|
: . . 15. , 2011. . 7999.

.79   . , , , , -. , - . , , , , ୸ . , , , .

. , , ,   , , , . , . . , , , 1. .

, . : , , , , . , , ; (virtus) . - (gloriae maxumum certamen inter ipsos erat); , , ; , (eas divitias, eam bonam famam magnamque nobilitatem putabant). , , ,   (7. 47)2. , (boni mores) , (concordia maxima),   (minuma avaritia). (ius bonumque) , . , , (iurgia, .80 discordias, simultates)  3; (de virtute certabant). [] , (audacia) (aequitas) . . (. 9). (4. 56). , , , (neque gloriae neque dominationis certamen inter civis erat)4: (bonis artibus). , , , ,  (lascivia atque superbia) (Iug. 41. 23). , (maiores) (nefaria facinora) , , (Cat. 51. 56). , , , : (avaritia) (fides), (probitas) ; , , . (ambitio) , ୸ ,   , , (bonum habere) , (10. 35).

, : (maiores vostri),  ,  . ? , ,   ,   , .81 ? (Iug. 31. 17). ,  , ,  , , - (torpedo), , , (ignavia) (Hist. III. 48. 15 26). maiores , .   .

, , . .   : , , , (genus hominum agreste, sine legibus, sine imperio, liberum atque solutum). (civitas) (Cat. 6. 12), . . , , , , reges (2. 1)  , . , (6. 3: res eorum moribus aucta). . , , : , , (vis corporis) (virtus animi) (1. 5). , , , , , (ingenium) (2. 2). , , 渭 (2. 3); , - .

, , , 븭 ? , , . : , , , (etiam tum vita hominum sine cupiditate agitabatur; sua cuique satis placebant) (2. 1). . , , , vita sine cupiditate  aurea aetas  5. . . , , (XIII. 5758), (Epist. 90. 3), ୸   , , , .82 , , 6. . : , , . , sine cupiditate , . , , res militaris , , . , , , (moderatio), (Iust. I. 1. 1). , (Vorzeit), , 7.

aurea aetas , , , 8. . . : , : , , . ,   - . , , , , : , . 9. , : , , 10, , . , : .83 (aliena instituta), (proba). [] (idoneum), ; , (imitari quam invidere bonis malebant) (Cat. 51. 3738). , ୸ : , , , , , (Ann. XIV. 43. 1. . . . ). , , , , , , , . : , , [ ] , (Cat. 51. 39). , , 11, , maiores, , .

(95. 3), , , , - (prope iam extincta maiorum ignavia). , , . , , . , , (95. 4: postea quae fecerit, incertum habeo pudeat an pigeat magis disserere).

, , , . . (. ), . , ? , ,  ,  . 12. . . : (, , , ) ,   , 13. . , .84  ୸: [] , , , (Hist. I. 50. 4. . . . . . . -). : . : , , (Tit. 7. 1. . . . ). , . , , ୸ , , , , , , , , , . , , 14. , . ,   . , , , . , , , , . , , , (ambitione corrupta), . , , (requievit) , , 15, (Cat. 34; . : Iug. 4. 38).   , , 16,   . , .85 , , .

. ? ? , , : , (memoriam nostri quam maxume longam efficere) (1. 3). - , , - , (praeclari facinoris aut artis bonae famam quaerit) (2. 9). , (8. 4). , (gloria) ୸ , (scriptor), , (actor) (3. 2), , , ୸ , , (Iug. 4. 38).

, , (memoria), (fama)   (gloria).   scriptor et actor, . , , , gloria, , , . 17  , , 18, ,   , : , (pulchrum est bene facere rei publicae, etiam bene dicere haut absurdum est) (Cat. 3. 1)19.

, , , ? : , , , , (maiorum imagines), (ad virtutem adcendi). , ; , .86 (memoria rerum gestarum) , (neque prius, quam virtus eorum famam atque gloriam adaequaverit) (4. 56). , : , , 20. , , , memoria rerum gestarum, , . Ÿ (. Pol. VI. 64. 2), (tituli), (laudatio). , homines novi, (Iug. 4. 7). memoria rerum gestarum , , commodum historiae, . , , (exempla)   (nomen inertiae) (4. 3). , , 21, , .

: , , exempla . ,  . 22. . , Iug. 6. 1 23, , , exempla. , (permanere vellet in suis artibus) , (8. 2). , (8. 1: divitiae bono honestoque potiores erant), . . maiores. , exempla , 24. .87 , 25 , , maiores (85. 1417; 3638), , virtus (4. 7)  , , (63. 6: postea ambitione praeceps datus est)26. , virtus 27.

maiores , 28; exemplum, , , , (Iug. 79). , - , , . , , , . (dominatio) (lubido maxuma rei publicae capiundae) (Cat. 5. 6). (memores Sullanae victoriae), , ,   , ; , , , (ex victoria talia sperabat) (37. 6). , , , , , maiores 29.

