| | |
. .

: 54 . . .

Iranica. - VI . . . VI . . . , 2017. C. 284298.

.284 . , , . , . , , , . :

, , ;

, , (εὐχεροῦς δὴ καὶ ἐνδόξου καὶ ἐπικερδοῦς) (App. BC. II. 18. 65; cp. Cass. Dio. XL. 12. 1) 1;

, ;

, , ,   -, , ;

53 . . ., , , .285 , , . .2

: - , 3.

,   . , , , , , , , , . , , . , , , , , 4. , ; , , , , 5. , , , ( ), , , ,  , , 6. , , 7.

.286 , . . . , 8. . , , , , ,  9. . , 10. , . , , , :   (anecdotal) 11. , , ζήτησις τῆς ἀληθείας , .

, . , . , , . , , , , , . , , : , , , , , , 12. , , , . 13, , . , .

.287 , 55 . . . , , , . , 29 . ,   . , , , 14. , , : , 15.

, , . 58/57 . . . III , 16. , , .288 - 17. II, , . (, 55 . . .). , (Strabo. XII. 3. 34). , 18. ; , , .

19. . . -, , 20; , . -, , , ,   , . , : ? , , , 21. . , , , ,   !  .289 22. , 23, , , , , 24.

  // . , .   ? , , , 25, , . , . , 26. : , , ? ? , : , 27.

.290 , ,   , 28. , : (Κράσσῳ δὲ Συρίαν καὶ τὴν ἐπὶ Πάρθους στρατείαν διδόντας) (Pomp. 52. 3)29. , , , . , rebellantes Parthes (Brev. 17). - : , 30. . , , 31. , , : , (, , ?). , , , , , 32.

.291 , , . ,   , , , , ! , , 33. , ,   , , - 34.

: .   , , . , , , , (Cass. Dio. XXXIX. 60. 4).

54 . . . : , (Plut. Crass. 17. 47; Cass. Dio. XL. 12. 213. 14). , , . : , , , (Plut. Crass. 17. 8); , .292 (Cass. Dio. XL. 13. 4). , , , 53 . . . (Plut. Crass. 17. 9)35.

, ,   , (χρηματιστικὰς μᾶλλον οὔσας ἢ στρατηγικάς). , , . , , . ,   , ! , - . 54 . . . . , 36. , , , 37. : , , 7 . 1 . , . , , 54/53 . . .38 , , , 39. .293 , (,   . 40). , 54/53 . . .   , 41.

, ,  . ; , . , : , .   , , . 42, . , ,  ,  , , , , ,   . , , , . (Plut. Crass. 19. 13). , , , . : ,     , , , , , , . , , , , (Ibid. 22. 2).

, 43. .   . .294 , , ,   , , , 44. , . , , , 45  . , , - . , -, , , , , , . -, , , , (Cass. Dio. XL. 16. 2)46.

, 47. : (πολλοὺς καὶ ἀγαθοὺς Ῥωμαίων ἄνδρας ἀπέλιπεν)48. , , . . 49. , , .295 . 50, 51. , , 53 . . . , 52.

: ? . ., . , 53. , , . , : , , , , - , - ! , (Cass. Dio. XL. 19. 12)54. 55, , , . . .

, , , . : , 56.

.296 , , , , . . , . : . , , , , , . , , . ( , , , ) ; , 57.




The Parthian campaign of Crassus: some aspects of the campaign of 54 BC

E. V. Smykov


The article examines the initial stage of the Parthian war of M. Licinius Crassus. It attempts to show that, contrary to popular belief, Crassus invasion in Parthia was not an act of pure aggression but an attempt to help the deposed rightful king Mithridates III, who had been defeated just a few weeks before the Battle of Carrhae. Crassus understood the situation well and prepared his march carefully, securing a foothold in northern Mesopotamia, waiting for the cavalry from Gaul and establishing relations with allied rulers. The route led to Seleucia, which was held by Mithridates. When the attempt failed, it was too late to change anything, since it was impossible to leave the garrisons in Mesopotamia to the mercy of fate. That is why Crassus declined to launch an offensive operation through Armenia. But Orodes had to deal with the rebellion of Mithridates and send forces to fight the Roman offensive.





