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Studia Humanitatis. 2. 2016.
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Arina Bragova (Nizhny Novgorod State University of Linguistics). Cicero on Moral Decline and Necessity of the Ethic Reform in the Roman Republic of the I B. C.

The article analyses Ciceros views on moral decline in the Roman society of the first century B. C., and the research of the interrelation between the moral decline and the degradation of the Roman Republic and the discussion of a possibility of an ethical reform in the Roman society in Ciceros works.

Keywords: Cicero, moral decline, ethical reform, the first century B. C., Ancient Rome, Roman Republic, Roman society, mores majorum.

-   , I . . . , , ( , , ), () [1, . 7, 10; 2, . 83]. , , [5, . 267268].

6- (Polyb. Hist. 6. 57) , - , - , . . , , , . (de moribus civitatis), (instituta majorum), , (rem publicam habuerint) () () (quantamque reliquerint), (ut paulatim... ex pulcherruma... pessuma... facta sit) (Sall. Cat. 5. 9).

: , : O tempora, o mores! (Cic. In Cat. 1. 2; Pro Cael. 29; Pro Deiot. 31; In Verr. 2. 4, 55), (, , , ) mores / mos majorum , (Cic. De orat. 1. 39, 2. 200, 3. 74; Ad Att. 1. 1, 8. 2; Ad fam. 3. 7, 10. 12, 13. 10; De leg. 2. 23, 40, 54; De off. 1. 35; De rep. 3. 4; In Pis. 21, 34; In Vat. 3435; Pro Cluent. 103; Pro Planc. 28; Pro Scaur. 30 .). : , ([res publica] poterat esse perpetua, si patriis viveretur institutis et moribus) (Cic. De rep. 3. 41. Cf.: Cic. De off. 1. 5556).

. . , - , , - (propter metum poenae, peccatorum suorum conscii), - (propter implicationem rei familiaris) (Cic. Pro Sest. 99. Cf.: Cic. Pro Rab. 33). , [1, . 37; 7, S. 102103; 11, p. 72; 16, p. 172; 19, p. 86].

. -, (the quality of people) (their institutions). (political and moral values in the society). , (lose their substance and become republican in the name alone) [11, p. 72]. , : , , , . , avaritia, luxuria, , [16, p. 172]. (nobilium vita victuque mutato), (mores mutari civitatum), (ea [vitia] infundunt) (Cic. De leg. 3. 32). , , , (Cic. De rep. 2. 51), (Cic. De rep. 1. 67) [7, S. 102103]. , : - (corrupti mores depravatique sunt admiratione divitiarum) (Cic. De off. 2. 71) [1, . 37; 20, p. 112].

, (sit turpe diffluere luxuria) (Cic. De off. 1. 106. Cf.: Cic. De rep. 2. 8). , , (imperiorum, honorum, gloriae cupiditatem), , (omnia jura divina et humana pervertit propter... principatum) (Cic. De off. 1. 26. Cf.: Cic. De off. 1. 64).

. , dignitas (too ambitious pursuit of dignitas): (excessive dignitas) (a destructive factor), dignitas dignitas (in its pursuit the moral basis on which dignitas must rest was disregarded) [19, p. 86]. , dignitas (, ) , . . , (optimi: Cic. Pro Sest. 104; optimi cives: Cic. Pro Sest. 125; fortissimi et clarissimi cives: Cic. Pro Sest. 144), , (qui salutem communem periculo suo defendissent) (Cic. Pro Sest. 12), , , , , , .

, . , . , (nihil autem est amabilius nec copulatius, quam morum similitudo bonorum) (Cic. De off. 1. 56). mores, majorum, . mores majorum , .

. , (a kind of code of good conduct), (at times compared to law), (which held... authority with the Romans) [17, p. 24]. , , .

, , (non fortuito populum Romanum, sed consilio et disciplina confirmatum esse) (Cic. De rep. 2. 30).

. - - , : 1) , (legitimacy based on justice and service) (Cic. De off. 1. 85); 2) (limited and divided political power) (Cic. De rep. 2. 23); 3) (freedom and responsibility) (Cic. De rep. 1. 33, De leg. 3. 27); 4) (justice and cooperation) (Cic. De off. 2. 18); 5) , , (leadership and royalty) (Cic. De rep. 5. 5, De leg. 3. 5); 6) (rationality and knowledge) (Cic. De off. 1. 11, De rep. 1. 29); 7) (human fellowship) (Cic. De off. 1. 55); 8) (openness to other people and cultures) (Cic. De off. 3. 47); 9) (moderation and peace) (Cic. De rep. 2. 26, De off. 1. 35) [11, p. 72].

, - , (, .) . , : (, ), () ( ), . , (Cic. De rep. 1. 51). , (Cic. De off. 2. 2038. Cf.: Cic. De rep. 5. 8; Ad Att. 8. 12, Pro Mur. 23).

, , , , , , , . . virtus. , , virtus , , , (auctoritas) [1, . 183; 8, S. 4350; 9; 10, S. 245; 13, S. 239].

, , - (Cic. De off. 2. 29. Cf.: Cic. De leg. 3. 32). , : , , , (non consili, non ingeni, non auctoritatis armis egere rem publicam) (Cic. Brut. 2. 7. Cf.: Cic. Ad fam. 7. 28. 2) [15, p. 25; 18, S. 207].

: , , [3, . 2728; 4, . 5372]; [6, . 181; 12, p. 185; 14, p. 452]. , . . , , . , . , , [6, . 181]. , , , , , , [1, . 172173].

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