.88 (89. 6), , (maxuma cupido) , (magna gloria ceperat)30. , , , certamen gloriae , - , , , maiores, .

. , , , , (Cat. 8. 4),   (4. 4: sceleris atque periculi novitate),   , , (quia magnum et atrox variaque victoria fuit), , (primum superbiae nobilitatis obviam itum est) (Iug. 5. 1). ,  (95. 2: parum mihi libero ore locutus videtur)  , 31, . . (. 95. 4)32. virtus , 33. , (Hist. I. 88), - (per ignobilitatem), - (per invidiam scriptorum). , (Iug. 91. 7)34. , : .89 , .   , . , virtus35. ,   (Iug. 41. 2), (40. 5), , , .

. , , (Cat. 4. 2: carptim). , : , , 6562 . (   . .), ,   (118?104 .), - , . , 7867 . 80- .

. . . , , . (16. 2; 31. 78, 12; 42. 14), (41. 23); , , ; 츭 80- I . . . (63. 6; 95. 4). , ,   , (114. 4)36.

,   , , , , , (. ). , -, . , , , . , , (primum) (5. 1). , , .90 , (31. 17; Hist. I. 11; III. 48. 15 26). , , , (Iug. 31. 78). , , , , (63. 6: inter se per manus tradebat). - , : , , ,   73. 7 : (post multas tempestates)37.   .

,   , (, ,   . ),   80- . 38.

, . . .   , , , , . .   , (10. 1). . , . , / (5. 6; 21. 4; 37. 6), - (28. 4; 37. 9). .

? , 츭 .   , ,   4945 .39 . .91 . 5354 , 63 . , 40. , , (51. 36)  41, ( , ),   , 42. , , 20 . ,   . , , , 43.

, . 78 . (I. 1) ୸, -, , 67 . , ,   , 44, 45. , ,   51 ., I. 11. 츭 .

(I. 1112). I. 17 46, . I. 1953 50 , 80- , . (. 516) (. 511). , , . .   , 43 . (  ), 츭 , 47. .92 , 4030-   , 48.

, , , , . , , , .

. . . , , (Cat. 19. 3), 21. 3 , - (   ) . 24. 2 , 27. 1. 21 senatus consultum ultimum , 7 , , 8- . , , . , , , 49.

, - ( ). . : ;   ; , . , , , .

, , , - 50.

, , , . .93 , 37. 3 109 ., 43. 1 , 109 ., , . . , 51.

, (statimque) (9. 3), , (11. 6) 118 .52, 15 , . . 12 !53 ( , , (Iug. 9. 4: post paucos annos)54, 15 55: , , .)

, 107 ., , 800 ,  . , - - (92. 35), , . , , , 56, 57  , , (63. 1), .   , 114- . 113- , 114- - , , , 6 105 1 104 ., 105 ., 58. , 113- 114- , : (25. 5); .94 (66. 2), (69. 3); (76. 5); , (91. 1 3); (101. 1); (102. 2); (103. 7); (105. 3). .   .

, , , , , . , , , , , , (ad Pomp. 772 Rob. . . . ). , . . , , , 59. , . , , . , , .   (VI. 16) , ,  , , (VI. 5459), , , (III. 104). , , , ୸ 60 . , [ ] , ,  . , , 61. .95 , , , . , 62, . , () (Cat. 513). (. 25)63. (. 3639)   , . (. 5354) , . (. 1719) . (. 4142) , -. , (. 7879). (. 9596) , 64.

, , : ,   , (Cat. 55. 34), , (Iug. 94. 2), (101. 11). , , / .

Festina lente  , . , , , . .

, , (Cat. 18. 8). , , (festinare) (27. 2); .96 , , (festinare, trepidare) (31. 2); , (42. 1: festinando, agitando omnia plus timoris quam periculi effecerant); , , 65, (maxumum bonum in celeritate putabat) (43. 34).

. , , . (maxume festinans) , (Iug. 21. 3)  , , (26. 3).   (36. 3: tanta properantia),   , , (39. 2: omnibus modis festinare), , (socordia), (36. 3).   (39. 2), . (festinabat, Bocchi pacem imminuere), (81. 1).

, . , , : , , (Iug. 54. 5), , ; , , (88. 4). , , ,   ୸ (. 106107), , .

. , , (6. 5: festinare, parare). (: 55. 3; 68. 1; 73. 1; .97 : 52. 5; : 69. 2; : 76. 4). , , . (festina) (102. 9).

, (64. 4: ne festinaret). , .

, festinare, , , 66. , , . 67, . , .