1. . . 1973: . .
2. , 2002:  / . . (. .). .
3. . . 2001: : -  // Para bellum. 12: . ., 3548.
4. . . 2001b:  // . . , 130135.
.297
5. . . 2003: . , . .
6. . . 1966: . . 2. . .
7. . . 2005: . .
8. . . 2006: - . .
9. . . 2008:  / . ., . . . . . . .
10. . . 1961: . .
11. . . 2014: -:  // . 2, 3453.
12. . 1995: . 3. .
13. . . 2008: 70 . . : , - (19382008) // . .  / . ., . . . . . . ., 257773.
14. 1941:  / . . (.). .
15. . . 2006:  // . 12, 198213.
16. . . 2010: :  // SH. 10, 89103.
17. . . 2012:    // SH. 12, 105118.
18. . 1997: . 1. .
19. . . 2006: . . .
20. Adcock F. E. 1932: From the conference of Luca to the Rubicon // CAH1. 9, 614637.
21. Arnaud P. 1998: Les guerres parthiques de Gabinius et de Crassus et la politique occidentale des Parthes Arsacides entre 70 et 53 av. J.-C. // Electrum. 2, 1334.
22. Assar G. R. F. 2007: A Revised Parthian Chronology of the Period 9155 BC // Parthica. 8 [2006], 55104.
23. Baumgartner A. 1895: Artavasdes (1) //RE. 2. 1, 13081309.
24. Bivar A. D. H. 1983: The political history of Iran under the Arsacids// CHI. 3. 1, 2199.
25. Braund D. 1984: Rome and the Friendly King. The Character of the Client Kingship. London; Canberra; New York.
26. Braund D. 1993: Dionysiac Tragedy in Plutarch, Crassus // CQ. 43. 2, 468474.
27. Bryce T. 2014: Syria. A three Thousand Year History. Oxford.
28. Cadoux T. J. 1956: Marcus Crassus: A Revaluation // GR. 3. 2, 153161.
29. Christ K. 1979: Krise und Untergang der römischen Republik. Darmstadt.
30. Drumann W., Groebe P. 1910: Geschichte Roms in seinem Übergange von republikanischen zur monarchischen Verfassung. 2. Aufl. 4. Leipzig.
31. Garzetti A. 1944/1945: M. Licinio Crasso // Athenaeum. 22/23, 162.
32. Gelzer M. 1926: M. Licinius Crassus Dives (68) // RE. 13. 1, 295331.
.298
33. Geyer F.
1932: Mithridates III (26) // RE. 15. 2, 22112212.
34. Gruen E. S. 1974: The Last Generation of the Roman Republic. Berkeley.
35. Gutschmid A. von 1888: Geschichte Irans und seiner Nachbarländer von Alexander dem Grossen bis zum Untergang des Arsaciden. Tübingen.
36. Heitland W. 1923: The Roman Republic. 3. Cambridge.
