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Avaritia -

. 2017. 9 (22). . 175183.

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. avaritia . . 150 avaritia (avarus, avare) . ( 100 ), (55 ),   (6 ).   , . (luxuria / luxuries, crudelitas, superbia .) ( (honestum / honestas, virtus, officium, justitia, liberalitas, cogitatio, temperantia .) - (dignitas, jus, lex .), ) avaritia - .

Arina Bragova (Nizhny Novgorod State University of Linguistics). Avarice as an Important Constituent of the Ethical, Philosophical and Political Conceptual Apparatus of Ciceros Works

Abstract. The article deals with Ciceros usage of avaritia. The research aims at the system analysis of the concept on the basis of the quantitative method. There are more than 150 examples of the usage of avaritia and its derivatives (avarus, avare) in Ciceros works. The term is used most frequently in Ciceros orations (approximately 100 times), especially in the invectives Against Verres (55 examples), least of all  in his epistles (6 times). Avarice for Cicero is one of the most serious vices. It means an exaggerated opinion of money. Alongside with the negative moral categories (luxuria / luxuries, crudelitas, superbia, etc.) and the positive ones opposed to avarice (the ethical notions of the Stoic philosophy (honestum / honestas, virtus, officium, justitia, liberalitas, cogitatio, temperantia, etc.) and primordially Roman ethical, political and juridical terms (dignitas, jus, lex, etc.)) the concept of avaritia forms the core of the ethical, philosophical and political conceptual apparatus of Ciceros works.

.176

: , , avaritia, , , , .

Keywords: Cicero, Ancient Rome, avaritia, avarice, ethical, political, philosophical.

avaritia. . , - , , avaritia [1, p. 85; 2, p. 5255; 3, p. 125, 132133, 137139; 4, p. 334335; 5, p. 8; 6, p. 70; 7, p. 171; 8, p. 172; 9]. , . , , . . avaritia [1, p. 85]. . avar- , [2, p. 5355]. . . avaritia [3, p. 125, 132133, 137139] , , [3, p. 125]. . . . . - (luxuria, superbia, scelus, flagitium) [4, p. 334335]. .  , avaritia luxuria , [8, p. 172; 9]. avaritia , , , .

150 avaritia (avarus, avare) . ( 100 ), (55 ),   (6 ). (avaritia, ambitio, mulierositas .), : , ,  , 1 (Est autem avaritia opinatio vehemens de pecunia, quasi valde expetenda sit, inhaerens et penitus insita) (Cic. Tusc. disp. 4. 26).

