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Studia Humanitatis. 4. 2016.
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Arina Bragova (Nizhny Novgorod State University of Linguistics). Ciceros Concept of a Ruler

The article presents the analysis of Ciceros concept of a ruler and his duties. The work contains a linguistic and textual examination of the terms denoting a ruler used by Cicero. Character features and qualities of an ideal ruler are also presented in the research. There is a review of duties of an ideal ruler. There are some conclusions about existence of such a ruler in Ciceros times.

Keywords: Cicero, political, ruler, duty, Ancient Rome, princeps, rector, tutor, gubernator, moderator.

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, , : rector (rei publicae), princeps / principes (civitatis), tutor, procurator, gubernator, conservator, moderator, auctor.

rector (Cic. De orat. 1. 211; Rep. 2. 51, 5. 56; 6. 13; Fin. 4. 11; N. D. 2. 89 .). , , [33, p. 5]. , , . , (usum et scientiam) , (utilitas rei publicae). (rectorem) (consilii publici auctorem) (Cic. De orat. 1. 211). : , , , , , -, , (Cic. De orat. 1. 211; Rep. 6. 2, 9). , rector , , . . , [13, . 166]. , [33, p. 8].

, , , , , , rector , . , . , , , ,   ,   , [33, p. 1011].

, , , , . , rector (rei publicae) princeps civitatis? . . , - , princeps civitatis, [9, . 14; 1, . 184190]. , : princeps : rector regere , .

princeps / principes (civitatis), , , , , . , , . , princeps rogationis ( ) (Cic. Pro Sest. 75), nobilitatis vestrae princeps ( ) (Cic. Brut. 53), princeps sententiae ( ) (Cic. De harusp. resp. 13. Cf.: Cic. De prov. cons. 1). princeps sceleris ( ) (Cic. Leg. 2. 42), princeps maleficii ( ) (Cic. Pro Cluent. 106), princeps flagitiorum ( ) (Cic. In Verr. 5. 4).

princeps auctor, , (Cic. In Verr. 3. 41, 43. Cf.: Cic. De orat. 1. 47, 91; Cic. Brut. 253). architectus (, , ) (Cic. Pro Cluent. 60).

Princeps , , [30, S. 207; 1, . 189190]. , princeps . , [30, S. 67; 7, . 2035]. , , , , . , princeps (civitatis) , , - vir bonus, [6, . 217].

. , princeps (nobilis), , [21, S. 37; 8, . 5758]. . . princeps optimas () (Cic. Rep. 1. 41, 43; 2. 55; Pro Sestio, 97, 103, 126, 138) [7, . 22; 22, S. 6], , , , . , princeps  , , . , , (ordo) (princeps) (auctor) (consilii publici) (Cic. De prov. cons. 25), , (nemo umquam hic potuit esse princeps, qui maluerit esse popularis) (Cic. De prov. cons. 38).

, princeps , principes (Cic. Phil. 8. 22; 14. 7, 17), (Cic. In Verr. 3. 55), (Cic. Pro Sestio, 98), (Cic. In Pison. 30), (Cic. Off. 3. 4). gravissimi et sapientissimi cives (Cic. Pro Balbo, 54) [8, . 57; 1, . 179195].

, . , , , , (peritus utilitatis dignitatisque civilis), (tutor) (procurator rei publicae), , (rector) (gubernator civitatis) (Cic. Rep. 2. 51).

tutor et procurator rector et gubernator, , , .

gubernator (Cic. Rep. 1. 62, 5. 5), . (sapientissimis viris) (gubernatores optimi) (Cic. Ad Att. 1. 1. 5). (Cic. Ad Att. 8. 11. 1) , : (moderator rei publicae) (beata civium vita), (gubernatori)  (cursus secundus). (dux et auctor) , (moderator quidem), , (quasi gubernator) (Cic. Ad. fam. 2. 6. 4). -, . , , , (tutores) (Cic. Ad fam. 3. 11. 3).

, conservator (), . , , (ad tutandam rem publicam), (rectores et conservatores), (qui patriam conservaverint) (Cic. Rep. 6. 13).

, , , , princeps / principes , rector (tutor, procurator, gubernator, conservator, moderator, auctor).

: - (honestum), (virtutes)  (cognitio), (justitia et beneficentia), (magnitudo animi) (temperantia et modestia) (Cic. Off. 1. 1520, 6166, 75, 9395).

