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amicitia , (Cic. Fin. I, 6570; II, 7885, 99, III, 8, 70, 72; IV, 6, 17; V, 22, 30, 65; Cic. Off. I, 5, 56, 58, 120; II, 31; III, 4346; 118; Cic. Rep. I, 18; Cic. Inv. I, 1, 95; II, 18, 20, 66, 157, 161, 166168; Cic. Leg. I, 3334, 49; Cic. Orat. I, 56; II, 67; III, 19; Cic. Part. orat. 35, 61, 78, 88; Cic. Brut. 5, 57, 240, 281; Cic. Orat. 87; Cic. Tusc. III, 71; IV, 70, 72; V, 63, 72; Cic. Nat. Deor. 122; Cic. Senect. 41; Cic. Acad. 1, 6; Cic. Divin. 78). (44 . . .). , , , (Cic. Amic. 3; 4)1. , , , , , (Cic. Amic. 22), , (Cic. Amic. 26). , (Cic. Amic. 15), (Cic. Amic. 20). , , , , , (Cic. Amic. 46).

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1. , , , , (Cic. Amic. 20; 2627; 61; 100; 104). , , (Cic. Amic. 17). , , (Cic. Amic. 86).

2. . , . . (Cic. Amic. 20; 84; 104)2.

3. , ,   (Cic. Amic. 19).

4. (Cic. Amic. 32).

, . (Cic. Amic. 18), , , (Cic. Amic. 30), , , , , (Cic. Amic. 6266, 100). .105   , (Cic. Amic. 23). , , . , , , , ( ),   , , , , (Cic. Amic. 24, 101104). , , , , , (Cic. Amic. 101). , , , , , (Cic. Amic. 32). , , , , , , - , (Cic. Amic. 52). , ; , , (Cic. Amic. 9596). , , . , , , (Cic. Amic. 3637). , , (Cic. Amic. 40).

, , (amor). : , (Cic. Amic. 26). : , (Cic. Amic. 50). , , , - , , - , , , , , , , (Cic. Amic. 3335, 42, 5354, 5960, 76, 78). , : , (Cic. Amic. 78), (Cic. Amic. 82), - - , (Cic. Amic. 44); , (Cic. Amic. 6972); , (Cic. Amic. 88100).

: , , ; , , (Cic. Amic. 61). , : 1) ; 2) , ; 3) , (Cic. Amic. 5659).

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, amicitia . (Cic. Amic. 3639) , res publica, - , , , , , , , , (Cic. Amic. 3637), , . , , . (Cic. Fam. XI, 27, 1), , (, , , , , - . , : , , , ). (Cic. Fam. XI, 28, 13) , - - , , - , . , . . , : (   ) , , , ; ( ) .108 , .   , , 18. , amicitia , . . , , amicitia : ) , amici populi Romani; ) , , 19. , , , , . -20. , . , , . , , (factiones) , , 21. , amicitia , . , . amicitia ( gratia officium), , 22. . . , patriam amicitiae praeponendam esse ( ). , -23. , , , . , , , , , .

, . . 2005: : . .

, . . 1974: 4945 . . . .: . . . . ., 175191.

, . . 1999:   , , . .: . . . . . . . . . . ., 540.

.109 , . . 1977: . .

, . . 1966: I . . . ( ). .: . ., 281292.

Brunt, P. A. 1965: Amicitia in the Late Republic. In: Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society 191, 120.

Brunt, P. A. 1988: The fall of the Roman Republic. Oxford.

Collins, W. L. 1871: Cicero. London.

Falconer, W. (ed.). 1959: Cicero: De Senectute, De Amicitia, De Divinatione. LondonCambridge.

Gruber-Miller, J. 2009: Exploring Relationships: Amicitia and Familia in Ciceros De Amicitia. In: Classical World 103/1, 8892.

Habinek, Th. N. 1990: Towards a History of Friendly Advice: The Politics of Candor in Ciceros De Amicitia. In: Martha Nussbaum (ed.), The Poetics of Therapy. Apeiron 23, 4.

Haskell, H. J. 1942: This was Cicero: Modern politics in a Roman toga. New York.

Hellegouarch, J. 1963: Le vocabulaire latin des relations et des partis politiques sous la republique. Paris.

MacKendrick, P. 1989: The Philosophical Books of Cicero. New York.

Nicgorski, W. 2004: Ciceros distinctive voice on friendship. De amicitia and De re publica. In: Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association. Chicago, Sept, 25, 110. [ ].  : http://www.allacademic.com//meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/0/6/1/7/4/pages61740/p61740-1.php

Powell, J. 1990: Cicero: On Friendship and The Dream of Scipio. Warminster.

Stockton, D. 1971: Cicero: A Political Biography. Oxford.

Syme, R. 1939: The Roman Revolution. Oxford.

Taylor, L. R. 1949: Party Politics in the Age of Caesar. Los Angeles.

References

Bragova, A. M. 2005: Mark Tulliy Ciceron ob idealnom grazhdanine i gosudarstve: dissertatsiya na soiskaniye uchyonoy stepeny kandidata istoricheskikh nauk. Nizhny Novgorod.

Gorenshtein, V. O. 1974: Ciceron v gody grazhdanskoy voiny 4945 gg. i diktatury Tsezarya. Dialogy O starosty i O druzhbe. In: Tsiceron. O starosty. O druzhbe. Ob obyazannostyakh. M., 175191.

Temnov, E. I. 1999: Ciceron  orator, politik, pravoved. In: M. T. Ciceron. O gosudarstve. O zakonakh. O starosty. O druzhbe. Ob obyazannostyakh. Rechy. Pisma. M., 540.