- . , , avaritia, ( ): acerbitas (Cic. De rep. 2. 63; De sen. 65; In Verr. 2. 2. 192, 2. 4. 68; Pro Cluent. 44), ambitio (Cic. Tusc. disp. 4. 26), amentia (Cic. In Verr. 2. 3. 126), arrogantia (Cic. De inv. 1. 42), audacia , (Cic. De inv. 1. 32, 2. 36; De prov. cons. 11; In Verr. 2. 1. 87, 128, 154, 2. 3. 126, 152, 2. 5. 106, 108, 113, 189; Pro Cael. 13; Pro Cluent. 44; Pro Rosc. Amer. 75, 8688, 118), caedes (Cic. Ad Q. fr. 1. 8. 25; De inv. 1. 80; Phil. 13. 18), calamitas (Cic. De imp. Pomp. 37; In Verr. 2. 2. 35, 134, 2. 3. 126127, 2. 5. 59, 106, 108, 121), calumnia , , (Cic. Ad Q. fr. 1. 8. 25; In Verr. 2. 5. 108), contumelia (Cic. De leg. agr. .177 2. 63; In Caec. 3; In Pis. 35; In Verr. 2. 1. 86; Phil. 2. 13), crimen (Cic. De inv. 2. 36; De orat. 2. 135; In Pis. 35; In Verr. 2. 1. 86, 2. 2. 192, 2. 3. 130, 217, 2. 4. 48, 2. 5. 2, 24, 106, 153; Pro Flac. 7, 41, 89, 98; Pro Rosc. Amer. 86), crudelitas (Cic. Ad Att. 10. 11. 3; Ad Q. fr. 1. 8. 25; De dom. 60; De fin. 3. 75; De prov. cons. 11; In Caec. 3; In Pis. 35; In Verr. 2. 2. 9, 192, 2. 3. 4, 126, 130, 2. 5. 42, 106, 113, 121, 153, 189; Phil. 13. 18; Pro Mur. 14; Pro Rosc. Amer. 150), cupiditas (pecuniae) ( ) (Cic. De dom. 60; De fin. 2. 27, 3. 36, 75; De imp. Pomp. 37, 39; De inv. 1. 32, 42, 80, 95, 2. 33, 36; De leg. agr. 1. 9; De leg. 3. 46; De rep. 1. 60; In Verr. 1. 4. 41, 2. 1. 86, 2. 2. 35, 2. 3. 152, 2. 4. 46, 60, 68; Pro Quinct. 26, 83; Tusc. disp. 3. 73, 4. 24, 79), damnatio (Cic. In Verr. 2. 1. 8), dementia (Cic. In Verr. 2. 5. 42), discordia (Cic. Ad Q. fr. 1. 8. 25), dissensio (Cic. De fin. 4. 75), dominatio (Cic. De fin. 3. 75), egestas (Cic. Post red. in quir. 13; Pro Rosc. Amer. 86), facinus (Cic. De fin. 3. 36; De nat. deor. 3. 71; In Verr. 2. 4. 60, 68, 2. 5. 189; Phil. 2. 15; Pro Cael. 13; Pro Rosc. Amer. 75; Pro Rosc. Amer. 86), flagitium (Cic. De off. 2. 64; In Verr. 1. 4. 13, 2. 2. 134, 192, 2. 5. 107, 121; Pro Rosc. Amer. 118), fraus (Cic. Pro Mur. 14), furax (Cic. De orat. 2. 268), furor (Cic. De dom. 11; In Verr. 2. 5. 106, 153; Phil. 6. 4), furtum (Cic. In Verr. 2. 5. 59, 121), ignavia (Cic. In Verr. 2. 2. 192; Tusc. disp. 3. 17), ignominia (Cic. De leg. 3. 46; De orat. 2. 268; In Verr. 1. 4. 13), immanitas (Cic. In Verr. 2. 5. 153; Pro Rosc. Amer. 150), impietas (Cic. De inv. 1. 46), importunitas (Cic. De leg. agr. 2. 63; In Verr. 2. 3. 126), improbitas (Cic. In Verr. 2. 1. 8687, 2. 3. 152, 217, 219220, 2. 5. 59, 189; Pro Rosc. Com. 21; Pro Rosc. Amer. 118; Pro Rosc. Amer. 118), imprudentia (Cic. De inv. 1. 46; In Verr. 1. 4. 13, 2. 3. 29), impudentia (Cic. In Verr. 2. 2. 192, 2. 5. 106; Pro Rosc. Com. 21; Pro Rosc. Amer. 118), impunitas / inpunitas (Cic. De fin. 3. 36; In Verr. 2. 4. 48, 68), impuritas (Cic. In Verr. 2. 2. 192), inconstantia (Cic. Tusc. disp. 4. 24), incontinentia (Cic. De off. 3. 37), indignatio (Cic. De inv. 2. 36), indignitas (Cic. In Verr. 2. 5. 107; Pro Quinct. 83), inertia (Cic. In Verr. 2. 2. 192), infamia (Cic. In Verr. 2. 2. 192), inhumanitas (Cic. De rep. 2. 63; In Verr. 2. 2. 192, 2. 3. 4, 2. 5. 121), inimicitia (Cic. Ad fam. 8. 12. 1; De prov. cons. 11; In Verr. 2. 5. 153; Pro Cluent. 44; Pro Mur. 14; Pro Rosc. Amer. 8687), iniquitas , (Cic. In Verr. 2. 3. 103, 220), injuria (Cic. De off. 1. 24; In Verr. 2. 1. 86, 154, 2. 2. 35, 2. 3. 29, 103, 217, 220, 2. 4. 48, 68, 2. 5. 108; Pro Flac. 85), injustitia (Cic. De nat. deor. 3. 71; De off. 3. 37; De rep. 2. 63; Tusc. disp. 3. 17), inliberalitas (Cic. De off. 2. 64), insania (Cic. In Verr. 2. 2. 35; Tusc. disp. 4. 