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Surikov I. E.
The Sleep and the Death, the Body and the Soul, Artemidorus and Freud (Notes on Some Specific Features of Ancient Greek Mentality)


In the article, several mutually connected features of Ancient Greek mentality are dealt with on the material of various pieces of literary tradition. The Sleep (Hypnos) and the Death (Thanatos) are called brothers by Hesiod. Sleep is connected with dreams, and typical Greek dreams, to judge for instance from Artemidorus Oneirocritica, are in many cases rather unlike our modern dreams. If the latter have, according to Freud, a censorial function, in Greek dreams such a function was not highly developed. The Greeks often dreamt about genitals, coitus and so on. In this relation the situation is, I dare say, contrary to ours: not neutral symbolic was used to substitute sexual matters, but  quite opposite!  sexual symbolic could be used to substitute non-sexual matters.

And in general one can speak of more frankness of the Greeks in the questions of intimacy as compared with our civilizations views. It is possible to remember also a kind of cult of male nudity in Greece. As Russian poet and thinker Maximilian Voloshin said, the real face of a Greek was his body. It is visible, inter alia, in iconographical representations.

The priority of the theme of body (soma) in Greek connotations of human existence is a very typical feature. It is manifest also in Greek perception of the death and the future life.


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