So-called “Vase of Patroclus”, side A. Detail
Red-figured volute-krater. Apulia.
Darius Painter.
Clay. 340—320 BCE.
Naples, National Archaeological MuseumInv. No. 81954 (?).

So-called “Vase of Patroclus”, side A. Detail.

Red-figured volute-krater. Apulia.
Darius Painter.
Clay. 340—320 BCE.
Inv. No. 81954 (?).

Naples, National Archaeological Museum
(Napoli, Museo archeologico nazionale di Napoli)

Origin:
From Canosa.
Description:
Oblique shaped rim, broad cylindrical neck, ovoid body tapering towards the bottom with an almost horizontal shoulder, vertical rod handles ending in the upper part on the rim, in spirals with impressed protoms of female faces on the inside, and in the lower part on the shoulder, in swans’ heads, high funnel-shaped base.

On the neck, side A: Oedipus, naked, with chlamys, club and quiver, and the Sphinx in the presence of a Fury, surrounded by plant volutes and flowers; side B: Dionysius, with garland and thyrsus, Arianna with patera and headbands, Silenus seated with kantharos and thyrsus, a group formed of Maenad with thyrsus hanging from a headband and Silenus with patera and laurel branch; on the shoulder, palmettes alternating with lotus flowers and an ovoid motif; around the grotesque masks of the handles, there are spirals, plant volutes, rosettes and bell-shaped flowers; beneath the handles, there are palmettes, plant volutes and leaves; on the body, beneath the figurative scenes, there is a meandering motif and on the base, sprays of ivy.

On the body the figurative scene is structured into three overlapping registers.

Side A: in the upper register, the cloaked figures of Nestor and Phoenix, with long sticks, in discussion on a kline (couch) under an awning; on the left, there are two warriors and a female figure (Briseis?) leaning on the awning, on the right Athena, Hermes and Pan.

In the second register: in the centre, there is the funeral pyre of Patroclus with the hero’s weapons, on the left, Achilles in the act of sacrificing a Trojan, followed by three other seated prisoners with their hands bound awaiting the same fate; on the right, Agamemnon, in the act of carrying out a ritual libation, a female figure (Thesis or Clytemnestra) with a diadem on her head, followed by a handmaiden with a fan and patera.

In the lower register: Automedon on a war chariot while dragging the lifeless body of Hector, preceded by two women in the act of pouring water in preparation for the cleansing of the dead hero, followed by another Trojan prisoner.

Side B: farewell scene on three registers with a small funeral temple in the centre, from the ceiling of which a helmet, a shield and two chariot wheels are hanging. Inside there is a naked warrior conversing with a seated female figure, accompanied by a servant. On the sides of the building there are eight figures arranged on two levels: a young man seated with a wreath and headband, and a female figure offering gifts with a box and ribbon; a young man in the act of offering an amphora to a female figure seated on the pedestal of the temple; a naked young man, seated, with a club and patera and standing female figure with a wreath and fan; a woman seated with a casket and musical instrument and the standing figure of a naked young man, with chlamys and ribbon. Finally, in the lower register, there are five nude warriors, with spears, helmets and shields.

Accessory decoration: on the lip, ovolo pattern; on the neck, from the top downwards, berries and laurel leaf shoots interspersed with bell-shaped flowers converging towards a rosette, wavy motif, palmettes paired on side A, ivy shoots and corymbs on side B.

In the krater, in which the main theme is therefore the funeral of Patroclus, the anti-Persian propaganda is quite clearly indicated by the association of the Persians with the Trojans, who were defeated by the Greeks. The tripartite pattern, with a narrative divided into several episodes beginning from the bottom upwards, adopted by the Darius Painter to whom the vase is attributed, recalls the compositional models of the famous Greek painter Apelles.