79), inscitia (Cic. De prov. cons. 11), insidiae (Cic. In Verr. 2. 2. 192), insolentia (Cic. Ad Q. fr. 1. 14. 40; De inv. 1. 42; Pro Rosc. Amer. 88), intemperantia (Cic. De fin. 2. 27; De nat. deor. 3. 71; De rep. 2. 63; Tusc. disp. 4. 60), invidia (Cic. De off. 2. 58; In Verr. 1. 4. 13, 2. 3. 217), iracundia (Cic. De imp. Pomp. 37; De rep. 1. 60; De sen. 65; Tusc. disp. 4. 79), largitio , (Cic. De off. 2. 58; Pro Cael. 13), latrocinium (Cic. Ad Q. fr. 1. 8. 25), levitas (Cic. De nat. deor. 3. 72; Phil. 6. 4), libido , (Cic. De imp. Pomp. 40; De inv. 1. 32; De nat. deor. 3. 71; De off. 3. 37; De rep. 1. 60, 2. 63; In Pis. 35; In Verr. 1. 4. 13, 2. 1. 86, 2. 2. 9, 134, 192, 2. 3. 4, 220, 2. 5. 42, 137, 189; Phil. 2. 15, 6. 4; Post red. in quir. 13; Pro Cael. 13; Tusc. disp. 3. 17, 4. 24, 60, 79), licentia (Cic. In Verr. 2. 3. 29, 220; Pro Mur. 20), luxuria / luxuries (Cic. De fin. 2. 27, 3. 75; De orat. 2. 171, 3. 168; In Verr. 2. 2. 9, 134, 2. 5. 87, 137; Pro Cael. 13; Pro Mur. 20; Pro Rosc. Amer. 75), maleficium (Cic. In Verr. 1. 4. 13; Pro Rosc. Amer. 75, 118), metus (Cic. De off. 2. 75; In Pis. 35; In Verr. 2. 5. 24, 137; Phil. 2. 15; Pro Flac. 89; Tusc. disp. 3. 17), morositas .178 (Cic. De sen. 65), nefarium (Cic. De nat. deor. 3. 71; De off. 2. 77; In Pis. 35; In Verr. 2. 1. 87, 154, 2. 4. 60), neglegentia (Cic. In Verr. 2. 3. 130; Pro Flac. 41), nequitia (Cic. In Verr. 2. 1. 70, 2. 2. 134, 192, 2. 5. 59, 87, 91, 137), odium (Cic. De dom. 60; De inv. 1. 42; De sen. 65; In Verr. 1. 14. 42, 2. 4. 68; Par. Stoic. 1. 2), parricidium (Cic. Phil. 6. 4), pecunia ( ) (Cic. De imp. Pomp. 37; De inv. 1. 80, 95, 2. 32, 36; De leg. agr. 1. 9; De leg. 3. 46; De off. 2. 75; De orat. 2. 135; In Verr. 1. 4. 13, 42, 2. 1. 128, 2. 2. 35, 2. 3. 130, 217, 219220, 2. 4. 12, 68, 2. 5. 24; Pro Cael. 13; Pro Cluent. 34; Pro Flac. 7, 89; Pro Quinct. 26; Pro Rab. Post. 21, 31; Pro Rosc. Amer. 86, 150; Tusc. disp. 4. 24, 26, 60), perfidia (Cic. In Verr. 2. 5. 189; Pro Mur. 14; Pro Rosc. Amer. 118), perjurium (Cic. In Verr. 1. 14. 42), perturbatio (animi) (), (Cic. De rep. 2. 63; Tusc. disp. 4. 79), petulantia (Cic. De inv. 2. 33; Pro Mur. 14), pravitas (Cic. De fin. 2. 27), rapacitas (Cic. In Verr. 2. 3. 4; Pro Cael. 13), rapina (Cic. In Caec. 3), redemptio (Cic. De prov. cons. 11), satietas (Cic. In Verr. 1. 4. 13), scelus (Cic. Ad Att. 10. 7. 3; De fin. 3. 36; De nat. deor. 3. 71; De off. 2. 77; In Pis. 35; In Verr. 1. 4. 13, 42, 2. 1. 70, 2. 2. 9, 2. 3. 126, 130, 152, 2. 4. 60, 2. 5. 24, 106, 108, 113, 121, 189; Pro Cael. 13; Pro Cluent. 34; Pro Flac. 41; Pro Rosc. Amer. 75, 118), seditio (Cic. Ad Q. fr. 1. 8. 25; De dom. 11; De orat. 2. 135, 3. 115; De rep. 1. 60; In Verr. 2. 1. 70), stultitia (Cic. In Verr. 2. 3. 219; Tusc. disp. 3. 17, 73), stuprum (Cic. Phil. 6. 4), superbia (Cic. De prov. cons. 11; In Caec. 3; In Verr. 2. 2. 9, 192), supplicium (Cic. In Caec. 3; In Verr. 2. 1. 8, 2. 3. 217, 2. 5. 107), temeritas (Cic. De prov. cons. 11; De rep. 1. 60; Tusc. disp. 3. 17), terror (Cic. De leg. agr. 1. 9), timiditas (Cic. De nat. deor. 3. 71), turpitudo (Cic. De fin. 4. 75; De inv. 1. 32, 2. 33; De off. 2. 77; In Pis. 35; In Verr. 2. 5. 107; Pro Cael. 13; Pro Flac. 7; Pro Quinct. 26), violatio (Cic. In Pis. 35; In Verr. 1. 4. 13), vitium (Cic. Ad Att. 10. 7. 3; De fin. 2. 27, 3. 75; De inv. 1. 32, 2. 33, 36; De leg. 3. 46; De off. 1. 24, 2. 77; De orat. 3. 168; De sen. 65; In Verr. 1. 4. 13, 2. 3. 4; Tusc. disp. 3. 17, 73, 4. 60), voluptas (Cic. De imp. Pomp. 40; In Verr. 2. 3. 4; Par. Stoic. 1. 2; Pro Cael. 13; Tusc. disp. 4. 60).