. , -, , : . (Cat. 27. 3); (28. 1), (32. 1); (43. 1). : (Iug. 12. 4); (21. 2), (38. 4). (53. 3). , (113. 3). , , ,   . , , , , 68. , ,   . , (113. 13).

.98 , , , (91. 4: ubi dies coepit). , , , , , (ubi lux adventabat) (99. 1)69.

. , , . , , , . , , , , , .   譸, , , . festina lente ,   .

Korolenkov A. V. Time, Past and Present in Sallust

The paper deals with Sallusts perception of historical time. Sallust recognizes that ancestors times were better than current period, but, nevertheless, doesnt deny progressive trends in development from past to present and notes many eventual changes to the best in course of history. Evolution of human characters, according to Sallust, does not go only to the worst too (contrary to opinion of some specialists on Sallusts concepts). The author agrees with K. Heldmann who thinks that Golden Age for Sallust belongs not to mythical but to historical times, and the very aurea aetas as Yu. G. Chernyshov notes, is absent in Sallusts texts. Sallust recognizes importance of historical memory, and (as J. Grethlain has shown), thinks that loss of this memory conducts to bad consequences for Rome. But, however, Sallust himself prefers not to tell about glories of the past but to convict defects of the present. Developing D. S. Levens views, the author shows that Sallusts narration refers both to the past, and to the future.

.99 Sallust thinks it necessary to keep principle festina lente in civil affairs but to be quick at war. By the way, he imperceptibly, but systematically (sometimes going even on some distortion of reality) lets know that night is time of harm whereas good deeds are made by the light of day.


