| |
. .

III . . .

. 1979. 3. C. 6081.

.60   , . .

. . . . 238 284 . , , . , , , , ,  1. , , .

. ,   , viatores, praecones scribae, ministeria . , , , 2. , , , 3. , , , , . , (principales), .61 . , 4, . , 5. 6.

. militia officialis militia cohortalina. milites, I .

, militia officialis , familia Caesaris IV . , 7. . , , , familia Caesaris , III .8

. . , III . . ,   milites. III . , . 9..

, , , , III . . . .62 , . ( . ) : 1) , , ; 2) ;   .

III ., .

, , , . , , III . . , :   . , , , -  a rationibus, a libellis . .10 - , .

, , , , 11. II  III . , 12, , - -.

, , 13. , ,   II ., . , I .   ( ), , 14.   .63 II  III .15, , -, 16.

, . , , , 17. 10, 18. , , 19.

. - II  III . , , , 20.

, , , - , ius anuli aurei21. , , , 22. , .

, II  III . , .

, , , , . .64 , 23. II  III .24 , , , 25.

, 26. , , , , 27. II  III . . .28 II  III . . . . , , , 29.

, , , , . ?   officia30.

I . , , beneficiarii. (II, 7) , (beneficia) . , , , , , , , . I . , , , munus; , , .65 31, , .

. , ( ) cornicularii32,   librarii cerarii ()33. frumentarii  , , 34.   Castra peregrinorum   princeps peregrinorum35. , , , , , .

I  II . , , (milites gregarii),   principales (, )36.

(107 .), librarius legionis, : , , , , , , , 37. , principalis .

principales 113 . , , , 38. , .

, , , , 39. milites gregarii, immunes40 principales.

.66

Officium II . . . ( . . )


.67 immunis (. ) , - , , . immunes -, , , . ,   librarii (), exacti () exceptores ()41. immunes , immunes . , milites gregarii.

  principales. , . principales , 42. , , , principales. , , ( ) sesquiplicarii duplicarii.

. , 5000 480 principales 620 immunes43. , 10 11 principalis. .

principales : , , , (officia) . : tesserarius ( ), optio ( ) signifer ( ). officia principales . officia (. . 66).

officium princeps praetorii (Veget., 2, 8). , primi ordines, 44. , officium , (adiutor), optio praetorii optio legionis45. , officium , 5 (optiones coh. I)46. , , .68 , 47.

Officium , , , commentarienses ( a commentariis)48. commentarienses . ( - , ), (adiutores)49.

commentarienses speculatores, , commentarienses, , , . Speculators, , , , 50. quaestionarii, . officium , , commentarienses, speculators quaestionarii officia 51.

, principales.

officia beneficiarii consularis (), (SHA, Hadr. 2, 6).

frumentarii, . , , - .

, quaestionarii principales  . principales , commentarienses , optio praetorii, 52.

officium stratores (), equites pedites singulares, . 1000 53. .

Officium , , officium , . .69 , , principales immunes , . officium . , , officium actarius, , , 54. officia tribuni laticlavii praefecti castrorum. officium , . , 55.

Officia , . officia , II . , 11 ,     4, (Plin., Ep. X, 2728). , , , .

, II . officia , officia . officium , 56.

officia . , 57. , III .

officia , . , milites. 58. (miles epistularius) , , ,   a(diutor) centurionis. , , , , ( immunes principales). , amici.

officia , , , : .70 (procurator annonae Ostiensis)59. , officia ( ) officia , a officia , , 60.

principales, officia , principales officia . , , . 300400 61.

, : centuriones frumentarii, supernumerarii deputati. , , centurio frumentarius , centuriones supernumerarii deputati62. , , Castra peregrinorum63.

officia, principales immunes, principalis. II . . , , , . principales, . , , , . , evocatio 64.

65, II . principalis , beneficiarius praefectorum praetorio66. , 16 evocatus. , .71 140 ., principalis 146 . : exactus  tesserarius  optio  signifer  beneficiarius praeff. praetorio, 157 . evocatus. 162 . , , 192 . 67.

, , 68. ,   fisci curator69 70. , , 16- , . . evocatio71. , , , , , 72.

, principales, , , , . 73. , , . .

, principalis, , . , , 74.

III . principales officia , , , .