Utchenko, S. L. 1977: Politicheskiye ucheniya Drevnego Rima. Moscow.

Shtal, I. V. 1966: Ponyatiye druzhba i evolutiya esteticheskogo ideala cheloveka v rimskoi literature I veka do nashey ery (po proizvedeniyam Cicerona i Katulla). In: Voprosy antichnoy literatury i klassicheskoy filologii. Moscow, 281292.

Brunt, P. A. 1965: Amicitia in the Late Republic. In: Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society 191, 120.

Brunt, P. A. 1988: The fall of the Roman Republic. Oxford.

Collins, W. L. 1871: Cicero. London.

Falconer, W. (ed.). 1959: Cicero: De Senectute, De Amicitia, De Divinatione. London-Cambridge.

Gruber-Miller, J. 2009: Exploring Relationships: Amicitia and Familia in Ciceros De Amicitia. In: Classical World 103/1, 8892.

Habinek, Th. N. 1990: Towards a History of Friendly Advice: The Politics of Candor in Ciceros De Amicitia. In: Martha Nussbaum (ed.), The Poetics of Therapy. Apeiron 23, 4.

Haskell, H. J. 1942: This was Cicero: Modern politics in a Roman toga. New York.

.110 Hellegouarch, J. 1963: Le vocabulaire latin des relations et des partis politiques sous la republique. Paris.

MacKendrick, P. 1989: The Philosophical Books of Cicero. New York.

Nicgorski, W. 2004: Ciceros distinctive voice on friendship. De amicitia and De re publica. In: Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association. Chicago, Sept, 25, 110, http://www.allacademic.com//meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/0/6/1/7/4/pages61740/p61740-1.php

Powell, J. 1990: Cicero: On Friendship and The Dream of Scipio. Warminster.

Stockton, D. 1971: Cicero: A Political Biography. Oxford.

Syme, R. 1939: The Roman Revolution. Oxford.

Taylor, L. R. 1949: Party Politics in the Age of Caesar. Los Angeles.

Arina M. Bragova (Nizhny Novgorod State Linguistic University naved after N. A. Dobrolyubov, Russia)). The Concept Amicitia in Ciceros Writings

Abstact. The article is devoted to the analysis of Ciceros concept friendship (amicitia). The author of the article defines the degree of influence that the Greek philosophers had on Ciceros interpretation of friendship. The article also deals with the question of originality of Ciceros reasoning about friendship as well as the political connotation of the term amicitia.

Cicero characterizes the true and perfect friendship based not on profit but on agreement in affairs, benevolence and affection. Friendship originates from nature and emerges due to goodwill. It is important both in happiness and in misfortunes. Friendship is an integral part of a decent and virtuous life. Friendship is stronger than family ties. Only honest, virtuous, wise, generous, self-confident, reliable and sociable people are worthy of friendship. Cicero gives examples of such people among the Roman aristocrats (Cato, Tiberius Gracchus the Older, Publius Scipio the African and others). People inclined to excessive delight and pleasures as well as flatterers, scoundrels and betrayers are not worthy of friendship.

Love and similarity of tempers are the reasons for friendship. It is terminated due to different interests, marriage, competition, fame, greed, enmity, hatred, crime. Maintaining friendship is possible due to mutual respect, moral acts, communication on equal terms.

Ciceros interpretation of friendship is undoubtedly influenced by the Greek philosophers (Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Xenophon, Polybius, Peripatetics and others). Nevertheless, he offers original ideas. For example, he disagrees with Aristotle about people who are inclined to friendship: Aristotle considers weak people to seek protection and help in friendship, whereas Ciceros true friendship is not based on profit. There is also a difference in their opinions concerning the kinds of friendship: Aristotle recognizes three kinds of friendship (based on a virtue, utility or pleasure), while Cicero acknowledges only friendship based on a virtue. Besides, Ciceros thoughts about friendship are imbued with the Roman spirit: he gives many examples about Roman citizens and relies on his wide political experience. It must be stated that Ciceros term friendship has a political connotation: he believes that requirements of friendship should not contradict the states interests, people should not betray the motherland for the sake of a friend.

To sum up, Ciceros term friendship is a combination of the ancient Greek ideas about friendship, the so called pure ethics, and the Roman notions of amicitia, which have a political connotation.

Keywords: Rome, Cicero, friendship, amicitia


  • 1 : 1974, 3157.
  • 2  .: Cic. Off. I, 1529; 6266; 9395.  .: 2005, 50103.
  • 3Haskell 1942, 299; Collins 1871, 150.
  • 4 1974, 187.
  • 5 1999, 28.
  • 6Powell 1990, 23.
  • 7Falconer 1959, 106.
  • 8MacKendrick 1989, 220.
  • 9Nicgorski 2004, 13.
  • 10Nicgorski 2004, 1013.
  • 11Nicgorski 2004, 11.
  • 12Nicgorski 2004, 1013.
  • 13Nicgorski 2004, 11.
  • 14Habinek 1990, 185.
  • 15Brunt 1988, 351, 354.
  • 16  .: 2005, 3550.
  • 17Brunt 1988, 355.
  • 18 1977, 223228.
  • 19Hellegouarch 1963, 4953.
  • 20Gruber-Miller 2009, 8892.
  • 21Collins 1871, 152.
  • 22Stockton 1971, 6567. .: Syme 1939, . 2; Taylor 1949, . 13; Brunt 1965, 120.
  • 23 1966, 281.
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