37. Holmes T. R. 1928: The Roman Republic and the Founder of Empire. 2. Oxford.
38. Keaveney A. P. 1982: The King and the war-lords: Romano-Parthian relatons circa 6453 . . // AJPh. 103. 4, 412428.
39. Lewis Ch. T., Short Ch. 1958: A Latin Dictionary. Oxford.
40. Marshall B. A. 1976: Crassus. A Political Biography. Amsterdam.
41. Olbrycht M. J. 1998: Parthia et ulteriores gentes: Die politischen Beziehungen zwischen dem arsakidischen Iran und den Nomaden der eurasischen Steppen. München.
42. Pelling Chr. B. R. 1979: Plutarchs Method of Work in the Roman Lives // JHS. 99, 7496.
43. Pelling Chr. B. R. 1986: Plutarch and the Roman Politics // Past Perspectives: Studies in Greek and Roman Historical Writing / I. S. Moxon, J. D. Smart, A. J. Woodman (eds). Cambridge, 159187.
44. Rawlinson G. 1873: The sixth Great Oriental Monarchy, or the Geography, History, Antiquities of Ancient Parthia. New York.
45. Rawlinson G. 1893: The Story of Parthia. New York.
46. Regling K. 1910: Crassus Partherkrieg // Klio. 7, 357394.
47. Sands P. C. 1908: The Client Princes of the Roman Empire under the Republic. Cambridge.
48. Sherwin-White A. N. 1984: Roman Foreign policy in the East, 168 B. C. to A. D. 1. London.
49. Smith F. 1916: Die Schlacht bei Carrhä // HZ. 115. 2, 237262.
50. Sykes P. M. 1915: A History of Persia. 1. London.
51. Tarn W. 1932: Parthia // 1. 9, 574613.
52. Timpe D. 1962: Die Bedeutung der Schlacht von Carrhae // MH. 19, 104129
53. Traina G. 2010: La resa di Roma: 9 giugno 53 a. C., battaglia a Carre. Rome; Bari.
54. Ward A. M. 1977: Marcus Crassus and the Late Roman Republic. Columbia.
55. Weggen K. 2011: Der lange Schatten von Carrhae: Studien zu M. Licinius Crassus. Hamburg.
56. Wells C. M. 2009: Alésia and Kalkriese compared and contrasted: local chauvinism, nationalistic fervor, and sober archaeology // JRA. 22. 2, 674680.
57. Wiseman T. P. 1996: Caesar, Pompey and Rome, 5950 . . // CAH2. 9, 368423.
58. Wolski J. 1993: Lempire des Arsacides. Louvain.
59. Wroth W. 1903: Catalogue of the Coins of Parthia. London.
60. Zadorojniy A. V. 1997: Tragedy and Epic in Plutarchs Crassus // Hermes. 125. 2, 169182.