, . eques sive tabularius75,   tabularius beneficiarius praefecti tabularius76. , , officia, principales, , . , .72 , . . , 77.

, ostiarius canalicularius78, , 79. , , principales, scriniarius primiscrinius80, , II . scrinia 81. , scriniarius primiscrinius , , , scriniarius , primiscrinius 82.

II III . principales, , . , officia 83. principales, . , primiscrinius castrorum praetorianorum ostiarius , canalicularius, centuno frumentarius. , 84.

, vexillarius beneficiarius subpraefecti, beneficiarius praefecti, tabularius beneficiarius praefecti, commentariensis praefecti, , , cornicularius praefecti85.

principales, , , . III . , , 86.

principales, , 16 evocati, . , , exceptor officia ̸, .73 eques sive tabularius 87.

principales, , , centuno frumentarius88,   89, , , 90,   , , , , 91. , principales, officia, , , - .

, , II  III . principales, officia , , , .

II . principales , , , , . principalis . , ,   signifer, principalis , 92. 93.

III . principales . principales . frumentarius speculator, principales . , , Castra peregrinorum, , , (SHA, Hadr. 11, 4, 6). frumentarii speculatores . , - . II . , , , 94.

.74 , . principales , , III . 95. centurio frumentarius centurio deputatus96. II  III . , , 97. . III . 98, 99 100. centurio frumentarius deputatus canalicularius , , , Castra peregrinorum, 101.

II . principales, beneficiarius consularis. ,   stationes102. , . 103, . , , 104. , territorium legionis, , , , . II ., , .75 105. , , (burgarii), (numeri). , , , , , 106. , , statio107. , , stationes , 108. , , , stationes109.

III . , , , . , , , 110.

. , III . principales111. beneficiarius consularis 112. 113, . beneficiarii consularis, , , 100 . 114. beneficiarii consularis militia equestris, , , .76 400 . 115. , , , , , .

III . , officia : . . , 198201 . , 116. , 219 . . ., miles leg. XXII Antoninianae P. P. F. immunis consularis, curas agens vico Saloduro117.

III . , . officia . optio, 200 . . . -, 118. optio procuratoris ducenarii, II  III .119. , officia exacti, , 120.

, optiones procuratoris, optio praetorii  princeps praetorii (, officium). , , officium , . officium (215 . . .) , cornicularii et beneficiarii et exacti121. officium ( ) . , officium , officia (100200 ).

exacti (), officia . , , , , . , exacti adiutores familia Caesaris, . , .77 , familia Caesaris122.

III . . De officio proconsulis , stratores ( ) , 123. , , ,   ministeria militaria124. , III ., . , , , - 125.

III . principales officium 126.

III . . , , 127. (librarii, exacti exceptores), immunes, principales 128. officia .

, , III . , principales, officia , . , , , .

.78 principales, officia, II .129 , . , , officia, III . 130. . , , , officium a commentariis, princeps praetorii131.

, principalis, 132. , III . . principales officia, , , , . , , , , , centurio frumentarius, deputatus, supernumerarius princeps praetorii.

principales officia , , , . , principales immunes , principales 133.

II  III . , , , 134, , .

, , officia III ., , , , officia, .

.79 . principales, , ( stationes) , principales officia 135.

, familia Caesaris, . II  III . officiales, familia Caesaris, 136. militia137. militia, militia armata138.

, , , familia Caesaris, , officia139. .

, , III . , familia Caesaris, , ( ) 140.

.80 III . , - 141. , , 142.

, , . II  III . 143. . . , , - , ,   ; , , 144.

, III . III . - , II ., , . , , III ., , familia Caesaris145.

, familia Caesaris militia officialis. , , - , . . , , , . milites cohortalini palatini IV . 303 ., . , (τοὺς... τιμῆς ἐπειλημμένους) (ἀτίμους sc. γενέσθαι), (οἱ ἐν οἰκετίαις = qui in familiis erunt) (ἐλευθερίας στερεῖσθαι)146. .81 , 147. , (De mart. Pal. XI, 24) τῆς ἡγεμονικῆς οὶκετίας (= familiae praesidialis). , - -, 148. , - familia Caesaris .

, , familia Caesaris , , , militia officialis , , , .

, familia Caesaris III . , , , dominus  servus 149, , .


On the Evolution of State Clerical Personnel in the Roman Empire (3rd century A. D.)

