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Juvenis scientia. 2017. 5. . 4041.

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. luxuries / luxuria . avaritia, libido, desidia, licentia, nequitia, vitium . ( ), : , ( ) .

: , , , luxuries, luxuria.

Arina Bragova (Nizhny Novgorod State University of Linguistics). Cicero about luxury

The article is devoted to Ciceros interpretation of luxury. The usage of the conception of luxuries/ luxuria in Ciceros writings is analyzed. It can be concluded that Cicero uses the conception in a negative way and pairs it with the terms avaritia, libido, desidia, licentia, nequitia, vitium and some others. We noticed a discrepancy between Ciceros negative attitude to luxury in theory and his positive one in practice (he had some luxurious villas). This can be explained in terms of the Roman mentality: a private individual was not allowed to bathe in luxury whereas a state person (Cicero was such) could have representative housing for maintaining his social status.

Keywords: Cicero, Ancient Rome, luxury, luxuries, luxuria.

luxuries / luxuria   . , , , . , [1], . . [2], , , [3, . 18, 21, 23, 25; 4, . 78]. [5, . 93; 6, . 111]. , .

luxuries / luxuria, , , , , , . (Cic. De fin. 3. 75. Cf.: Cic. Pro Cael. 57)1, , (Cic. De off. 1. 106). vitium (Cic. De fin. 2. 30, 3. 75; In Cat. 2. 25; Pro Cael. 25, 44, 57). luxuries / luxuria , licentia (Cic. De fin. 2. 70; In Verr. 2. 3. 106), superbia (Cic. De leg. agr. 1. 20, 2. 97; In Caec. 3), nequitia (Cic. In Cat. 2. 11; In Verr. 2. 2. 134; 2. 3. 22, 2. 5. 87), insolentia (Cic. In Verr. 2. 3. 106), intemperantia (Cic. Post redit. in sen. 11). egestas (Cic. Post redit. in sen. 11), parsimonia (Cic. Pro Quint. 30) [2, c. 334].

  : (avaritia),   (luxuries) (avaritiam si tollere vultis, mater eius est tollenda, luxuries) (Cic. De orat. 2. 171) [2, c. 329]. avaritia : (Cic. De fin. 3. 37; De orat. 2. 135, 2. 171, 3. 168; In Caec. 3; In Verr. 2. 2. 9, 2. 5. 137; Pro Mur. 20). , , : (luxuriae), (avaritiae) (crudelitatis) (Cic. De fin. 3. 75). : - - .41 (tua luxurie atque avaritia classis populi Romani a praedonibus capta et incensa est) (Cic. In Verr. 2. 5. 137).

luxuries / luxuria , libido (Cic. De off. 1. 92, 1. 123; In Cat. 2. 11; In Pis. 21, 27; In Verr. 2. 5. 80; Post redit. in sen. 11; Pro Balb. 56; Pro Cael. 25, 43, 44, 57; Pro Mur. 13), voluptas (Cic. De fin. 2. 23; Pro Mur. 11, 13), cupiditas (Cic. De rep. 2. 8). , , , , , (ad luxuriem libidinesque suas) (Cic. In Verr. 2. 5. 80). : , , , , , , , ( ), , , ? (Nullum turpe convivium, non amor, non comissatio, non libido, non sumptus ostenditur, et, cum ea non reperiantur quae voluptatis nomen habent quamquam vitiosa sunt, in quo ipsam luxuriam reperire non potes, in eo te umbram luxuriae reperturum putas) (Cic. Pro Mur. 13). luxuria cupiditas: , , (multa ad luxuriam invitamenta perniciosa civitatibus subpeditantur mari atque habet etiam amoenitas ipsa vel sumptuosas vel desidiosas inlecebras multas cupiditatum) (Cic. De rep. 2. 8).

luxuries / luxuria , , , ,  desidia (Cic. De off. 1. 123; In Verr. 2. 2. 7), ignavia (Cic. De inv. 1. 22; In Cat. 2. 25), inertia (Cic. de invent. 1. 22; In Verr. 2. 1. 34). : ; , (Nihil magis cavendum est senectuti quam ne languori se desidiaeque dedat; luxuria vero cum omni aetati turpis, tum senectuti foedissima est) (Cic. De off. 1. 123). , , , . . , , , , , , , , (aequitas, temperantia, fortitudo, prudentia, virtutes omnes certant cum iniquitate, luxuria, ignavia, temeritate, cum vitiis omnibus) (Cic. In Cat. 2. 25). : , (Carbo graviter ferebat sibi quaestorem obtigisse hominem singulari luxuria atque inertia) (Cic. In Verr. 2. 1. 34).

luxuries / luxuria scelus (Cic. In Cat. 2. 11), crimen (Cic. Pro Balb. 56), flagitium (Cic. Pro Cael. 57). , , , (cum luxuria, cum amentia, cum scelere) (Cic. In Cat. 2. 2. 11). , , , - , (tum luxuriam, quae non crimine aliquo libidinis, sed communi maledicto notabatur) (Cic. Pro Balb. 56). , , : , , , (in ejus modi domo inusitate, libidines, luxuries, omnia denique inaudita vitia ac flagitia versentur) (Cic. Pro Cael. 57).

, , . , , , . ? ? . , , , - [4, . 8]. , - . , , (Odit populus Romanus privatam luxuriam, publicam magnificentiam diligit) (Cic. Pro Mur. 76) [3, . 25]. , : , .

, : . luxuries / luxuria , avaritia, libido, desidia, licentia, nequitia, vitium . ( ), : , ( ) .

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2. Gorman R. J., Gorman V. B. Corrupting Luxury in Ancient Greek Literature. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2014. 492 p.

3. Zanda E. Fighting Hydra-Like Luxury: Sumptuary Regulation in the Roman Republic. London, New Delhi, New York, Sydney: Bloomsbury, 2011. 184 p.

4. Zarmakoupi M. Designing for Luxury on the Bay of Naples: Villas and Landscapes (c. 100 BCE  79 CE). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014. 352 p.

5. MacKendrick P. L., Singh K. L. The Philosophical Books of Cicero. London: Duckworth, 1989. 429 p.

6. Cicero. Pro Sexto Roscio. Ed. by A. R. Dyck. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. 260 p.


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