, avaritia , audacia (19 ), crimen (17 ), crudelitas (21 ), cupiditas (27 ), libido (25 ), luxuria / luxuries (11 ), pecunia (32 ), scelus (24 ), turpitudo (16 ) vitium (16 ). , , , , , , , , ,   luxuria / luxuries, avaritia, crudelitas, superbia. , , : , (qui trium pestiferorum vitiorum, luxuriae, avaritiae, crudelitatis, magister fuit) (Cic. De fin. 3. 75), , , (avaritia, superbia, crudelitate Gabini) (Cic. De prov. cons. 11), , , , , , 2 (luxuries in flagitiis, crudelitas in suppliciis, avaritia in rapinis, superbia in contumeliis) (Cic. In Caec. 3). : ,   3 (avaritiam si tollere vultis, mater ejus est tollenda, luxuries) (Cic. De orat. 2. 171) [10, . 4041]. .179 , , avaritia . , , (Nullum igitur vitium taetrius est, ut eo, unde digressa est, referat se oratio, quam avaritia, praesertim in principibus et rem publicam gubernantibus) (Cic. De off. 2. 77). libido, , . , ,   , , , (Hoc praetore tantum quisque habet in Sicilia, quantum hominis avarissimi et libidinosissimi aut imprudentiam subterfugit, aut satietati superfuit) (Cic. In Verr. 1. 4. 13). : [   . ] : , , , , 4 (in hoc uno genere omnis inesse culpas istius maximas avaritiae, majestatis, dementiae, libidinis, crudelitatis) (Cic. In Verr. 2. 5. 42).