A. L. Smyshlyayev


The author examines the origins of the clerical personnel in the state apparatus of the Late Roman Empire in an attempt to trace the connection between the Militia officialis and the Familia Caesaris and army clerks who comprised the service personnel under the Principate. Most historians are of the opinion that the clerical staff under the Dominate was recruited mainly from army clerical personnel, while the imperial slaves and freedmen were banished from the state service in the 3rd century. Only A. H. M. Jones has suggested that the imperial slaves and freedmen along with the army clerks were included in the clerical staffs under the Dominate and were in the 4th century integrated into a single service class. Working from the evidence of epigraphical and narrative sources and the results of recent research the author of the present article argues that the numbers of slaves and freedmen serving in the state apparatus not only were not reduced to nought in the 3rd century but on the contrary, were increasing. At the same time the similarity in type of service performed by this group and that performed by the army clerical staffs was growing and is reflected in terminology. There apparently arose at this time conditions favouring the incorporation of both groups in one state service. This is in fact what happened towards the middle of the 3rd century, as one consequence of the political and military upheavals of that time. The original recruitment of a considerable part of the clerical personnel from the emperors own slaves and freedmen was still fresh in memory at the beginning of the 4th century, as witness the frequent identification in the sources of the Militia officialis staff with the imperial household. Thus in the authors opinion Joness hypothesis is valid historically if not chronologically. The fact that in the 3rd century imperial slaves and freedmen were still in the service but had lost their identity as a group clearly points up the difference between the period of the Principate, when the dominus-servus type of relationship permeated all spheres of life, and the period of the Dominate, when it had no such importance.


