| | |

?

, ., 1992 1, . 5372.

.53 , , , , . . , , , . , . : - - , .

, . , . , . , . , . , . , , . . , . , , : , , - , ,  , , 1. . : , , ( -   . .). , - 2.

. : - ,  - ,  , 3. .54 . . , , 4. . , , , (slowe-witted) 5. , . , , , . , , 6. , , , , , ; 7.

. ,  , , . . ,  , , 8. . . , . , , 9. , , , , : , , 10.

, , , - . , . , ? : . ? , , : , , ?

: , , , , . .55 ? ,   . .   - , , (, , , )11. : - , ? , , (VIII . . .) - - , , ,   , , -,   . .12 ( ), (   ) . , , , . , , , , . , , , , - , 13. , , IV . . ., : ,  ,  , . , (Paneg. 50)14. , , IIIII . . . (   ), (, , , )   . ., 15.

.56 , , , : , , , , , , 16. (). , , , , .

- : , , , (   ) , , , . . , , , , ( ), , 17. ,     . , , , ,   , , - , , . .

, . , , , , , , . ,   18  .57 , , .   , . , , , , , , , .

, , . , , ( ), , , , , , . . , , , , , . . , , , , .

  . , Utopia , : εὐτοπία οὐτοπία, , . , , . ., , , , 19. , , , - . : , , . , , . , , .58 ( )     , .

, , XIX ., . -, -: - . . . . , . . . . , , 20. -, :   . , , : , , , , . . - . , - . , , , , , . , , , : , ,   . , (. . ) , , -, - 21.

.59 , , , - . , , - . , .

, , . , , , 22. , (, , ), (, , .), , , , . , ; - 23. , . , . . , . : , ( ), , , , 24.

. , . . , , , , 25. : , , , .60 , , , , , , , 26.

, , . . 27. , , , - , . . , , , - ,     , . : . . , , , , , ,

- . 28, , - , 29. , - , , , , 30.

, , , , , : .61 , . , , (mores maiorum), , 31. , , . . , , ( )32.

, , , : , , , , - . , , , , , , . , . , , - , , , . , ? , , , - , , , .

, , : , , ,   . , , , , , , . -, , .62 ( , , , , ) , . , , . : , , , ( ) , , . , , , , , . - . , 33, , 34.   , , , 35.

, (, , ) , . , . , , , (civitas), , , . , II . . .63 I . . .36, , , , IV . . . , , , , - . , , , , , : , , , , (sed a vita hominum abhorrentem et a moribus  De re publ. II. 11. 21.). , , , : . , , , 37. , ( ) , . , ?

: , , , , - , , , , . , , , . , mos maiorum, , , , , , .

civitas 38, , : , , .64 , , . , . , , , , : (vir bonus) (rector rei publicae), (princeps senatus) , , (dominus). . . ,    , , . , ,   , , , , , , .39. , , : , , , 40. , , .

, . , , , , , . , , , , , I . . . , , , , , , , , , - , , , , , , , 41.

, , . , , , , , , , .65 , , , , . , , : , 42, , , . , 43. , , -: ( 41 40 . . .) XVI , 44.

(, ), : , , , , , , , (HN. VI. 8491). , ,   , , , , 45. , , , , , , . ., : , , , , , , , 46.

, .66 , , , . ( ) : , , , , . . , , , , , , - 47. - , ,   , , , , , , ,   , , - . I . . ., , .

: , , . - , -, , - (. . , - ) . , , , , 48.

, , , . , , , , (χρὑσεον γένος), (δαίμονες ἀγνοὶ  Hes. Op. 109201). : , ,   , , .67 49. : , , , , , , , . , , ( ), 50.

, , : , 51, , , . 븭 : , , κρονικός), ( , , ) 52. , - . , , , , -53. , , antropologisch-genealogischen Charakter, , - (politisch-historische Gewand) , , , 54.

. , , , .68 , . , , , , - . , , : VI . . . (ὡς ἡ Πεισιστράτου τυρρανὶς ὁ ἐπὶ Κρόνου βίοζ ἐίη)55, , , , , , , - . , , , III . . .,   , , , (Arat. Phaen. 96136). ( ), , . I . . ., , , : , - , IV (40 . . .56).

