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E. A. Mehamadiev
St. Petersburg

The problem of armys division between the Western and Eastern Roman Empire during the regency of Stilicho (395408 AD): the allied ethnic units and the federates


This article deals with the problem of division the federates-units of the Late Roman army during the 395408 AD., under the regency of Stilicho, the supreme general of the West Roman Army. This division happened between the Western and Eastern halves of the Roman Empire. The main idea is that Stilicho reserved the best warriors of federates  Huns and Alans  for his West Roman Army, while the Goths and Armenians were sent to the East Roman Empire. The most essential feature of this division is that the all federates-units from Huns, Alans, Goths and Armenians were formerly the mercenary soldiers of the East Roman Emperor Theodosius the Great. And this Emperor came in Italy with these troops to overthrow of the West Roman usurper Eugenius in 394 AD. After the victory over Eugenius Theodosius appointed his general Stilicho the supreme commander of all Eastern and Western Roman troops. The analysis of the sources shows that on the basis of this military rank Stilicho after the death of Theodosius refused from the principle of equal distribution of military units between the Western and Eastern halves of the Roman Empire.


  • 1Croke B. Arbogast and the Death of Valentinian II // Historia. 1976. Vol. 25. P. 243244.
  • 2τῶν μὲν ῾Ρωμαϊκῶν στρατοπέδων, τοὺς δὲ συμμαχοῦντας αὐτῷ βαρβάρους ὑπὸ Γαΐνῃ ἔταξε καὶ Σαούλ (Zos. IV. 57. 2).
  • 3Σκυθικὸν δὲ τὸν Γαϊνὰν, ἐξ ᾿Αλανῶν δὲ τὸν Σαοὺλ (Joh. Ant. fr. FHG. IV. 187).
  • 4ἕλκων μὲν ἐξ ᾿Αρμενίας τὸ γένος (Zos. IV. 57. 3).
  • 5plus quam viginti milia armatorum fideles (Jord. Get. XXXVIII. 145).
  • 6Γαΐνην ἔταξε σὺν τοῖς ὑπ αὐτὸν ἔθνεσιν καὶ τῶν ἄλλων ἡγεμόνων, ὅσοι τῶν βαρβαρικῶν ἔλαχον ἐξηγεῖσθαι ταγμάτων, ἱππέων τε ὁμοῦ καὶ ἱπποτοξοτῶν καὶ πεζῶν (Zos. IV. 58. 1).
  • 7Heather P. Goths and Romans, 332489. Oxford, 1992. P. 161162.
  • 8Alatheus vero et Safrac cum residuis copiis Pannoniam petierunt (Jord. Get. XXVII. 140).
  • 9διὰ τοῦ ῎Ιστρου Παιονίαν καὶ τὴν ἄνω Μυσίαν καταλαβεῖν (Zos. IV. 34. 2).
  • 10ad eos collecto venit exercitu, nec tamen fretus in armis, sed gratia eos cum ipsis inito foedere fecit (Jord. Get. XXVII. 141).
  • 11Gothus ille et Hunnus et Halanus respondebat ad nomen et alternabat excubias et notarii infrequens verebatur (Pan. Lat. XII. 32. 5).
  • 12urbesque Pannoniae miles implebat sub ducis vexillisque Romanis sequebatur (Pan. Lat. XII. 32. 5).
  • 13Soproni S. Die letzten Jahrzehnte des pannonischen Limes. Munchen, 1985. S. 9091.
  • 14Cesa M. Impero tardoantico e barbari. La crisi militare da Adrianopoli al 418. Como, 1994. P. 3435.
  • 15Várady L. Das letzte Jahrhundert Pannoniens. Budapest, 1969. S. 64.
  • 16Στελίχωνα στρατηγόν τε ἀποφήνας ἅμα τῶν αὐτόθι ταγμάτων (Zos. IV. 59. 1).
  • 17tibi credita fratrum / utraque maiestas geminaeque exercitus aulae (Claud. in Ruf. II. 56).
  • 18Várady L. Das letzte Jahrhundert Pannoniens. S. 97, 100.
  • 19Grumel V. LIllyricum de la mort de Valentinien Ier (375) à la mort Stilicon (408) // REB. 1951. T. IX. P. 26.
  • 20Demougeot E. Note sur la politique orientale de Stilicon de 405 à 407 // Byz. 1950. T. XX. P. 2829.
  • 21εἴ τι δυνατὸν αὐτοῦ καὶ πολεμικώτατον ἦν, τοῦτο κατέσχε, τὸ δὲ ἀπεσκληκὸς καὶ ἀπόβλητον χωρεῖν ἐπὶ τὴν ἑῴαν ἠφίει (Zos. V. 4. 2).
  • 22decem milibus Gothorum quos praemissos a Theodosio Arbogastes delesse funditus fertur (Oros. VII. 35. 19).
  • 23mixtis hic Colchus Hiberis / Armenicus; hic picta Saces fucataque Medus, / tentoria fixerat Indus / hic Rhodani procera cohors (Claud. de cons. Stil. I. 155160).
  • 24Gallica robora turmis / illinc Armeniae alae (Claud. in Ruf. II. 106, 109).
  • 25Armenius frons laeva datur; per cornua Gallos / dexteriora locat (Claud. in Ruf. II. 175176).
  • 26quos operit formatque chalybs: coniuncta per artem / flexilis induciis animator lamina membris / ferrea cognatoque metallo / par vestutis equis (Claud. in Ruf. II. 359360, 362363).
  • 27hic crine decorus (Claud. de cons. Stil. I. 156).
  • 28οὐδὲ ᾿Αρμενίων ἶλαι οὐδὲ ᾿Ιβήρων (Them. Or. XIV. 189d); I XVII : οὐδὲ τῶν ᾿Αρμενίων οὐδὲ ᾿Ιβήρων οὐδὲ ἵππου πεφραγμένης ουδε Αρμενιων ιλαι ουδε Ιβηρων (Them. Or. XVII. 219b).
  • 29ἀφῆκε τοὺς στρατιώτας, ὅσα καταλελοίπασιν οἱ βάρβαροι, ἁρπάζειν, ὥστε δοῦναι τοῖς πολεμίοις εὐρυχωρίαν ἀναχωρήσασι (Zos. V. 7. 2).
  • 30externis / auxiliis. Ibat patiens dicionis Alanus, / pro Latio docuit gentes praefectus Alanae (Claud. de bello Get. 580582).
  • 31hoc est Sauli belli summa commissa est (Oros. VII. 37. 2).
  • 32deinde Alani atque Huni variis caedibus populabantur (Oros. VII. 37. 3).
  • 33συμμαχικὸν ἐξ ᾿Αλανῶν καὶ Οὔννων περιποιήσασθαι (Zos. V. 26. 4).
  • 34Hunnorum Gothorumque reges / duces. .: Oros. VII. 37. 12; Marcell. Com. 406. IV. 3; Jord. Rom. 321.
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