  • 1A. H. M. Jones, The Later Roman Empire (284602), Oxf., 1964, . 23.
  • 2E. Stein, Die kaiserlichen Beamten und Truppenkörper im römischen Deutschland unter dem Prinzipat, Wien, 1932, . 86; A. H. M. Jones, Studies in Roman Government and Law, N. Y., 1968, . 156158.
  • 3 , ,   ,   13 amicus (AE, 1967, 444). , liberti et familia (CIL, VII, 164 = RIB, I, 445).
  • 4 . familia Caesaris, . . P. R. C. Weaver, Familia Caesaris. A Social Study of the Emperors Freedman and Slaves, Cambr., 1972, . 299 .
  • 5 paedagogi , (S. L. Möhler, Slave Education in the Roman Empire, TAPA, LXXI, 1940, . 262 .; G. Boulvert, Domestique et fonctionnaire sous le Haut Empire Romain, P., 1974, . 161).
  • 6. . , . . , , ., 1971, . 146.
  • 7T. Mommsen, Die Freigelassenen im römischen öffentlichen Dienst, Hermes, 34, 1899, . 152154; O. Hirschfeld, Die kaiserlichen Verwaltungsbeamten bis auf Diocletian, B., 1905, . 464, 472, 478479, 482; H. G. Pflaum, Essai sur les procurateurs équestres sous les Haut-Empire Romain, P., 1950, . 107, 318319; G. Boulvert, Esclaves et affranchis impériaux sous le Haut-Empire Romain (Rôle politique et administratif), Napoli, 1970, . 319, 453455; H. Chantraine, Freigelassene und Sklaven im Dienst der römischen Kaiser, Wiesbaden, 1967, . 73, 396397.
  • 8P. R. C. Weaver, Social Mobility in the Early Roman Empire, Studies in Ancient Society, London and Boston, 1974, . 127.
  • 9Jones, Studies in Roman Government and Law, . 164166; , The Later Roman Empire, . 563564. . , , , (Chantraine, . ., . 7172; Boulvert, Esclaves et affranchis..., . 455; . Weaver, Familia Caesaris, . 26).
  • 10CIL, VI, 455, 1585 b, 8440, 8606; XIV, 2104, 5309; AE, 1933, 273; 1961, 280; Dio Cass., LXXVII, 14, 2.  ., , Weaver, Familia Caesaris, . 264 .
  • 11 , - (Dio Cass., LII, 25).
  • 12 , .
  • 13Boulvert, Esclaves et affranchis, . 392.
  • 14Weaver, Familia Caesaris, . 276 .
  • 15CIL, III, 348; VI, 790; X, 6571; XI, 8; XIII, 1800; AE, 1910, 169; 1930, 96, 97, 152; 1933, 28, 273; IGR, IV, 749.
  • 16 . III . , , adiutor procuratoris, adiutor procuratorum (CIL, VI, 738; VIII, 62; AE, 1930, 152; IGR, IV, 1651; C. Weaver, Familia Caesaris, . 235).
  • 17Weaver, Familia Caesaris, . 266.
  • 18 a studiis (AE, 1932, 34; CP,  231; CIL, VIII, 18909; CP,  272; CIL, XIV, 5340; CP,  352), ratio privata (CIL, X, 6657; AE, 1945, 80; CP,  225), a cognitionibus (AE, 1935, 20; CIL, VI, 37099);   III . (AE, 1933, 273; Dio Cass., LXXVII, 14, 2).
  • 19 III . ex officio consilium principis (CJ, IX, 51, 1; P. Roussel, F. de Visscher, Les inscriptions du temple de Dmeir, Syria, 23, 19421943, . 178).
  • 20 . , 125 33 -, 60   47   59 (Weaver, Freedmen Procurators in the Imperial Administration, Historia, 14, 1965, . 461).
  • 21 80 (CIL, VI, 1598; CP,  163), 40 6   2 (AE, 1961, 280; CP,  180 bis; PIR1, S 137) 4 (PIR1, T 117; PIR2, A 1641, E 67; AE, 1935, 20). 1 (PIR1, M 158).
  • 22 III . a cognitionibus  , (AE, 1935, 20; Weaver, Familia Caesaris, . 265, . 4).
  • 23Weaver, Familia Caesaris, . 246, 248, 252.
  • 24CIL, II, 6085; III, 251, 3964, 4800, 7127, 7955; V, 7253, 7882; VI, 8577; X, 6092, 7584; AE, 1903, 245; Dessau, 1496; IGR, III, 1103.
  • 25Weaver, Familia Caesaris, . 253, 258.
  • 26. , ( ), ., 1899, . 82 .; S. J. De Laet, Portorium, Brugge, 1949, . 404 .; Boulvert, Esclaves et affranchis, . 308 .
  • 27 (. ., . 449) III . 20 . ., .
  • 28. . , IIII ., ., 1973, . 166167; . . , . . . ., IIII ., ., 1977, . 68; . . , . . . ., IIII ., ., 1977, . 107. ,  . .
  • 29, , , . 157158.