(prudens) (Cic. Rep. 2. 67. Cf.: Cic. Rep. 5. 35; 6. 1, 16, 29), (ut numquam a se ipso instituendo contemplandoque discedat) (Cic. Rep. 2. 69. Cf.: Cic. Pro Flac. 62), (cognitio, perspicientia veri sollertiaque, sapientia, prudentia, indagatio atque inventio veri) (Cic. Off. 1. 15). : (Cic. Off. 1. 19).

. , , (hominum causa), (ut ipsi inter se aliis alii prodesse possent), (communes utilitates in medium adferre), , , (tum artibus, tum opera, tum facultatibus devincire hominum inter homines societatem) (Cic. Off. 1. 22. Cf.: Cic. Ad Att. 8. 11. 1; Rep. 1. 3; 2. 51, 70; 5. 5; 6. 29; Pro Sest. 23, 139, 143; De orat. 1. 211).

  (magnitudo animi)  (fortes et magnanimi) (Cic. Off. 1. 65) [5, . 33]. (temperantia), , , (iracundia), (legum similes sint), , (quae ad puniendum non iracundia, sed aequitate ducuntur) (Cic. Off. 1. 89) [2, . 16]. , (Cic. Off. 2. 76).

(benevolentia), , . , (Cic. Off. 2. 23) [3, . 10].

, , , , . , , (Cic. Rep. 2. 69. Cf.: Cic. Rep. 5. 6) [32, p. 176179].

, , (in re publica primas eloquentia tenuerit semper urbanis pacatisque rebus) (Cic. Orat. 141). . . , , , - [6, . 70]. , ,   . , (Cic. Pro Mur. 2224. Cf.: Cic. Pro leg. Man. 41, 4748; Cic. Ad Q. fr. 1. 1).

. , (consulens utilitate hominum) (Cic. Off. 3. 31. Cf.: Cic. Pro Mur. 23).

. . , , (patrocinium) (imperium). (jus) (vis). , , , , , , virtus [28, S. 239]. , (auctoritas) [24, S. 348366; 27, S. 245; 20; 16, . 4350]. . , : , . , , , , (Cic. Rep. 1. 63): , [23, p. 207].

. . . , (auctoritas) , , (Cic. Off. 1. 79; Rep. 2. 15, 56, 59, 61; Leg. 2. 52, 3. 27, 28, 39) [9, . 8].

, auctoritas , , . , (homines novi), ( ,   ).

, , , . : (tutela), (procuratio rei publicae) , (qui commissi sunt) [], , (quibus commissa est) (Cic. Off. 1. 85).

tutela . , , , , , , . ,   , [32, p. 134135; 26, p. 92; 19, p. 113116; 15, . 129136]. , tutela tutor . (Cic. Rep. 2. 51) , , (quasi tutor et procurator rei publicae). (Cic. De orat. 3. 3) (quasi parens bonus aut tutor fidelis).

(fides) (Cic. Off. 3. 70. Cf.: Cic. Off. 1. 23; Leg. 2. 28; Pro Rosc. 111115; Pro Mur. 7077; Amic. 19, 52, 65, 88; Pro Sest. 98). fides , . ,   , . . [32, p. 136].

, . tutor (Cic. Rep. 2. 51; De orat. 3. 3; Topica, 42), tutela (Cic. Off. 1. 85; Pro Sestio, 64) fides (Cic. Off. 1. 23; 2. 33; 3. 111; De orat. 2. 192, 343; 3. 168, 197; Rep. 1. 2; 2. 26; 3. 28; Parad. stoic. 16; Pro Sest. 68, 98) . . . , , , , , (Cic. Rep. 5. 12. Cf.: Cic. Off. 2. 28).

, , , (patrocinium orbis terrae) (Cic. Off. 2. 27) [18, p. 3233, 219222]. , , [14, . 108], , , .

[10, . 51; 12, . 54]. , (nec umquam bellorum civilium semen et causa deerit) (Cic. Off. 2. 29), . , , , ( ),   ( ) (Cic. Off. 2. 45).

- . , . . , , , , , , , [11, . 3740]. , , , : , , , . , , , [1, . 188189]. . . , - [4, . 37].

, ? , . -, . , , [25, p. 205]. [14, . 207]. , , , , , , , - , [17, S. 238].

, , [29, p. 16; 25, p. 205; 31, S. 428]. , , [33, p. 4]. , . , , - ,   ,   , ,   - .

, , , , . , , , , .

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