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Mordvintseva V. I. Cultural changes in the Lower Volga region based on the study of assemblages with objects made of precious metals (III c. BC  mid. III c. AD)

The Lower Volga region was relatively remote from the centres of the antique civilization. Therefore there is very little written information left by the ancient authors about this area and its population.

One of the perspective approaches to get more information about history of the region may be a comparative analysis of the burial and cult assemblages containing objects of precious metal. For this purpose there were analyzed all published burials of high social status divided in three chronological groups (IIII c. BC, I  1st half of the II c. AD, and 2nd half of the II  1st half of the III c. AD). The analysis was resulted in following conclusions.

In the period from the III to the I c. BC there were two regional centres of power in the Lower Volga region: northern (north from modern Volgograd) and southern. The main direction of social contacts in this time was the south-western (with barbarian population of the Kuban .355 region) and eastern (over Eurasian steppes with nomadic cultures of Altai and Transbaikal regions). The elite assemblages of the highest rank show connections with the Hellenistic Iran (perhaps via Kuban region and Caucasus).

In the I c. AD the situation changed. Instead of two regional centres was formed one centre of power  in the territory between Volga and Don. Regional differences in the content of elite assemblages disappeared. In this time the nomadic elite of the Lower Volga redirects towards the antique centres of the North Pontic region. In this period the sets of Roman bronze and silver vessels appeared in the elite graves of the region. The concentration of elite burials between Volga and Don might be explained by the growing importance of this place for the world-wide trade route, which connected shores of Mediterranean and Black Seas via Azov Sea and Lower Don with the steppe belt of Eurasia and great civilization of Middle East and China on its south-eastern edges.

From the mid II c. AD the connections of the population of the Lower Volga region became stable and strong. However, in this time there was no any distinctive centre of regional power. It might be explained by a possible instability of the situation in the Eurasian steppe and, as a consequence, other orientation of world trade routes.

.356

. 1. III . . .  . III . . .: I  IIII . . ., II  I  1 . II . . ., A  ( 1 7). : 1  , 2  , 3  , 4  , 5  , 6  , 7  , 8  , 9  , 10  . , 11  , 12  , 13  , , 14  15 , 15  , 16  , 17  , 18  , 19  I ( , .), 20  , 21  , 22  , 23  , 24  , 25  , 26  , 27  , 28  , 29  , 30  , 31  , (. ), 32  , 33  , 34  , 35  , 36  , 37  ( , .), 38  , 39  , 40  , 41  , 42  , 43  . , 44  . , 45  , 46  , 47  . , 48  , 49  , 50  , 51  , 52  , 53  , 54  , 55  , 56  , 57  , 58  .

.357

. 1. III . . .  . III . . .: III  2 . II  1 . III . . ., A  ( 1 7). : 7  , 8  , 9  , 32  , 37  ( , .), 59  , 60  , 61  , 62  , 63  -, 64  , 65  , 66  .

.358

. 2. : A  IIII . . ., B  I  1 . II . . ., C  2 . II  1 . III . . .

.359

. 3. VII: A  IIII . . ., B  I  1 . II . . ., C  2 . II  1 . III . . .

.360

. 4. : A  IIII . . ., B  I  1 . II . . ., C  2 . II  1 . III . . .

.361

. 5. IVI: A  IIII . . ., B  I  1 . II . . ., C  2 . II  1 . III . . .

.362

. 6. : A  , B  VII, C  , D  IVI.

.363

. 7. IIII . . .:   ,   ,   ,   ,   , 1  , 2  , 3  , 4  , 5  , 6  , 7  , 8  , 9  , 10  , 11  - , 12  , 13  , 14  .

.364

. 8. I  1 . II . . .:   ,   ,   ,   , 1  , 2  , 3  , 4  , 5  , 6  , 7  , 8  , 9  , 10  , 11  - , 12  , 13  , 14  .

.365

. 9. 2 . II  1 . III . . .:   ,   ,   ,   , 1  , 2  , 3  , 4  , 5  , 6  , 7  , 8  - , 9  , 10  , 11  .


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  • 86Ibid. S. 52.
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