  • 30 , M. Clauss, Untersuchungen zu den principales des römischen Heers von Augustus bis Diocletian, Bochum, 1973.
  • 31E. Sander, Zur Rangordnung des römischen Heers: Die gradus ex caliga, Historia, 3, 1954, Ht. 1, . 89. (, ), , , (CIL, XII, 2602).
  • 32Suet., Domit. 17, 2; CIL, XII, 2602; AE, 1939, 60.
  • 33 , (G. R. Watson, The Roman Soldier, N. Y., 1969, . 79).
  • 34 speculatores  , . speculator (CIL, XI, 395).
  • 35W. Y. Sinnigen, The Roman Secret Service, The Classical Journal, 57, 1961,  13, . 66.
  • 36 , 90 . . . (G. R. Watson, Immunis Librarius, . Britain and Rome, Kendal, 1966, . 51).
  • 37. Watson, The Roman Soldier, . 78.
  • 38CIL, VI, 221: Principales infra scripti aediculam et Genium Centuriae dono dederunt: beneficiarius subpraefecti; vexillario; optio; tesserarius; secutor tribuni; librarius subpraefecti; librarius cohortis.
  • 39Sander, Zur Rangordnung des römischen Heers, . 93; Watson, Immunis Librarius, . 51.
  • 40 immunis 134 . . . (CIL, III, 6178, 1, 9; 6179, 1, 11).
  • 41Dig. L, 6, 7 (6); Watson, Immunis Librarius, . 55.
  • 42D. G. Breeze, Pay Grades and Ranks below the Centurionate, JRS, 61, 1971, . 133134.
  • 43D. G. Breeze, The Career Structure below the Centurionate, Aufstieg und Niedergang der Römischen Welt, Abt. 2, Bd. 1, B., 1974, . 435436.
  • 44CIL, III, 2917; 5293; VIII, 2586; XIII, 8187; Dessau, 8880; IGR, III, 1230; A. Domaszewski, Die Rangordnung des römischen Heers, Bonn, 1908, . 98.
  • 45E. Stein, Die kaiserlichen Beamten und Truppenkörper im Römischen Deutschland unter dem Prinzipat, Wien, 1932, . 76.
  • 46CIL, VIII, 18072; AE, 1951, 194; R. Davies, The Daily Life of the Roman Soldier under the Principate, Aufstieg und Niedergang, Abt. 2, Bd. 1, . 312.
  • 47 , optio legionis. (, ),   ( ) (RIB, I, 492).
  • 48Stein, . ., . 7778.
  • 49CIL, III, 894, 1471, 2052, 3543; VIII, 1875; AE, 1902, 138; 1904, 10; 1933, 61.
  • 50Dig. XLVIII, 20, 6; P. K. B. Reynolds, The Troops Quartered in the Castra Peregrinorum, JRS, 13, 1923, . 169, 178; M. Durry, Les Cohortes Prétoriennes, P., 1938, . 108.
  • 51Domaszewski, . ., . 3132.
  • 52Breeze, Pay Grades and Ranks, . 133 .
  • 53Domaszewski, . ., . 3536; Stein, . ., . 7374.
  • 54CIL, II, 2663; VIII, 2554; XIV, 2255; AE, 1895, 204; 1898, 108.
  • 55CIL, III, 196, 644, 2887, 3565, 4558, 14507; VIII, 2551, 2564, 2586, 2774; XIII, 8282; AE, 1895, 204; 1899, 60; 19171918, 57; 1930, 33; Domaszewski, . ., . 48.
  • 56Cornicularii procuratorum  CIL, XIII, 1810; AE, 1937, 87. Beneficiarii proc.  CIL, II, 25522556; III, 1289, 1295, 6179, 6180; VIII, 18042 a, b, 20366; XIII, 1856, 1868, 1880, 1881, 1905, 3983.
  • 57Tac, Hist. IV, 48; AE, 1961, 224.
  • 58AE, 1967, 444: milites Menander [], Numenius [] T. H. S., Pothinus a(diutor) centurionis X. R. C., Iunius mi(les) ep(istularius).
  • 59Cornicularius praef. annonae  CIL, XI, 20; centurio annonae  CIL, XIV, 125; Dig. XIII, 7, 43,  1. officium annonae Ostiensis  cornicularius (CIL, XIV, 160), beneficiarii (CIL, XIV, 409).
  • 60 subcornicularius tribuni (CIL, VI, 3596), , , officia .
  • 61CIL, VI, 33243366; Sinnigen, . ., . 68. Reynolds, . ., . 177 .
  • 62CIL, V, 8278; VI, 423; VIII, 2825, 16553, 18065; XI, 1836; XIII, 6801; IGR, III, 28; Domaszewski, . ., . 9798; Stein, . ., . 68; Reynolds, . ., . 177178.
  • 63CIL, VI, 428; 1110; XI, 5215; Domaszewski, . ., . 267 ( ).
  • 64Domaszewski, . ., . 16.
  • 65 : singulari et benef(iciario) trib(uni), optioni, beneficiario) pr(aefecti) pr(aetorio), evoc(ato) Aug(usti), (centurioni) (AE, 1933, 87).
