .  , V II . . . 100150 .  II . . . , I . . . 150 350 .  , , .

, , . , . , , , , . .

. 1. .
(Richard Steffy J. The Kyrenia Ship: An Interim Report on Its Hull Construction // AJA. 1985. Vol. 89. P. 102. Fig. 1).

.326

. 2. .
(Pulak C., Townsend R. The Hellenistic Shipwreck at Serce Limani, Turkey // AJA. 1987. Vol. 91. P. 33).

.327

. 3. .
(Carlson D. N. The Classical Greek Shipwreck at Tectaş Burnu, Turkey // AJA. 2003. Vol. 107. P. 585).

.328

. 4. , -.
(Ballard R. D., Hiebert F. T. Deepwater Archaeology of the Black Sea: The 2000 Season at Sinop, Turkey // AJA. 2001. Vol. 105. P. 620. Fig. 19).
. 5. , .
(Ballard R. D., Hiebert F. T. Deepwater Archaeology of the Black Sea: The 2000 Season at Sinop, Turkey // AJA. 2001. Vol. 105. P. 620. Fig. 21).

.329

. 6 6. 1. .
(Morgan B. The ship procerrion in the miniature fresco. Fig. 1, 4; Lahanas M. Ancient Greek Transport Ships // http://luna.cas.usf.edu/~murray/classes/ca/thera-morgan.pdf).
. 7. .
(ibid.).

.330

. 8. XVII .
(Mitsopoulou T. Greek and Chinese Ship // http://www.greecetrevel.com/archaeology/mitsopolulou/books.html).
. 9. .
(Raban A. The Thera Ships: Another Interpretation // AJA. 1984. Vol. 88. P. 14. Fig. 6, 7).
. 10. VIII . . . . .
( . . ., 2004. . 51; Le Grandi Civilita alla scoperta del passato. P. 3738).

.331

. 11. . 520 . . .
( Meermanno-Westreenianum, . . 619/836).
. 12. .
(http://www.culture.gr/2/21/214/21408e/e21408ea.html).

.332

. 13. .

(http://www.culture.gouv.fr/culture/archeosm/archeosom/imatges/archeosm/madra04.jpg).

Alexey B. Kiselnikov (Saratov).
On classification of Roman and Greek merchant ships in V B. C.  II A. D.

The results of underwater archaeological research have expanded our knowledge about the design of hulls of ancient merchant ships, their sizes and tonnage. Though written sources and archaeological data suggest various interpretations of sailing and oared ships, specialization of these ships has not been examined properly. Deliberate classification of ships with a view of reconstructing the fleet allows for a complex approach to sea trade. Here the vessel and cargo are the two distinctive and interconnected .333 objects of research. Applying the basic criteria to cargo  design, tonnage, loading and transportation, costs and the importance in the global market,  we can distinguish different types of ships and assess the general level of development of shipbuilding. It is clear that transportation of cargo is governed by certain norms of ship construction. This article examines only general distinguishing features, which allows us to speak about specialization of ships. Careful analysis of design and particulars of ships engaged in transportation of certain cargo enables us to trace the changes in the technology of shipbuilding and navigation. The approach to ships in terms of their specialization allows researchers to study the structure and organization of the mercantile marine of antiquity.


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