avaritia - ( ), : abstinentia (Cic. In Verr. 2. 4. 46, 48), aequitas , (Cic. Ad fam. 8. 12. 1; In Verr. 2. 3. 220), amicitia (Cic. Ad fam. 8. 12. 1; De inv. 1. 42, 95; In Verr. 2. 3. 103, 2. 4. 60; Pro Cael. 13; Pro Quinct. 26), auctoritas (Cic. De inv. 2. 33; In Verr. 2. 3. 127, 219, 2. 4. 60, 2. 5. 108; Pro Rab. Post. 21), beneficium (Cic. De nat. deor. 3. 71; In Verr. 2. 2. 9; Pro Flac. 85), benevolentia (Cic. De off. 2. 75), benignitas (Cic. Pro Rab. Post. 3), bonitas (Cic. De fin. 3. 36, 75, 4. 73; Pro Flac. 98; Pro Rab. Post. 3; Pro Rosc. Com. 21), caritas (Cic. De dom. 11; De off. 2. 58; In Verr. 2. 3. 217), clementia (Cic. Ad Q. fr. 1. 8. 25), cogitatio (Cic. De nat. deor. 3. 71; De off. 1. 24; In Verr. 2. 2. 134; Par. Stoic. 1. 2; Tusc. disp. 4. 24), cognitio , (Cic. De imp. Pomp. 40), conscientia , (Cic. In Verr. 2. 3. 130), constantia (Cic. De fin. 3. 75; Pro Flac. 89; Tusc. disp. 4. 60), continentia (Cic. De off. 2. 75; De prov. cons. 11; In Verr. 2. 3. 119), decorum (Cic. De off. 2. 64), dignitas (Cic. In Verr. 2. 1. 86, 2. 4. 68; Pro Flac. 85; Pro Mur. 14), diligentia (Cic. Ad Q. fr. 1. 8. 25; In Verr. 2. 2. 190, 2. 3. 103, 2. 5. 42; Pro Rosc. Amer. 75), fides (Cic. De fin. 4. 75; De orat. 3. 168; In Verr. 2. 5. 106, 108, 137, 189; Pro Flac. 89; Pro Quinct. 26), fortitudo (Cic. In Verr. 2. 2. 192, 2. 3. 103, 2. 5. 153; Phil. 13. 18; Pro Rab. Post. 3; Tusc. disp. 3. 17), frugalitas (Cic. In Verr. 2. 2. 192; Tusc. disp. 3. 17), gloria (Cic. De orat. 3. 115; De rep. 1. 60; Pro Rab. Post. 21; Tusc. disp. 3. 73, 4. 79), gratia (Cic. Pro Cael. 13), gravitas , (Cic. De inv. 2. 36; De leg. agr. 1. 9; In Verr. 2. 1. 86, 2. 4. 68; Tusc. disp. 4. 60), honestas / honestum - (Cic. De fin. 3. 36, 75, 4. 73, 75; De inv. 2. 3233, 36; De leg. agr. 1. 9; De off. 2. 64; De prov. cons. 11; In Verr. 2. 2. 190, 2. 4. 46, 2. 5. 107, 137; Phil. 13. 18), honor (Cic. De leg. 3. 46; De off. 2. 58; In Verr. 1. 4. 13), humanitas (Cic. Ad Q. fr. 1. 8. 25; In Verr. 2. 3. 220, 2. 4. 12, 2. 5. 108), imperium (Cic. De leg. agr. 1. 9; De rep. 1. 60; In Verr. 1. 4. 13, 2. 5. 59, 137; Post red. in quir. 13), indulgentia (Cic. Ad Att. 10. 7. 3, 10. 11. 3), industria (Cic. De off. 1. 24; In Verr. 2. 3. 103), innocentia (Cic. In Verr. 2. 1. 8, 2. 3. 119, 190, 217, .180 2. 5. 106, 113, 121; Phil. 2. 15; Pro Flac. 98; Pro Rosc. Amer. 75), integritas (Cic. In Verr. 2. 1. 86; Pro Mur. 14), intellegentia (Cic. In Verr. 2. 4. 46), jus (Cic. De leg. agr. 1. 9; In Verr. 2. 5. 59), justitia (Cic. De orat. 3. 168; Pro Rosc. Amer. 75), labor , (Cic. De prov. cons. 11; Pro Cael. 13), lex (Cic. De leg. agr. 1. 9, 2. 63; De leg. 3. 46; De off. 2. 75; De orat. 2. 135; De rep. 2. 63; In Verr. 2. 3. 120, 127, 217, 219220, 2. 5. 59; Pro Flac. 89), liberalitas (Cic. De off. 2. 64; Pro Flac. 85, 89; Pro Rosc. Com. 2122), libertas (Cic. Ad Q. fr. 1. 8. 25; Phil. 2. 13), magnitudo animi (Cic. Pro Rab. Post. 3), mansuetudo (Cic. Ad Q. fr. 1. 8. 25), misericordia (Cic. Ad Att. 10. 11. 3; Pro Rosc. Amer. 150), moderatio (Cic. Tusc. disp. 3. 17), mos (Cic. De sen. 65), munificentia (Cic. Pro Rosc. Com. 22), officium (Cic. De inv. 1. 80; In Verr. 2. 1. 94, 2. 3. 220; Pro Quinct. 26), parsimonia (Cic. De prov. cons. 11; Pro Rosc. Amer. 75), perseverantia (Cic. De part. orat. 65), pietas (Cic. In Verr. 2. 4. 12; Pro Quinct. 26), potestas (Cic. De leg. agr. 2. 63; In Verr. 1. 4. 13, 2. 4. 60; Phil. 6. 4; Pro Flac. 83), probitas (Cic. De rep. 1. 60; De sen. 65; Pro Flac. 89; Pro Rosc. Com. 21), prudentia (Cic. Tusc. disp. 3. 17), pudentia (Cic. In Verr. 2. 1. 94; Pro Flac. 89; Pro Rosc. Com. 21), ratio (Cic. Ad Q. fr. 1. 14. 40; De fin. 3. 75; De inv. 2. 32; De nat. deor. 3. 7172; In Verr. 2. 2. 134, 2. 3. 190), religio (Cic. De orat. 2. 268; In Caec. 3; In Verr. 1. 4. 13, 2. 1. 8, 2. 4. 12, 46; Pro Flac. 89), salus (Cic. De off. 2. 58; In Caec. 3; In Verr. 2. 5. 153; Post red. in quir. 13; Pro Flac. 98), sapientia (Cic. De fin. 3. 75; De inv. 1. 80; In Verr. 2. 5. 113; Pro Flac. 41, 98), severitas (Cic. De sen. 65; In Verr. 2. 3. 220), temperantia (Cic. De imp. Pomp. 40), veritas (Cic. Pro Quinct. 26), virtus , (Cic. De fin. 3. 36; De off. 2. 75; De orat. 3. 168; De prov. cons. 11; In Verr. 2. 5. 91; Tusc. disp. 3. 17).