  • 66 , principales.
  • 67CIL, XIII, 6728. CIL, 2794; IX, 5839; XI, 710.
  • 68Breeze, The Career Structure, . 438.
  • 69 .
  • 70CIL, III, 2887, 7334; X, 1763; XI, 5646.
  • 71CIL, III, 3846; VI, 1645; X, 1763; XI, 3108, 6055. cornicularius praefecti annonae (CIL, XI, 20), cornicularius praef. urbi (CIL, VI, 32526, 2, 1), cornic. praef. vigilum (CIL, XI, 5693).
  • 72 , , , ex corniculario praefecti praetorio (CIL, II, 2664; IX, 5358).
  • 73 (CIL, XII, 2602), I , , 73 ., 77 ., 83 ., 88 ., 90 .  .
  • 74CIL, XI, 395; CP,  32; CIL, XIV, 3626, CP,  189; CIL, XI, 6055, IX, 5898; CP,  197; CIL, VI, 1645; CP,  334; CIL, VI, 31871.
  • 75CIL, VI, 2977.
  • 76AE, 1902, 198; CIL, VI, 1057, 3, 5.
  • 77 Jones, Studies in Roman Government and Law, . 163 ., 207.
  • 78Ostiarius  Dessau, 9074; AE, 1949, 108; canalicularius  CIL, VI, 231, 1110; Dessau, 9074.
  • 79 , canalicularii centurio frumentarius (Dessau, 9074), Castra peregrinorum (CIL, VI, 231, 1110), , .
  • 80AE, 1933, 248; 1947, 35; 1949, 108; Dessau, 9074.
  • 81 II . adiutor commentariorum at scrinia praefectorum (urbis) (Dessau, 9076).
  • 82 (. . 77).
  • 83 (CIL, IX, 1609; Breeze, The Career Structure, . 438. principales , . ).
  • 84Dessau, 9074; : CIL, VI, 2977; AE, 1949, 108.
  • 85AE, 1902, 198.
  • 86  CIL, XIII, 6823;   AE, 1949, 108; Dessau, 9074;   CIL, VI, 2977.
  • 87CIL, VI, 2977.
  • 88Dessau, 9074.
  • 89AE, 1949, 108.
  • 90 , , , : factus centurio in Syria. (CIL, VI, 2977).
  • 91 : promotus centurio ex beneficiario praefectorum (CIL, XIII, 6823).
  • 92CIL, III, 12411; V, 7004; VI, 215; VIII, 217, 2554; AE, 1937, 101.
  • 93 (cornicularius consularis) (CIL, XIII, 6542, 6543, 6598).
  • 94Dio Cass., LXXVIII, 14, 15; 39, 3; SHA, Commodus, 4, 5; Did. Iul. 5, 6; Sinnigen, . ., . 6769; Reynolds, The Troops Quartered, . 180.
  • 95 III . optio ( principales) (Domaszewski, . ., . 267  ).
  • 96Dio Cass., LXXVIII, 14; CIL, III, 2063, 14479; VI, 36853; Dessau, 484; AE, 1905, 68; Domaszewski, . ., . 32, 35, 267 ( ).
  • 97CIL, VI, 1636; X, 6657; XI, 1836; Dessau, 9074; IGR, III, 28.
  • 98Dio Cass., LXXVIII, 14, 14; CP,  247; Dio Cass., LXXVIII, 15, 1; CP,  288, 289; CIL, XI, 1836, CP,  347.
  • 99CIL, X, 6657; AE, 1945, 80; CP,  225.
  • 100CIL, VI, 36853; V, 7870; CP,  304; CIL, II, 484; CP,  330; CIL, VI, 1636; CP,  263.
  • 101 speculator (Dio Cass., LXXVIII, 14, 14; CP,  247), (CIL, VI, 36853; V, 7870; CP,  304).
  • 102. . , -, , . 40, 1911, . 10.
  • 103A. Domaszewski, Die Religion des römischen Heers, Trier, 1895, . 98100.
  • 104 . beneficiarius consularis, ,     statio (CIL, III, 12895). statio , exceptores (CIL, VIII, 17634). beneficiarius consularis (189 .), (calamus) (. . , , , 1908, . 278280, . IX).
  • 105CIL, III, 3385; Dessau, 396, 5849, 8909, 8913, 9180; A. Moscy, Das territorium legionis und die canabae in Pannonia, Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungariae, 1953, . 3, . 3. II III .: (Apol. 2).
  • 106M. Rostovtzeff, Synteleia Tironon, JRS, 8, 1918, . 30, 33.
  • 107H. Lieb, Expleta Statione, . Britain and Rome, Kendal, 1966, . 143.
  • 108 181 . . . , genio beneficiorum cos. Germaniae Superioris et loci et concordiae duarum stationum (CIL, XIII, 6127). . stationes (Stein, . ., . 80, . 69). beneficiarius consularis, statio vilicus (CIL, XIII, 11816).
  • 109 , . , statio (CIL, VIII, 17619; 17626, 17634, 17635), , . exceptores , contrascriptores .
