| |
. .

: , 1978, 3. . 150157.
.

.150 , 1. . . - , 2. . . , , , , 3.

, . , . . , , , .

, .   ( ), , 4. , , , , 5. 200 . 6. . , , , 7. . , , . , , I . . .

:   . 8 . , , . :   ,   9. , , . 10, ́ .

.151 , , , :   ,   , 11.   ,   ( )12. (τοῦ καλῶς ἐργάσασται), . 13.

? (γεωργός) (δημόσιος, βασιλικὸς γεωργός). , , , , . . , , , . . , , .

, - 14. ( , ). , , , 15. -! , ,  . . , . , , . . , .

, . . . : 16? , , I . . . . . . , 17. , , , : 18.

.152 , , , . , .

. , , 19, , , , , , 20. 21, .

, ,  . , 22.

,   , (ἀνεπιστημόνων) (ὑπηρετῶν). (ἔργον) (ὑπηρεσία). ,   (ἐπιτήδευμα), (). , (,   ) :   . , , , 23.

. , : , , 24.

, . , , 25. . .   , . : , , 26. , , , , ? , . , , , 27. , , , , , .

, , .   , - . - . , 28.

  29. , . .153 30. (). , , , -, , , 31. 32. : , , , , , , 33. .

, 34. , . , - , ,  - . VIV . . .35, , , , 36.

37, - 38. , ( ). ,   , . . . , . , , , , , , 39. , : 40.

. . , , 41. , , , . , , , , 42.

.154 , , , , , . , . , , .

? ? , ( ) ( ). - ,   - , . .

, , , , 43. , ,   , , 44.   45.

  (φιλοπονία ἀντὶ μισοπονίας)46. (φιλεργία) 47. (ἔμμισθος θεραπεὶα)48.

, . , ,  . ? , .

. , , , (φιλοπόνως) 49. (φιλοδεσπότοις)   50. , (εἰς ὑπηρεσίαν φιλοδέσποτον)51. , (φιλοπονία) (φιλοδεσποτεία)  , 52.

, , , , . 19 . . . , , : (ἐφιλίασα) .155 , 53. I . . . (P. Insinger). : , (9, 22, 10, 2, 3), (9, 10), (10, 20), (10, 12), (11, 10) (11, 11), (11, 7, 22, 18). , , 54, , , , 55.

? , (ἔμμισθος θεραπεία). . , , . . .   . .

. : , , , , , , , , 56.

: , , , 57. , , ,   , , . .

58, 59. . ? . . , , ,   , 60. , , . . - , . - , .

, , , , , 61. - . , 62. , .156 . . , , 63. . , .   64. , , , , , . , , , , , . , , .

, , . . . . , .   . . , , , , 65.

, ,   , , , , .

, . , . , . - . , , . , . , .

. . , . , . .

. I . . .   66, . . , , , .

PHILO JUDAEUS ON THE LABOR FREE MEN AND SLAVES IN ROMAN EGYPT
A. B. Kovelman

.157 In Egypt in the 1st century A. D. the number of slaves and hired workers increased. Which kind of labour is to be preferred? How is the productivity of labour to be raised? These were problems facing the ruling class of Egypt, of which Philo was a member. He thought the labour of the georgos to be the best and most productive kind. The hired worker thinks only of his wages, he does not care about the quality of his work. Slaves are of little use in general, that is why they are set free or sold. Following the common practice in the Eastern Mediterranean, Philo gives advice on how to lessen the impact of these deficiencies. He also postulates an ideal kind of labour, unselfish and free. This ideal is generated by dissatisfaction with the mercenary labour of hired hands and the forced, unwilling labour of slaves. To Philos mind work should be a pleasure and its own reward. One should serve out of love for the person served. Such is the work of the philosopher who will know God. Such is the work of the Therapeutae and the Essenes who have no slaves. Philo was not alone in having these thoughts. The papyri show that similar views were widely held among slaveowners in Egypt in the 1st century A. D.


