So-called “Vase of Patroclus”, side A
Red-figured volute-krater. Apulia.
Darius Painter.
Clay. 340—320 BCE.
Inv. No. 81954 (?).Naples, National Archaeological Museum

So-called “Vase of Patroclus”, side A.

Red-figured volute-krater. Apulia.
Darius Painter.
Clay. 340—320 BCE.
Inv. No. 81954 (?).

Naples, National Archaeological Museum
(Napoli, Museo archeologico nazionale).

From Canosa.
Oblique shaped rim, broad cylindrical neck, ovoid body tapering towards the bottom with an almost horizontal shoulder, vertical rod handles ending in the upper part on the rim, in spirals with impressed protoms of female faces on the inside, and in the lower part on the shoulder, in swans’ heads, high funnel-shaped base.

On the neck, side A: Oedipus, naked, with chlamys, club and quiver, and the Sphinx in the presence of a Fury, surrounded by plant volutes and flowers; side B: Dionysius, with garland and thyrsus, Arianna with patera and headbands, Silenus seated with kantharos and thyrsus, a group formed of Maenad with thyrsus hanging from a headband and Silenus with patera and laurel branch; on the shoulder, palmettes alternating with lotus flowers and an ovoid motif; around the grotesque masks of the handles, there are spirals, plant volutes, rosettes and bell-shaped flowers; beneath the handles, there are palmettes, plant volutes and leaves; on the body, beneath the figurative scenes, there is a meandering motif and on the base, sprays of ivy.

On the body the figurative scene is structured into three overlapping registers.

Side A: in the upper register, the cloaked figures of Nestor and Phoenix, with long sticks, in discussion on a kline (couch) under an awning; on the left, there are two warriors and a female figure (Briseis?) leaning on the awning, on the right Athena, Hermes and Pan.

In the second register: in the centre, there is the funeral pyre of Patroclus with the hero’s weapons, on the left, Achilles in the act of sacrificing a Trojan, followed by three other seated prisoners with their hands bound awaiting the same fate; on the right, Agamemnon, in the act of carrying out a ritual libation, a female figure (Thesis or Clytemnestra) with a diadem on her head, followed by a handmaiden with a fan and patera.

In the lower register: Automedon on a war chariot while dragging the lifeless body of Hector, preceded by two women in the act of pouring water in preparation for the cleansing of the dead hero, followed by another Trojan prisoner.

Side B: farewell scene on three registers with a small funeral temple in the centre, from the ceiling of which a helmet, a shield and two chariot wheels are hanging. Inside there is a naked warrior conversing with a seated female figure, accompanied by a servant. On the sides of the building there are eight figures arranged on two levels: a young man seated with a wreath and headband, and a female figure offering gifts with a box and ribbon; a young man in the act of offering an amphora to a female figure seated on the pedestal of the temple; a naked young man, seated, with a club and patera and standing female figure with a wreath and fan; a woman seated with a casket and musical instrument and the standing figure of a naked young man, with chlamys and ribbon. Finally, in the lower register, there are five nude warriors, with spears, helmets and shields.

Accessory decoration: on the lip, ovolo pattern; on the neck, from the top downwards, berries and laurel leaf shoots interspersed with bell-shaped flowers converging towards a rosette, wavy motif, palmettes paired on side A, ivy shoots and corymbs on side B.

In the krater, in which the main theme is therefore the funeral of Patroclus, the anti-Persian propaganda is quite clearly indicated by the association of the Persians with the Trojans, who were defeated by the Greeks. The tripartite pattern, with a narrative divided into several episodes beginning from the bottom upwards, adopted by the Darius Painter to whom the vase is attributed, recalls the compositional models of the famous Greek painter Apelles.