Literature:
Heydemann 1872a, n. 3254, pp. 579-584; Ruesch 1956; Spinazzola 1928, n. 201, p. XXXII; Rocco 1953, pp. 176-180; Schmidt 1960, pp. 32-42; de Franciscis 1963, p. 67, fig. 40; Moret 1975, I, n. 144, pp. 214-215; LIMC I, 1, 1981, p. 118, s.v. Achilleus, n. 487; LIMC I, 2, 1981, p. 108; LIMC I, 1, 1981, p. 140, s.v. Achilleus, n. 603; LIMC I, 2, 1981, p. 117; LIMC I, 1, 1981, pp. 266-267, s.v. Agamennon, n. 58; LIMC I, 2, 1981, p. 198; LIMC I, 1, 1981, p. 834, s.v. Antilochos I, n. 17; RVAp II, 1982, n. 39, p. 495; LIMC II, 1, 1984, p. 998, s.v. Athena, n. 465; LIMC II, 2, 1984, p. 753; LIMC III, 1, 1986, p. 59, s.v. Automedon, n. 23; LIMC III, 2, 1986, p. 55; LIMC III, 1, 1986, p. 161, s.v. Briseis, n. 20; LIMC III, 2, 1986, p. 136; LIMC III, 1, 1986, p. 838, s.v. Erinys, n. 104; Orlandini 1986, p. 520, fig. 620; Moreno 1987a, pp. 196-197, fig. 189; LIMC IV, 1, 1988, p. 302, s.v. Gorgo, Gorgones, n. 185; LIMC IV, 1, 1988, p. 491, s.v. Hektor, n. 72; LIMC IV, 2, 1988, p. 288; RFVSIS 1989, pp. 89-90, fig. 204 e bibliografia; LIMC V, 1, 1990,pp. 737-738, s.v. Iphis, n. 3; Cassano 1992, n. 2, pp. 180-182; De Caro 1994, p. 79; LIMC VII, 1, 1994, p. 8, s.v. Oidipous, n. 67; LIMC VII, 2, 1994, p. 12; LIMC VII, 1, 1994, p. 1063, s.v. Nestor, n. 26; LIMC VII, 2, 1994, p. 754; I Greci in Occidente MANN 1996, n. 11.16, pp. 153-154, tav. a p. 136; LIMC VIII, 1, 1997, p. 986, s.v. Phoinix II, n. 12; De Caro 1999, pp. 209-210; Agonismo 2002, n. 2, p. 9. Sul Pittore di Dario, RVA p II, 1982, pp. 482-522, pp. 84-135; Borriello, Rubino 2003, pp. 53 e 57.
Credits:
© 2006. Photo, text: ILIADE. Electa, 2006, p. 115, fig. 1.
© 2006 Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali.
© 2006 Mondadori Electa S.p.A., Milano.
© Photo: Scala Group, Firenze.
© 2017. Description: http://cir.campania.beniculturali.it
Keywords: κεραμικά ceramics ceramica keramik céramique ελλάδα grecia graecia hellas greece grecia griechenland grèce ελληνική μυθολογία mythologia graeca greek mythology mitologia greca griechische mythologie grecque αυτομέδοντας automedon automedonte automédon βασιλιάς ἀγαμέμνων αγαμέμνων αγαμέμνονας rex agamemnon king re agamennone herrscher roi θεά αθηνά παλλὰς ἀθηνᾶ ἀθήνη athene athena pallas goddess dea atena göttin déesse athéna athéné ἀχιλλεύς αχιλλέας achilleus achilles hero eroe achille heros achill héros βρισηΐς βρισηίδα βρισηίς ἱπποδάμεια ιπποδάμεια briseis hippodamia hippodámeia briseide ippodamia briséis hippodamie ἕκτωρ έκτορας hektor hector hero eroe ettore held héros ἑρμῆς ερμής ἑρμείας hermeias hermes ermes ermete hermès κλυταιμήστρα klytemnestra clytaemnestra clytemestra clytemnestra clitennestra clitemestra klytaimnestra klytaimestra clytemnestre νέστωρ γερήνιος nestor gerenios nestor of gerenia nestore πάν πανός deus pan god dio hirtengott divinité πάτροκλος πατροκλῆς patroklos patrokles patroclus patroclo patrocle τρωικός πόλεμος bellum troianum trojan war guerra di troia trojanischer krieg guerre de troie φοῖνιξ phoinix φοίνιξ ο θεσσαλός phoenix king re fenice könig phoinix roi phénix phœnix θέτις thetis teti thétis bracelet braccialetto bracciale armband armreif armilla βραχιόλι sacrificial libation libagione trankopfer libatio σπονδή sacrifice sacrificio opfer oblatio sacrificium θυσία furniture mobile möbel meubles έπιπλα sword spada schwert épée ensis ξίφος σπαθί male footwear footgear calzatura maschile männerschuhe chaussures pour hommes ανδρικά παπούτσια male dress clothes clothing garment abbigliamento maschile herrenbekleidung vêtements pour hommes ανδρικά ρούχα scabbard