  • 110R. MacMullen, Soldier and Civilian in the Later Roman Empire, Cambr., 1963, . 5960; R. W. Davies, Police Work in Roman Times, History Today, v. 18, 1968, . 706; , The Daily Life of the Roman Soldier, . 326 .
  • 111 III . beneficiarius consularis (CIL, III, 1783).
  • 112CIL, VIII, 17626; AE, 1932, 57.
  • 113Breeze, The Career Structure, . 444, . 51.
  • 114CIL, III, 827, 1485, 7742, 12659, 18595; IGBR, Serdica, 1970, p. 1, 24 bis.
  • 115CIL, III, 12659; Dessau, 8847; IGR, III, 1202.
  • 116AE, 1946, 38; . . , , ., 1957, . 350.
  • 117CIL, XIII, 5170. Immunis  librarius (Watson, Immunis Librarius, . 55).
  • 118W. H. C. Frend, A Third-Century Inscription Relating to Angareia in Phrygia, JRS, 46, 1956, . 53.
  • 119CIL, XII, 1749.
  • 120CIL, XIII, 1847, 1881.
  • 121. H. G. Pflaum, Les carrières procuratoriennes équestres sous les Haut-Empire Romaine, P., 1960, . 766.
  • 122-, officia familia Caesaris , () (Paul., Sent. V, 1, 3, . . . ).
  • 123Nemo proconsulum stratores suos habere potest, sed vice eorum milites ministerio in provinciis funguntur (Dig. I, 16, 4, 1).
  • 124Dig. I, 16, 7, 1. , ministeria militaria (R. Mac Mullen, Roman Imperial Building in the Provinces, Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, 64, 1959, . 209211, 215).
  • 125. , , , ( ) principales (Mac Mullen, Soldier and Civilian, . 67).
  • 126 , 215 . . ., principales, (J. D. Thomas, R. W. Davies, A New Military Strength. Report on Papyrus, JRS, 67, 1977, . 56).
  • 127CIL, VIII, 702; XIII, 1832, 6575, 6803; Dessau, 8880.
  • 128Vegetius, Epitome rei militaris, II, 7; Breeze, Pay grades, . 134.
  • 129 officia . officia , , , , officia, 43 , , 11 , 8 II ., 15 , , 5  (Watson, The Roman Soldier, . 183 .). , officia numeri, (F. Vittinghof, Zur angeblichen Barbarisierung des römischen Heers durch die Verbände der Numeri, Historia, 1, 1950, . 401402; E. Albertini, LEmpire Romain, P., 1929, . 249).
  • 130 (CIL, III, 11135; Breeze, The Career Structure, . 450).
  • 131Dessau, 8880; : CIL, VIII, 702; AE, 1951, 194; 1973, 538.
  • 132Breeze, The Career Structure, . 450 .
  • 133  . . . , principales, (), 1976,  6, . 8890.
  • 134Rostovtzeff, Social and Economical History, . 128 .; , , . 238.
  • 135 II .  , , (CIL, X, 1679).
  • 136CIL, XI, 4182; XIII, 6592; AE, 1899, 60; 1953, 90; 1973, 556; officialis praesidis  Dig. XII, 1, 34 (); officialis praefecti  Dig. XXXVI, 4, 5, 27 ().
  • 137. Tert., De corona, 12: est et alia militia regiarum familiarum. militia . (Hirschfeld, . ., . 313, . 3).
  • 138 militia armata  Dig. XXXXII, 1, 6, pr. (): Miles, qui sub armata militia stipendia meruit. .  (. ., . 153) , , . , (Hirschfeld, . ., . 464, . 5).
  • 139 , . , . , , , , , (Aur. Vict., Epit. XVI, 5). , familia castrensis (Weaver, Familia Caesaris, . 228).
  • 140 . , ( 2/3) . ( senatus consultum Claudianum) ( ius gentium). , , , ,   (Weaver, Familia Caesaris, . 162 ., 177 .). ius gentium - .
  • 141 , , , , servi eiusmodi officia administrare debeant (CJ, XI, 37, 1).
  • 142 fiscus libertatis et peculiorum.
  • 143, . ., , . 206.
  • 144 , . 207.
  • 145 . , III . 0,5% , (Jones, The Later Roman Empire, . 27).
  • 146Euseb., H. E. VIII, 2, 4; De mart. Pal. pr. 1.
  • 147N. H. Baynes, The Great Persecution, CAH, XII, . 606; U. Ensslin, Valerius (Diocletianus), RE, Bd. VII A, . 2485; J. Moreau, Commentaire de Lactance, De la mort des persécuteurs, P., 1954, . 279.
  • 148Lact., De mort. pers. X, 4; XIV, 35; XXII, 3.
  • 149. , . ., IIII ., . 85.
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