  • 1  . : . . , III . . ., ., 1966, . 113130; . . , , , 1973,  3, . 136 .; , , , 1976,  2, . 73.  . . . , II . . .  I . . . ( ), . . , ., 1967, . 3845; , II . . .  I . . ., . V . . 1014 1970 . , ., 1970.
  • 2U. Wilken, Griechische Ostraka aus Ägypten und Nubien, I, Lpz.B., 1899, . 703 .
  • 3,
  • 4H. Leisegang, Philo Alexandrinus, RE, Hbd. 29, . 2.
  • 5Joseph., Ant. XX, 3.
  • 6Joseph., Ant. XVIII, 8.
  • 7Strabo, XVII, 14, 35.
  • 8   (γεωργός) (Philo, De spec. leg. III, 33, 39).
  • 9 -   (. ).
  • 10. . , II . . .  I . . ., ., 1966, . 206.
  • 11Philo, Quod det. pot. insid. sol. 104 .; De agricultura, 4 .; Quaest. in Gen. II, 66.
  • 12V. T., Gen. IV, 2; IX, 20.
  • 13Philo, De agricultura, 4 .
  • 14Philo, Quod det. pot. insid. sol. 104 .
  • 15Philo, Quod omn. prob. lib. sit. 3234. - , . . . . , . , ., 1974, . 80.
  • 16 , (N. T., Math. XX, 115; XXI, 3339). , .
  • 17. . , I . . . ( ), , 1974,  2, . 80 .
  • 18. . , . . , . (), ., 1971, . 41.
  • 19Philo, Quod det. pot. insid. sol. 104 .
  • 20Philo, De virtut. 88 .
  • 21V. T., Lev. XIX, 13; Deut. XXIV, 1415.
  • 22V. T., Gen. XXXVII, 7.
  • 23Philo, De somn. II, 21 .; 30. , (). , . .
  • 24F. Geiger, Philon von Alexandreia als sozialer Denker, Stuttgart, 1932, . 69 .; E. R. Goodenough, An introduction to Philo Judaeus, New Haven  London, 1940, . 163 .; . . , . ( - I . . .), ., 1972, . 6263.
  • 25Philo, De spec. leg. II, 123.
  • 26Philo, De spec. leg. IV, 15.  . Philo, Leg. allegor. III, 194 .
  • 27Philo, De spec. leg. IV, 152.
  • 28P. Oxy. II, 298 = P. Olsson 73.
  • 29Philo, De post. Caini, 181.
  • 30Philo, Quod deus imm. est, 64.
  • 31Philo, De spec. leg. II, 7985.
  • 32V. T., Lev. XXV, 40.
  • 33Philo, De spec. leg. II, 82 .
  • 34. , . 21.
  • 35. . . , , , 1970,  1, . 4966.
  • 36Eusebius, Hist. eccl. II, 4, 2; Suidas s. v. Φἰλων (ἢ Πλάτων φιλωνίζει ἢ Φίλων πλατονίζει). . (Leg. VI. 776778). . , (Leg. VI, 777b). , . , , , . . , .
  • 37Geiger, . ., . 7273.
  • 38Seneca, De benef. III, 22.
  • 39, , . 140.
  • 40V. T., Deut. XV, 18.
  • 41, , . ., . 178: , , , .
  • 42, VIV . . . : , , (Leg. V, 742a). , , . ., , . . , .   , , , . .
  • 43Philo, Quis rer. div. her. sit, 123.
  • 44Philo, De Abrahamo, 128 . (N. T., I Epist. ad Korinth. IX, 1617). , , , ,   .
  • 45Philo, De somn. I, 3334; De plant. 132138.
  • 46Philo, De post. Caini, 156158; De congr. erud. grat. 168.
  • 47Philo, De spec. leg. II, 195.
  • 48Philo, De Abrahamo, 128 .
  • 49Philo, Quis rer. div. her. sit, 9.
  • 50Philo, Quis rer. div. her. sit, 14.
  • 51Philo, De decalogo, 167. . De spec. leg. II, 195  .
  • 52 φιλοδεσποτεία  . Philo, Quis rer. div. her. sit, 7; Quod det. pot. insid. sol. 56; 62.
  • 53BGU, IV 1141 = P. Olsson 9, 23 .
  • 54N. T., Epist. ad Ephess. 4, 6; Ad Koloss. 3, 2223.
  • 55N. T., Epist. ad Ephess. 4, 5.
  • 56Philo, De vita cont. 71, . . . (. ., . 5758).
  • 57Philo, De spec. leg. II, 82 .
  • 58Philo, De vita cont. 70.
  • 59Philo, Quod omn. prob. lib. sit, 79.
  • 60, . ., . 62.
  • 61. . . , . (. . . , , . 4 (67), 1959, . 1722); , . ., . 56. . (N. T., I Epist. ad Thess. 4, 11), (N. T. Epist. ad. Ephess. 4, 28) : , (N. T. II Epist. ad Thess. 3, 10).
  • 62. . . , ., . 19, . 307.
  • 63Philo, De decalogo, 167.
  • 64. . , . - , ., 1906, . 103 .
  • 65. . , , , 1975,  3, . 68.
  • 66. -, , V , , 1014 1970 . , . I, ., 1970, . 73.
  • 1263478443 1263488756 1291164233 1366712104 1366713350 1366877674

    , .