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.93

. , ; ; ; res publica civitas .

, , , , , , , , , . (, , ) , . , , .

res publica, : , , . res publica est res populi , . res , , res publica , , , , (civitas Romana). . , , , , , . res publica .

 / res publica civitas. , , , , res publica   , a civitas  , . res publica , civitas. : (rei publicae nomen universae civitati est), , res publica civitas  .

: , , , res publica, civitas, , , , , , , .

. . , . , , , res publica civitas . , , , .

, ; . . , . , . , . , . , . ,  / , , res publica. .94 . . , . . , . . , . . , . . , . .

( ). 1) , ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) res publica civitas .

. I . . (, , , , , , ).   [1, p. 5]. ( , , ). , , [2, . 97]. , (. , III, 8082; . , 1278b80a). , (. , 712b13a). (. , 1269a73b, 1293a96b, 1302a, 1318b19a; 1320b). . , , [3, . 299300]. , , . . , . , . , , . (. , VI, 1, 39, 1218). , [4, p. 111], [5, . 167173]. , . . , [6, p. 160], : ,   [7, . 164].

. , , (. [7, . 145, 146, 153, 176177, 258259], . [8, p. 51], . [9, p. 70], . . [10, . 318319]). (. [11, p. 173, 177], . [12, p. 216], . [13, p. 3940], . [14, p. 69], . . [15, . 131], . . [16, . 6, 45], . . [17, . 72], . . [18, . 11]). , . , , , ( , , ) , . , [14, p. 69; 15, . 131; 17, . 72; 18, . 117].

. res publica , , , (. , I, 39, 41, 47, 50, 65; II, 33, 43, 62; III, 43, 46, 48; , I, 72, 92, 159; II, 2, 3, 73, 80; III, 23, 47; , 26, 27, 55, 78, 86, 100, 147; , 227, 266, 311; , 3, 112; , 15; , 22, 2426, 31; , 50, 149, 153, 154; , 6, 10, 17; , 3, 24, 32, 35, 43, 45; , 3, 40, 4147, 54, 60; , I, 1, 13, 25, 29, 33; II, 10, 13, 17, 24, 27, 37, 51, 54, 55, 70, 83, 92, 94, 113, 118 [14, p. 66]). : res publica est res populi (. , I, 39), [19, . 8]. , , [2, . 87; 1, p. 5]. , potestas , auctoritas  , libertas  . , genus mixtum V . . . II . . . (. , I, 42, 45, 6970; II, 4142, 57). , , , , , res publica patria (, patria , res publica (. , I, 5, 43; II, 5, 6, 43; III, 25), (. , I, 20; II, 6, 31; III, 4, 20, 21, 26, 36)). . , res publica est res populi res publica , [20, p. 59]. , , , . [21, p. 69], , (res) , .95   , [20, p. 59]. , . . .   , , , (. , I, 48); , (. , III, 24). . . . ,   (res populi),   , [22, . 427]. , res publica . , res populus res populi [23, p. 3, 29]. , res, - . populus, (hominum coetus) (. , I, 39), , , . , res publica [23, p. 33]: , ,   . , res publica , (. , II, 446), , , . . res res . . . Res   ,   , (civitatis Romanae) ( . . ( 100) , I, 39 (res publica est res populi) [24, . 183]). , res publica : , , . , , , , , , , , , , , , (. , I, 5355).

 / res publica civitas . , , -, res publica, ; civitas (17 : . , I, 5, 25, 44, 68; II, 2, 8, 22, 28, 44; , II, 14, 37, 38, 39, 66; III, 14; , I, 75; II, 81). , res publica , (quo autem modo adsequi potera Lacedaemo illa tum, cum praestare putabatur disciplina rei publicae; quod erit ejus modi, nihil ut tale ulla in re publica reperiatur). -, , civitas (11 : . , I, 12, 41; , II, 9, 11, 26; III, 3; , I, 85, 88; III, 28, 36, 63). res publica, , (. , III, 4345). , , , res publica (. , II, 51), , , res publica . . . , , , (, , ) , [6, p. 136137]. res publica,   civitas.   , [6, p. 126]. . . res publica , , (. , I, XXXIII; II, XXI; XXIX; XXXIII),   , , , (. , II, IV; VI; XIX; XXXII) [25, . 88, 93, 115, 142]. . . civitas , res publica: , , [26, . 85]. . . , res publica civitatis, . res publica est res populi , res publica  (civitatis) [27, . 55, 59, 60, 71]. . . civitas , , - . res publica, , [19, . 811]. . . , civitas - ; res publica  [28, . 43]. : -   . res publica civitas [29, . 46; 30, p. 299]. . , , civitas  (quality of being a citizen), (body of citizens), a res publica  , (which belongs to or concerns the people), commonwealth .96 (, , , ) [30, p. 299]. . , rei publicae nomen universae civitati est ( ) (. , II, 5) , civitas  , , a res publica  , , .

. , . , . res publica , - . res publica civitas , ,   , . , (, ), .

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16. . . : . . . . ., 1985. 19 .

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26. . . . .: , 1977. 256 .

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28. . . I . . . : - , 2012. 134 .

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Arina Bragova (Nizhny Novgorod State University of Linguistics). The concept of State in Ciceros Writings

Abstract. The article is devoted to the analysis of ancient Greek and Roman conceptions of a state which had been written at the time prior to Ciceros; an extent to which Cicero adopts the ideas from those conceptions; Ciceros usage of the term state; differentiation between the concepts res publica and civitas in his writings.

Long before Ciceros times the issue of a state system had been brought up by such philosophers, historians and political figures as Archytas, Hippodamus, Herodotus, Thucydides, Plato, Aristotle, Cato, Polybius and others. They formulated simple state forms (monarchy, aristocracy, democracy) and a mixed form which they considered the best. On the .97 whole, Cicero agrees with the opinion that the mixed form is the best but he also offers original thoughts about the Roman republic as an ideal state and gives many examples from the Roman history.

Cicero often denotes the term a state by the word res publica implying the meaning of public work, public affairs, public interest, etc. We have analysed the definition res publica est res populi and come to the conclusion that Cicero considers people to be a mandatory participant of the process of state management. Some scholars draw attention to a juridical content of the word res in the above definition considering the term res publica as public property, whereas the Roman republic is an object used by the civil community (civitas Romano). We suppose this point of view is quite relevant. Cicero sees the political and juridical components of the term as a united whole: it was natural for the ancient mentality to regard juridical, political, social and moral components as one. This very approach to the term res publica is given in Ciceros writings.

The article also dwells upon rather a debated question about similarity or difference between Ciceros concepts res publica and civitas. We subscribe to the opinion that, unlike ancient Greeks who do not separate a state from a community, Cicero knows a difference between the terms, res publica for him is a state form, whereas civitas is a community / citizens. Another thing is that Cicero uses the term res publica to denote the very Roman state; for describing other states or discoursing on abstract states he uses the term civitas. To support the opinion about the difference between the above terms, we would like to quote Cicero himself who writes that the concept a state embraces a community (rei publicae nomen universae civitati est) which means that res publica and civitas do not mean the same.

Keywords. Cicero, state, Roman republic, res publica, civitas, concept of a state, a simple form of government, a mixed state system, a political term, ancient Greek philosophers, ancient Roman philosophers, public work.

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