,   , , , ( ) ? aurea saecula, (Aen. VI. 792793, VIII. 324325), , . , , 57. -, : , .69 , , - , . -, , , : , , 100 110 () , . . , - ( , ) , , . , , I . . ., . , IV , , , ()   . , , , .

, , . , , , , , , . , , . - , . ( ) I . . . , (. . ) (nunc adest mundo dies supremus); , , , - (Oct. 403407). , .70 . , , , , , , ,  ,  , 58. : , , IV 59, , , , ,  , , , (Lact. Div. inst. VII. 24; Iren. Adv. haer. V. 33; Tert. Adv. Marc. III. 25).

, -, , , , , . , ,   , , , , , , 60. : , , , , , , , (Coloss. III. 11; . Halat. III. 28) , : ( ), , , , , , , , , (Philo. QOPL. 79)61. , , . . 62, , , - .

, , .71 , , , . 63, , , , , , . , . . :   64. , , , - . , - , , , . , , , , (   ) , . , , IV . , , 65. , (  ) , , , .   , -, , , 66. , , , . , , , : , , .72 ( ) - , - .

, , . , , , - .

Yu. G. Chernyshov
DID THE ROMANS HAVE THE UTOPIA?

While reading the literature about ancient Utopias we may often meet the fact that the practical and sober-minded Romans unlike the Greeks were never fond of Utopian ideals and their rare attempts to create their own Utopias were not original. This fact cannot be considered as the right one.

According to authors view-point the Social Utopia is arbitrarily designed ideas not based on the scientific analysis of the laws of the historical development, the ideas about an ideal social condition opposed to the existing reality and separated from this reality with the definite distance  chronological or spatial.

Literary and political Utopias were spread in Rome beginning with the second century B. C. The most important peculiarity of this Utopias was the idealization of not far-off lands (though there existed the dreams of the life on the Islands of the Blessed) but the idealization of the Roman past. Ideal Rome with its best mixed constitution was considered to be the model and the majority of the Utopists looked for the means of its sanitation in the epoch of crisis, the renewal of the mores majorum due to the ideal ruler. The most important and original contribution appeared in the sphere of the religious-mythological Utopia. It happened in the Roman epoch when a new conception of the Golden Age substituted the old Hesiodic conception of the Golden Race, and exactly then the Golden Ago was transferred from the past to the future. It was promoted by the Etruscan ideas about the saeculum, Stoic and Pythagorean ideas about the magnus annus, eschatological and messianic propheties of the Sibylline books, by the Roman-Italian national version of the myth about the Saturnia regna. The world history became to be used as the history of the ages (not of the races or generations), the cyclic conceptions were replaced by the linean ones, and this  with the dissemination of the idea about the unity of all mankind  promoted the preparation of the Christian image of a thousand-year kingdom. The Roman Utopia became a transitional link from the Greek Utopia (in which rationalism prevailed) to the religious Utopia, which was in the early Christianity.

Utopianism is a social-psychological, not ethnographical category, and so there are not Utopian and Antiutopian peoples, but there are different periods in the history of the same peoples, when Utopia is superseded by the Antiutopia, and vice versa.