sheath fodero guaina scheide fourreau vagina θήκη baldric balteo wehrgehänge balteus armour armor armatura rüstung armure πανοπλία crest crested helmet elmo crestato kammhelm casque à crête κράνος λοφίο greek circular round shield scudo rotondo greco griechischer rundschild bouclier rond grec aspis ἀσπίς ασπίδα topboot boot boots stivali stiefel bottes endromis cothurnus ἐνδρομίς sandal sandals sandalo sandali sandale solea πέδιλα σάμβαλα σάνδᾰλον σανδάλια σανδάλι chitone chiton khiton χιτών horse horses cavallo cavalli pferd pferde cheval chevaux equus equi ίππος άλογα quadrige quadriga quadrigae cloak mantello mantel manteau μανδύα head of gorgon medusa testa di gorgone gorgonenhaupt medusenhaupt gorgoneion gorgonion γοργόνειον anatomical cuirass muscular cuirass corazza anatomica muskelpanzer cuirasse musculaire musclée héroïque lorica musculata greave greaves schiniere schinieri gambiera gambieri beinschiene beinschienen cnémide cnémides knemis knemides ocrea ocreae κνημῖδες warrior soldier guerriero soldato milite krieger soldat guerrier πολεμιστής στρατιώτης spear lancia speer lance hasta δόρυ ègida egida ägis égide aegis aigis αἰγίς αιγίδα αιγίς phrygian cap berretto frigio cappello frigio berretina phrygische mütze bonnet phrygien patera caduceo hermesstab merkurstab heroldsstab caducée kerykeion caduceus κηρύκειον κηρύκειο diadem diadème diadema διάδημα wheel ruota rad roue τροχός necklace collana halskette collier torquis κολιέ servant maidservant housemaid domestica ancella fantesca serva dienstmädchen dienerin domestique servante ancilla shoulder-strap straps shoulder guard guards shoulderguard shoulderguards achselklappe achselklappen tack harness finimenti geschirr harnachement spearhead punta di lancia speerspitze fer de lance αιχμή δόρατος with bound hands hands tying tied mani legate legatura gefesselte hände binden attacher les mains liées δεσμευμένα χέρια δεσίματος helmet elmo pileo helm casque cassis pilos πῖλος belt cintura cingolo gurt gürtel ceinture ζώνη pillow cuscino kissen polster oreiller pulvinus μαξιλάρι stick randello bastone stab stock bâton bourdon canopy baldachin awning baldacchino baldaquin fan ventaglio flabello fächer éventail jug brocca krug broc κανάτα execution esecuzione ausführung exécution εκτέλεση bed couch letto bett klinê lit couche kline lectus triclinaris κλίνη plume penna penni pennacchio feder conversation intervista unterhaltung war chariot carro da guerra kriegswagen char de guerre funeral pyre pira funeraria bûcher funéraire burial interment funeral sepoltura funerale erdbestattung beerdigung begräbnis enterrement funérailles κηδεία weapon weapons arm arms arma armi waffe waffen arme armes όπλα οπλισμός clay argilla creta lehm ton argile πηλός trojan troiano troiani trojaner troyen troyennes captive prigioniero gefangene captif pole shaft stanga deichsel timon ablution of body abluzione del corpo waschung des körpers ablution du corps adornment adornments adornamento adornamenti schmuck verzierungen ornement cauldron calderone kessel lébès chaudron lebes λέβης from da aus de canosa darius painter pittore di dario dareios-maler peintre de bucranio bukranion bucrane bucranium βουκράνιον βουκράνιο javelin throwing spear giavellotto lancia da lancio frame framea speer speerwurf javelot peltarion pelte pelta πέλτη πέλτα peltast peltasta peltaste peltastes πελταστής vase of patroclus apulian red-figure red-figured crater krater volute-crater volute-krater apulia inv no 81954 inv no 81953 inv no 81393
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