Heydemann 1872a, n. 3254, pp. 579-584; Ruesch 1956; Spinazzola 1928, n. 201, p. XXXII; Rocco 1953, pp. 176-180; Schmidt 1960, pp. 32-42; de Franciscis 1963, p. 67, fig. 40; Moret 1975, I, n. 144, pp. 214-215; LIMC I, 1, 1981, p. 118, s.v. Achilleus, n. 487; LIMC I, 2, 1981, p. 108; LIMC I, 1, 1981, p. 140, s.v. Achilleus, n. 603; LIMC I, 2, 1981, p. 117; LIMC I, 1, 1981, pp. 266-267, s.v. Agamennon, n. 58; LIMC I, 2, 1981, p. 198; LIMC I, 1, 1981, p. 834, s.v. Antilochos I, n. 17; RVAp II, 1982, n. 39, p. 495; LIMC II, 1, 1984, p. 998, s.v. Athena, n. 465; LIMC II, 2, 1984, p. 753; LIMC III, 1, 1986, p. 59, s.v. Automedon, n. 23; LIMC III, 2, 1986, p. 55; LIMC III, 1, 1986, p. 161, s.v. Briseis, n. 20; LIMC III, 2, 1986, p. 136; LIMC III, 1, 1986, p. 838, s.v. Erinys, n. 104; Orlandini 1986, p. 520, fig. 620; Moreno 1987a, pp. 196-197, fig. 189; LIMC IV, 1, 1988, p. 302, s.v. Gorgo, Gorgones, n. 185; LIMC IV, 1, 1988, p. 491, s.v. Hektor, n. 72; LIMC IV, 2, 1988, p. 288; RFVSIS 1989, pp. 89-90, fig. 204 e bibliografia; LIMC V, 1, 1990,pp. 737-738, s.v. Iphis, n. 3; Cassano 1992, n. 2, pp. 180-182; De Caro 1994, p. 79; LIMC VII, 1, 1994, p. 8, s.v. Oidipous, n. 67; LIMC VII, 2, 1994, p. 12; LIMC VII, 1, 1994, p. 1063, s.v. Nestor, n. 26; LIMC VII, 2, 1994, p. 754; I Greci in Occidente MANN 1996, n. 11.16, pp. 153-154, tav. a p. 136; LIMC VIII, 1, 1997, p. 986, s.v. Phoinix II, n. 12; De Caro 1999, pp. 209-210; Agonismo 2002, n. 2, p. 9. Sul Pittore di Dario, RVA p II, 1982, pp. 482-522, pp. 84-135; Borriello, Rubino 2003, pp. 53 e 57.
© 2006. Photo, text: Iliade. Electa, 2006, p. 115, fig. 1.
© 2006. Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali.
© 2006. Mondadori Electa S.p.A., Milano.
© Photo: Scala Group, Firenze.
© 2017. Description:
Keywords: κεραμικά ceramics clay terracotta ceramica keramik céramique ελληνική μυθολογία mythologia graeca greek mythology mitologia greca griechische mythologie grecque θεά αθηνά παλλὰς ἀθηνᾶ ἀθήνη athene athena pallas goddess dea atena göttin déesse athéna athéné ἑρμῆς ερμής ἑρμείας hermeias hermes ermes ermete hermès πάν πανός deus pan god dio hirtengott divinité νοτιοταλικό southitalian southern italy mezzogiorno meridione süditalienisch süditalien suditalien ἀχιλλεύς αχιλλέας achilleus achilles hero eroe achille heros achill héros πάτροκλος πατροκλῆς patroklos patrokles patroclus patroclo patrocle ἕκτωρ έκτορας hektor hector ettore held κλυταιμήστρα klytemnestra clytaemnestra clytemestra clytemnestra clitennestra clitemestra klytaimnestra klytaimestra clytemnestre βασιλιάς ἀγαμέμνων αγαμέμνων αγαμέμνονας rex agamemnon king re agamennone herrscher roi αυτομέδοντας automedon automedonte automédon βρισηΐς βρισηίδα βρισηίς ἱπποδάμεια ιπποδάμεια briseis hippodamia hippodámeia briseide ippodamia briséis hippodamie θέτις thetis teti thétis νέστωρ γερήνιος nestor gerenios of gerenia nestore φοῖνιξ phoinix φοίνιξ ο θεσσαλός phoenix fenice könig phénix phœnix τρωικός πόλεμος bellum troianum trojan war guerra di troia trojanischer krieg guerre de troie technique tecnica vasenmalerei ερυθρόμορφος red figure red-figure red-figured a rosse rotfigurige rotfiguriger à figures rouges κρατήρ κρατήρας krater сrater cratere cratère apulia apulian apula apulische apulienne ελικοειδής volute volutenkrater volutes male dress clothes clothing garment abbigliamento maschile herrenbekleidung vêtements pour hommes ανδρικά ρούχα footwear footgear calzatura männerschuhe chaussures παπούτσια armilla bracelet braccialetto bracciale armband armreif armspange spange βραχιόλι furniture