  • 1 . . ., 1902. . 34.
  • 2 . . ., 1907. . 12.
  • 3 . . ., 1925. . 35.
  • 4Knight W. F. J. Roman Vergil. L., 1946. P. 2.
  • 5Rose H. J. Religion in Greece and Rome. N. Y., 1952. P. 157.
  • 6Flashar H. Formen utopischen Denkens bei den Griechen // Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Kulturwissenschaft. Ht 3. Innsbruck, 1974. S. 14; Polak F. L. The image of the future. V. 1. Leiden, 1961. P. 85.
  • 7Manuel F. E., Manuel F. P. Utopian thought in the Western world. Cambr. Mass., 1979. P. 21.
  • 8 . . . . I. ., 1928, . 58.
  • 9 . . . ., 1988. . 341 . , : . . . ., 1987. . 6.
  • 10 . . I. ., 1985. . 36, 47.
  • 11. . . . 342, 339, 383.
  • 12. . . ( ). ., 1983. . 255 .
  • 13., : . ., . . . . . 2- . ., 1985. . 3 .
  • 14 , , : , /   . / , / ,   , (De reditu suo. I. 6366. . . ).
  • 15. . .  // . 1967.  4. . 88; . . . :  // . ., 1982. . 147161. . . , , ( . . : , , . ., 1987. . 43). , , .
  • 16. . . . 88. , (. , . . . . 74).
  • 17. . .  // . . II. ., 1985. . 121; . . IIII . // . . I. ., 1988. . 481 .
  • 18Verg. Aen. VI. 853: parcere subiectis et debellare superbos. , , , , , , (ibid. 847849).
  • 19 ., : . .  // . 1972.  8. . 151158; . . . ., 1982. . 1133; . ., . .  // . 7. . 1984.  1. . 4958; . . : - . ., 1988; Bliesener E., Zum Begriff der Utopia. Frankfurt am Main, 1950; Utopias and utopian thought / Ed. F. E. Manuel. Boston, 1967; Manuel F. E., Manuel F. P. Op. cit. P. 1 ff.
  • 20., : . . . ., 1956; . . ., 1970; . .  // . . ., 1972. . 431452; .  // . ., 1982. . 171185; . . . . ., 1977; . . - XVIIXIX . ., 1967. . : . .  // . 1969.  1. . 166167; . .  // . 1976.  4. . 208215; . . . . 8287; . .  // . ., 1988. . 176194.
  • 21 .: . .  // X . - . ., . . . 1987. . 86; .  // . , 1989. . 5 .
  • 22Pöhlmann R. von. Geschichte der sozialen Frage und dos Sozialismus in der antiken Welt. 3. Aufl. von F., Oertel. Bd 12. München, 1925. , 18831901 .: .  // . . 2. ., 1910.
  • 23 .  .: . .  // . ., 1977. . 130 .; . .  // . ., 1982. . 31 .
  • 24Pöhlmann. Op. cit. S. 389394.
  • 25Walter G. Histoire du communisme. T. 1. Les origines (judaiques, chrétiennes, grecques, latines). P., 1931. P. 16, 465.
  • 26Ibid. P. 552.
  • 27Baldry H. C. Ancient Utopias. Southampton, 1956. P. 2123; Ferguson J. Utopias of the classical world. L., 1975. P. 138180.
  • 28., : Günther R. Der Klassencharakter der sozialen Utopie im Rom in den letzten zwei Jahrhunderten v. u. Z. // Sozial-ökonomische Verhältnisse im Alten Orient und im Klassischen Altertum. B., 1961. S. 94105; idem. Der politisch-ideologische Kampf in der römischen Religion in den letzten zwei Jahrhunderten v. u. Z. // Klio. 1964. Bd 42. S. 209297; idem. Friedensideen in der römischen Kaiserzeit // Das Altertum. 1988, Bd 34. H. 3. S. 149156.
  • 29  .: . . .: Güntner R., Müller R. Sozialutopien der Antike. Lpz., 1987 // . ., 1990. . 214221.
  • 30. - . . ., 1956; . . ., 1959; idem. Untersuchungen zur Religionsgeschichte. Budapest. 1966; idem. Von Homer bis Vergil. Gestalten und Gedanken der Antike. Budapest, 1969; Hahn I. Die soziale Utopie der Spätantike // Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Martin-Luther-Universität. Halle-Wittenberg. Jg. 11. 1962. Ht 10. S. 13571361: idem. Das goldene Jahrhundert des Aurelius Probus // Klio. 1977. Bd 59. Ht 2. S. 323336.
  • 31 , : .  // . 1902.  11. . 134; .  // . 1905.  12. . 663685; . .  // . 1946.  4. . 5465; . . - . ., 1952; . (IIII . . .). ., 1977; . .  // . . ,  15287 13. 01. 84; . : . . . . . ., 1985; . :  // . , 1990. . 12 .