  • 1 . .  // . ., 1985. . 2. . 143, 141.
  • 2   . . , .
  • 3 (Iug. 31. 6 17; Hist. I. 11; III. 48. 15).
  • 4 , - (gloriae maxumum certamen) Cat. 7. 6 (. , , : Schur W. Sallust als Historiker. Stuttgart, 1934. S. 8586). , (Koestermann E. Kommentar // Sallustius Crispus. Bellum Iugurthinum. Heidelberg, 1971. S. 168, tanta cupido gloriae incesserat Cat. 7. 3). Ÿ , (Iug. 89. 6; . ). dominatio, regnum, tyrannis, - factio (.: Hellegouarch J. Le vocabulaire latin des relations et des partis politiques sous la Republique. P., 1963. P. 562563  . . Sall. Iug. 41. 2).
  • 5Drexler H. Sallustiana // SO. 1970. Vol. 45. S. 54.
  • 6 . . . . . 136 . 20.
  • 7Heldmann K. Sallust über die römische Weltherrschaft. Eine Geschichtsmodell in Catilina und seine Tradition in der hellenistischen Historiographie. Stuttgart, 1993. S. 3032.
  • 8., .: . . (IIII . . .). ., 1977. . 170, 172.
  • 9 . . - . , 1994. . I. . 108.
  • 10 . . . . . 170.
  • 11 , , , XII , , (.: McGushin P. C. Sallustius Crispus, Bellum Catilinae. A Commentary. Leiden, 1977. P. 254255 ).
  • 12Schmal S. Sallust. Hildesheim; Zürich; N. Y., 2001. S. 73.
  • 13Levene D. S. Sallusts Jugurtha: An Historical Fragment // JRS. 1992. Vol. 82. P. 5965.
  • 14 . .  // . 2008.  4. . 107.
  • 15 , (bonum otium),   (servilibus officiis) (Cat. 4. 1), . , , , , , , , , (.: . .  // . 2010. . 14. . 155156).
  • 16 . . :  // . ., 2001. . 6. . 246.
  • 17 . , (Vretska K. Studien zu Sallusts Bellum Jugurthinum. Wien, 1955. S. 12). ., : Sall. Cat. 7. 6.
  • 18.: McGushin P. Op. cit. P. 33.
  • 19.  30 (Vretska K. Op. cit. S. 1213).
  • 20Grethlein J. Nam quid ea memoriam: the Dialectical Relation of res gestae and memoria rerum gestarum in Sallusts Bellum Jugurthinum // CQ. 2006. Vol. 56. 1. P. 136.
  • 21Iug. 1. 4 (inertia), 2. 4 (ignavia) (Koestermann E. Op. cit. S. 37).
  • 22Grethlein J. Op. cit. P. 136140.
  • 23Levene D. S. Op. cit. P. 59.
  • 24 . , , : , memoria , (embodies) - exempla (Grethlein J. Op. cit. P. 144145). , maiores , , . . . , , . , .
  • 25Carney T. F. Once again Marius Speech after Election in 108 B. C. // SO. 1959. Vol. 35. P. 6567.
  • 26Grethlein J. Op. cit. P. 140142.
  • 27Vretska K. Op. cit. S. 104; Syme R. Sallust. Berkeley; Los Angeles, 1964. P. 163.
  • 28, , : XVI. 12. 41; XXIV. 2. 16; 4. 27; 6. 7 ( . . : . , 1986. . 269).
  • 29 . , exemplum , , , (Perl G. Sallust und die Krise der römischen Republik // Philologus. 1969. Bd. 113. S. 202).
  • 30. , , ( .  . ., 1994. . 2. . 114), , , (Koestermann E. Op. cit. S. 322), (. Sall. Iug. 97. 1).
  • 31Syme R. Op. cit. P. 177; Koestermann E. Op. cit. S. 340.
  • 32, virtutes (Koestermann E. Op. cit. S. 340),   virtus, , , , , , (Iug. 95. 3)  (. . . . 106107).
  • 33 . .  // . 2004.  3. . 184185.
  • 34Schur W. Op. cit. S. 135; Vretska K. Op. cit. S. 123; Koestermann E. Op. cit. S. 327.
  • 35Tiffou E. Essai sur la pensée morale de Salluste a lumiere de ses prologues. Montreal; P., 1973. P. 480.
  • 36.: Levene D. S. Op. cit. P. 5370.
  • 37, -, : 132 . homo novus , 130  , , 116 .  (.: Vretska K. Op. cit. S. 109).
  • 38 츭 , , , (Syme R. Op. cit. P. 151).
  • 39, , literally a figure out of time (Feldherr A. The Translation of Catiline // A Companion to Greek and Roman Historiography. Oxf., 2007. Vol. I. P. 389).
  • 40Syme R. Op. cit. P. 123.
  • 41Schmal S. Op. cit. S. 40. . : Cat. 46. 2.
  • 42Syme R. Op. cit. P. 122; Perl G. Op. cit. S. 203206.
  • 43Perl G. Op. cit. S. 204.
  • 44.: Syme R. Op. cit. P. 190191 ( ).
  • 45Schmal S. Op. cit. S. 79.
  • 46, (McGushin P. Sallust: The Histories. Oxf., 1992. Vol. I. P. 84).
  • 47.: Syme R. Op. cit. P. 220222; Perl G. Op. cit. P. 212215; Tiffou E. Op. cit. P. 542; . . . . . 205.
  • 48Katz B. R. Sertorius, Caesar, and Sallust // AAAH. 1981. T. 29. P. 301310.
  • 49Schmal S. Op. cit. S. 4546 ( ).
  • 50Canter H. V. The Chronology of Sallusts Jugurtha // CJ. 1911. Vol. 6. P. 290. (. . . 110. . 2. . 1).
  • 51Syme R. Op. cit. P. 142.
  • 52Schur W. Micipsa // RE. 1932. Hbd. 30. Sp. 1524.
  • 53Schmal S. Op. cit. S. 7071 ( ).
  • 54. , (Büchner K. Der Aufbau von Sallusts Bellum Iugurthinum. Wiesbaden, 1953. S. 7).
  • 55Schmal S. Op. cit. S. 70.
  • 56Canter H. V. Op. cit. P. 294296.
  • 57.: Syme R. Op. cit. P. 149.
  • 58Canter H. V. Op. cit. P. 295.
  • 59 . . . ., 2001. . 94.
  • 60,   (III. 8284).
  • 61Büchner K. Sallust. Heidelberg, 1960. S. 131.
  • 62Vretska K. Op. cit. S. 2325 ( ). , ୸ , , .
  • 63. , (Schmal S. Op. cit. S. 61), , (.: . . Bellum Iugurthinum  // Studia historica. 2006. . VI. . 281282).
  • 64. (Schur W. Sallust S. 105),   .
  • 65 , (.: Waters K. H. Cicero, Sallust and Catiline // Historia. 1970. Bd. 19. Ht. 2. P. 203).
  • 66, (Ann. VI. 32. 1) () ,   (barbaris cunctatio servilis, statim exequi regium videtur), , , (VI. 43. 1): si statim interiora ceterasque nationes petivisset etc.
  • 67, (VI. 22. 625. 4; XXI. 54. 6 8; XXII. 3. 810; 12. 12; XXVII. 33. 10 etc.), (XXII. 50. 1; 51. 14; XXIII. 18. 13; XXVI. 7. 3; XXVIII. 7. 1; XXXVIII. 25. 13  , , (plus in mora periculi), ).
  • 68 . . . 110.
  • 69 , (Curt. IV. 13. 810; Plut. Alex. 31. 1113; Arr. Anab. Alex. III. 10), , , , (Arr. Anab. Alex. III. 11. 2). . ʸ , (Iug. 21. 2: obscuro etiam tum lumine) (Koestermann E. Op. cit. S. 351). , , obscuro (, , ) , .
  • 1407695009 1407695012 1407695018 1472549406 1472550010 1472560375

    , .