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honestum, virtus, officium

ΣΧΟΛΗ. 5. 12. , 2011. . 4252.

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Arina Bragova (Nizhny Novgorod State Linguistic University) CICEROS INTERPRETATION OF THE STOIC TERMS HONESTUM, VIRTUS, AND OFFICIUM

ABSTRACT. Cicero relied on the Stoic conception of virtues when he interpreted the terms honestum, virtus, and officium. At the same time he also took into account the scope of the Roman virtues. As a result he offered his own conception that comprised both the Greek and Roman terms. It was an eclectic combination of the Stoic theory and the Roman tradition. The term honestum meant for him social and political activities of a Roman citizen. A virtue was a tool that helped man feel moral beauty inside oneself. The concept virtus, being derived from vir, was related with fortitude, bravery, firmness of soul, or any positive physical or spiritual ability. In the moral meaning virtus designated moral beauty as well as some or all features of character that gave man an opportunity to lead a decent way of life. Following the Stoic and Peripatetic traditions Cicero marked out four virtues (cognition, justice and benevolence as a whole, magnitude of soul and temperance). He however considered the second virtue to be the most important, while the Stoics attached importance to the first virtue, i. e. cognition. Having sided with Aristotle, Cicero attached more importance to active social and political life rather than contemplation. Each virtue for Cicero was associated with special duties (officia), applied only to Roman citizens as opposed to the Stoic virtues of universal nature.

KEYWORDS: moral beauty, virtue, duty, justice, benevolence, magnitude of the soul, temperance

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(1983) (. . . ) (). . 4

. . (2001) . . . . . . . ()

. (1991) ()

. . (2000) , . . () 2526

. . (1988)   , () 8590

. . (1993) , . . . . (). . 75

. (1990) ()

. . (2003) . ()

(1986) ()

. ., . (1998) . ( . . ). . 1 ()

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. . (1973) , , 4, 3047

. . (1975) , . . . (), 168171

. . (1977) ()

(1999) . . . . . . (. . . ) ()

(1975) . . (. . . ) ()

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  • 1 : , 1999.
  • 2 : , 1975.
  • 3 : Collins 1871, 183; Fuhrmann 1990, 258261; Gelzer 1969, 358360; Hunt 1954, 159162, 171172, 180; 1991, 36, 443; 1988, 8590; 1972, 323327; 1977, 191192; 1975, 168171.
  • 4 . , ( 1990, 248).
  • 5. 2001, 3.
  • 6 : 1983.
  • 7. Klose 1938, 268. . . (2000, 2526) , honestum , τὸ καλόν, , , , .
  • 8  . Ferguson 1958, 159178; Earl 1966, 540; 1984, 2035; Eisenhut 1973; 2003, 30 ( , virtus , , , , ).
  • 9 : 1986.
  • 10, , , , , , , , (. , , 7, 1034c; 1998, 84).
  • 11Gelzer 1969, 357; 1991, 443, 444, 539; 1975, 168169. τὸ καθήκον officium . Kruck 2009, 5965; Dyck 1996, 7576.
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