  • 32 . .  // . . 1946. . 3.  5. . 441460; . . . .., 1940 (.   . 234252).
  • 33 , , 132 . . . ,     , , (Ferguson. Op. cit. P. 142145). . , , , 365 . . . (Günther, Müller. Op. cit. S. 169).
  • 34 .: . .  // . . . , 1990. . 3747.
  • 35.: . .  // . I. . 52 .; . .  // . , 1988. . 3655.
  • 36 . . , I . ( . . . . . . ., 1981. . 175)
  • 37Ferguson. Op. cit. P. 162; . Flashar. Op. cit. S. 14.
  • 38 , , , ( . . . 2- . . 46. . 1. . 475), (. . . 22 .).
  • 39 . .  // , 1972.  2. . 50.
  • 40. Gatz B. Weltalter, goldene Zeit und sinnverwandte Vorstellungen (Spudasmata, 16). Hildesheim, 1967. S. 138 f.; Schwabl H. Weltalter // RE. Suppl. XV. 1978. Sp. 825 ff.
  • 41., , : Remains of old Latin / Ed. E. H. Warmington. V. 13. L., 19351938.
  • 42Diod. V. 4146. II. 5560. , , ,   I . . . (., : . . . . 56); - .
  • 43Gabba E. True history and false history in classical antiquity // JRS. 1981. V. 71. P. 59.
  • 44Hor. Epod. XVI. 1766; Plut. Sert. 89.  .: . . I . . . // . , , . 1984.  20. . 104107; .  // . ., 1988. . 96104. II . . . , (. ).
  • 45. Starr Ch. G. The Roman emperor and the king of Ceylon // CIPh. 1956. V. 51. P. 2730.
  • 46.: . .  // . ., 1979. . 124138; Lovejoy A. O., Boas G. Primitivism and related ideas in antiquity. Baltimore, 1935. P. 326 ff.
  • 47  . Johnston P. A. Vergils conception of Saturnus // CSCA. 1977. V. 10. P. 5770; Wifstrand Schiebe M. Das ideale Dasein bei Tibull und die Goldzeitkonzeption Vergils. Uppsala, 1981. S. 35 ff.; . .  // . . ., 1987. . 128 .
  • 48 , . . : 1) , 2) ; 3) (. . . 15). , , .
  • 49., : Hes. Theog. 570 sqq.; Op. 7089; Empedocl. fr. 61, 62; Plato. Politic. 269 B sq.; . . . ., 1985. C. 121122: Eichhoff. Über die Sagen von einem goldenen Zeitalter // Neue Jahrbücher für Philologie und Paedagogik. 1879. Bd 120. S. 589; Levin H. The myth of the golden age in the Renaissance. Bloomington-London, 1969. P. 14.
  • 50 ; .
  • 51 , , (Hes. Op. 169; Pind. Ol. II. 6184 etc.), , , , (. . . 96104).
  • 52. . . . .., 1929. . 316; Lovejoy. Boas. Op. cit. P. 7779.
  • 53Gaiz. Op. cit. S. 65.
  • 54Ibid. 93 ff., 128 ff., 204 ff.
  • 55Arist. Ath. pol. 16. 7. ( ) . Ps.-Plato. Hipparch. 229 B; Plut. Aristid. 24. 2; Cimon. 10. 6.
  • 56 ( -) , - , . ( , ) , . , . . , (. . . ., 1987. . 124127).
  • 57 .: . ໅ . 24112; .  // . ., 1985. . 124132; .  // . ., 1986. . 100114.
  • 58II Petr. 3. 10, 13. (conflagratio). . Tuveson E. L. Millenium and utopia. Berkeley-Los Angeles, 1949. P. 89.
  • 59. Benko S. Virgils fourth eclogue in Christian interpretation // ANRW. II. Bd 31. 1. 1980. S. 670 ff.
  • 60 , . , : ( ), . (Baldry H. C. The unity of mankind in Greek thought. Cambr., 1965. P. 167 ff.). , , , (, , , .).
  • 61 , , , . . . . . ., 1983. . 97100.
  • 62. ., . . 2- . . 19. . 307; . 22. . 474.
  • 63Laidler H. History of socialism, N. Y., 1968. P. 16.
  • 64 . . . ., 1988. . 141.
  • 65., : . . . XVI- XVII . ., 1980. . 249269; Veit W. Studien zur Geschichte des Topos der goldenen Zeit von der Antike bis zum 18. Jahrhundert. Köln, 1961; Mähl H.-J. Die Idee des goldenen Zeitalters im Werk des Novalis. Heidelberg, 1965; Levin. Op. cit.
  • 66 (., : . ., 1977. . 93110) , , (.: . . . . 1133; . . , . ., 1989; . . : , - . , 1989. . 16 .; . . : . ., 1989. . 946).
  • 1294427783 1300911951 1385599434 1408545106 1408547153 1408654805

    , .