mobile möbel meubles έπιπλα oblatio sacrificium sacrifice sacrificio opfer θυσία libatio sacrificial libation libagione trankopfer σπονδή σπονδαί ensis sword spada schwert épée ξίφος σπαθί vagina scabbard sheath fodero guaina scheide fourreau θήκη balteus baldric balteo wehrgehänge armour armor armatura rüstung armure πανοπλία crista crest crested helmet elmo crestato kammhelm casque crête κράνος λοφίο κρωβύλος κρώβυλος aspis circular round shield scudo rotondo greco griechischer rundschild rundem schild bouclier rond grec ἀσπίς ασπίδα endromis endromidis endromides cothurnus topboot boot boots stivali endromide stiefel stiefeln bottes ἐνδρομίς solea sandal sandals sandalo sandali sandale πέδιλα σάμβαλα σάνδᾰλον σανδάλια σανδάλι chiton khiton chitone χιτών equus equi horse horses cavallo cavalli pferd pferde cheval chevaux ίππος άλογα quadriga quadrigae quadrige cloak mantello mantel manteau μανδύα gorgoneion gorgonion head gorgon medusa testa gorgone gorgonenhaupt medusenhaupt γοργόνειον lorica musculata anatomical cuirass muscular corazza anatomica muskelpanzer cuirasse musculaire musclée héroïque knemis knemides ocrea ocreae greave greaves schiniere schinieri gambiera gambieri beinschiene beinschienen cnémide cnémides κνημῖδες warrior soldier guerriero soldato milite krieger soldat guerrier πολεμιστής στρατιώτης hasta spear lancia speer lance δόρυ aegis aigis ègida egida ägis égide αἰγίς αιγίδα αιγίς maeonia mitra phrygian cap berretto frigio cappello berretina phrygische mütze bonnet phrygien patera kerykeion caduceus caduceo hermesstab merkurstab heroldsstab caducée κηρύκειον κηρύκειο diadema diadem diadème διάδημα wheel ruota rad roue τροχός torquis necklace collana halskette collier κολιέ ancilla servant maidservant housemaid domestica ancella fantesca serva dienstmädchen dienerin domestique servante shoulder-strap straps shoulder guard guards shoulderguard shoulderguards achselklappe achselklappen tack harness finimenti geschirr harnachement spearhead punta speerspitze fer αιχμή δόρατος with bound hands tying tied mani legate legatura gefesselte hände binden attacher les mains liées δεσμευμένα χέρια δεσίματος cassis pilos pileo helm πῖλος belt cintura cingolo gurt gürtel ceinture ζώνη pulvinus pillow cuscino kissen polster oreiller μαξιλάρι baculum stick randello bastone stab stock bâton bourdon canopy baldachin awning baldacchino baldaquin fan ventaglio flabello fächer éventail jug pitcher brocca krug broc κανάτα execution esecuzione ausführung exécution εκτέλεση kline lectus triclinaris bed couch letto bett klinê lit couche κλίνη plume penna penni pennacchio feder conversation intervista unterhaltung chariot carro da kriegswagen char funeral pyre pira funeraria bûcher funéraire burial interment sepoltura funerale erdbestattung beerdigung begräbnis enterrement funérailles κηδεία weapon weapons arm arms arma armi waffe waffen arme armes όπλα οπλισμός argilla creta lehm ton argile πηλός troiano troiani trojaner troyen troyennes captive prigioniero gefangene captif pole shaft stanga deichsel timon ablution body abluzione del corpo waschung des körpers du corps adornment adornments adornamento adornamenti schmuck verzierungen ornement lebes cauldron calderone kessel lébès chaudron λέβης canosa from von darius painter pittore dario dareios-maler peintre bucranium bucranio bukranion bucrane βουκράνιον βουκράνιο javelin throwing giavellotto lancio frame framea speerwurf javelot pelte pelta peltarion πέλτη πέλτα peltastes peltast peltasta peltaste πελταστής vase inv no 81954 (?) 81953 81393~ h 3254~