, - (honestas / honestum), ( , , ) (officia), , - (amicitia, auctoritas, dignitas, imperium, jus, lex, libertas, mos, pietas, potestas, religio .). , , 5 (viro primario, locupleti honestoque equite Romano), (Cic. In Verr. 2. 4. 46). , , (Tum praedonum dux Heracleo, repente praeter spem non sua virtute sed istius avaritia nequitiaque victor, classem pulcherrimam populi Romani in litus expulsam et ejectam, cum primum invesperasceret, inflammari incendique jussit) (Cic. In Verr. 2. 5. 91). , sapientia, cogitatio, cognitio, conscientia ., avaritia. , , , , , 6 (nam ipsum Verrem tantum avaritia semper hiante atque imminente fuisse, ingenio et cogitatione nulla) (Cic. In Verr. 2. 2. 134). :   justitia,   avaritia (In urbe luxuries creatur, ex luxuria exsistat avaritia necesse est, ex avaritia erumpat .181 audacia, inde omnia scelera ac maleficia gignuntur; vita autem haec rustica quam tu agrestem vocas parsimoniae, diligentiae, justitiae magistra est) (Cic. Pro Rosc. Amer. 75). , , (L. Luculle pro tua eximia liberalitate maximisque beneficiis in tuos venisse hereditates) , , , 7 (an tuum nulla avaritia salva dignitate retinebis) (Cic. Pro Flac. 85). (Age vero: ceteris in rebus qua ille sit temperantia considerate) , (non avaritia ab instituto cursu ad praedam aliquam devocavit, non libido ad voluptatem) (Cic. De imp. Pomp. 40), . . . , : avaritia  officium. : , , 8 (nullum esse officium tam sanctum atque sollemne quod non avaritia comminuere ac violare soleat) (Cic. Pro Quinct. 26).

avaritia lex jus. , , , . , , ,   , 9 (Ubi enim semel ab annonae ratione et ab aratorum voluntate res ad praetoris libidinem translata est, non est jam in lege neque in officio, sed in voluntate hominum atque avaritia positus modus aestimandi) (Cic. In Verr. 2. 3. 220). avaritia jus , : , , - , , , , ?10 (Itaque ne tum quidem cum classem avaritia ac nequitia tua perdidisti Mamertinis navem imperare ausus es Ea fuit merces imperi, auxili, juris, consuetudinis, foederis?) (Cic. In Verr. 2. 5. 59).

avaritia, , , , : -, luxuria / luxuries, crudelitas superbia avaritia - . -, (honestum / honestas, virtus, officium, justitia, liberalitas, cogitatio, temperantia .) - (dignitas, jus, lex .).

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: . . Avaritia -  // . . . 2017. 9 (22). . 175183. : http://www.bulletennauki.com/bragova ( 15.09.2017).

Cite as (APA): Bragova, A. (2017). Avarice as an important constituent of the ethical, philosophical and political conceptual apparatus of Ciceros works. Bulletin of Science and Practice, (9), 175183.


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