  • 1 , , , , , (Plut. Crass. 16. 2; . . ); :   , , , , , , ,   , , , , , , ! (Plut. Comp. Nic. et Cr. 4. 2; . . . ). . ., : 2006, 225; Wiseman 1996, 399 (, perhaps).
  • 2. . : , (infortunate in his advisers and guides) (Cadoux 1956, 159161).
  • 3., , . , : Timpe 1962, 104f. , , : Christ 1979, 317f; Wolski 1993, 133f. (long-term consequenses) . (Wells 2009, 674). , ,  . (Bryce 2014, 226).
  • 4 2005, 279.
  • 5Braund 1993, 469.
  • 6Pelling 1979, 87, note 96; Zadorojniy 1997, 171, note 13 c .
  • 7 1973, 224 ( ).
  • 8Braund 1993. . , : , hybris nemesis (Arnaud 1998, 15).
  • 9Zadorojniy 1997 (   . 174f.).
  • 10Ibid., 178.
  • 11Pelling 1986, 161.
  • 12 , 70 , , . . ( 2008). 500 (. 257773), , (. 394488). , . , , .
  • 13Marshall 1976.
  • 14Plut. Crass. 17. 1. . . . , , - : , , ( 2001b, 132).   , 255 . . . - , , , . 255 . . ., : , , ; , ; ( !) . , , 48 . . .  - . ( . . ), , , . , : τὴν δ ἄλλην ἀναλαβὼν δύναμιν, . . : , , . , , , -,   ; -, , , , . .
  • 15 2008, 86; 1966, 45 .; Garzetti 1944/1945, 38. , (Crass. 17. 12). . . ( 2006, 226) , .
  • 16 , . , . 60 . . . (Rawlinson 1873, 147; 1893, 143 [within two year of Pompey departure of Asia]). , . (Sykes 1915, 373); 57 . . . .: Assar 2007, 96 f. 58 . . .
  • 17 . , , (Cass. Dio. XXXIX. 56. 2). (., : Gutschmid 1888, 86, Anm. 2; Wroth 1903, XXXIV; Tarn 1932, 604), (Iust. XLII. 4. 1). ., : Rawlinson 1873, 147; 1893, 143; Geyer 1932, 2211; Wolski 1993, 127; Olbrycht 1998, 115; 1961, 209; 1966, 42 .; 1995, 227 .; 2008, 84. . , : , (retraite) (Arnaud 1998, 26). (ibid., 2627).
  • 18 , , , (App. Syr. 51. 257; Cass. Dio. XXXIX. 56. 1), . , (AJ. XIV. 103; BJ. I. 178). , , , , .
  • 19 .: 2006, 206 .
  • 20 . , , , (Garzetti 1944/1945, 39; Marshall 1976, 145 f.)
  • 21Sands 1908, 66 f.
  • 22 . , , , . , , , , , , , foedus, (Keaveney 1982, 423424).
  • 23 . , (Braund 1984, 24).
  • 24. , , , , , , , , -, (2008, 88). . : , , , , , : (Keaveney 1982, 423). , , . .
  • 25Wiseman 1996, 398.
  • 26Vell. II. 46. 2: , 养; App. II. 18: ; Plut. Crass. 16: , (   . .) . , , , , , , .
  • 27Cic. Fin. III. 75 (Crassus, qui nisi eguisset, numquam Euphraten nulla belli causa transire voluisset); Serv. Aen. VII. 606 (aviditate sua contra auspicia bellum suscepisset); Plin. NH. XXXIII. 134 (nec fuit satis nisi totum Parthorum usurpasset aurum); Vell. II. 46. 2 (qui vir neque in pecunia neque in gloria concupiscenda aut modum norat aut capiebat terminum); Flor. I. 46. 2 (cupiditas consulis Crassi, dum Parthico inhiat auro); 46. 5 (regiis inhians ille thesauris).
  • 28Liv. . 105 (Crasso Syria et Parthicum bellum dabantur); Eutr. VI. 18. 1 (Crassus contra Parthos missus est); Oros. VI. 13. 1 (provinciam sortitus in Parthos). , . ,   , .
  • 29.: 2010, 89103.
  • 30Zos. III. 32. 3: ἐπεὶ δὲ Περσῶν αὖθις κινηθέ·των ἐχειροτόνησεν ἡ γερουσία Κράσσον αὐτοκράτορα στρατηγόν , , . .   . (31. 3), : Orodes qui foedus cum Cn. Pompeio percussit Crassum cum legionibus apud Carrhas funesta clade delevit. . Orode, qui brisa le traité conclu avec Cn. Pompée (Arnaud 1998, 31, note 93). , percussit delevit, , , . , percutere briser . foedus , , ( 2006, 566, . . [14]; Lewis, Short 1958, 1336, s. v. [I B]; OLD, 1332, s. v. [9]). , , , : to strike down, smash (OLD, 1332, s. v. [2 ]), . . . : , . <> ( 2002, 103). , (, , ). , .
  • 31Keaveney 1982, 418, 421.
  • 32, , . , rebellantes Parthes . . , , - , (Keaveney 1982, 418, note 28). - , , , , . , III (Iust. XLII. 4. 1), , , . . .: 1995, 226227; Rawlinson 1872, 147; Holmes 1928, 159. , , , (. Syr. 51. 256), (Marshall 1976, 146).
  • 33., : 1966, 45; Heitland 1923, 288, note 2; Holmes 1928, 147; Adcock 1932, 618; Ward 1977, 285. . . , , , ,   , ( 1997, 285, 287). , , (Gruen 1974, 72 f.).
  • 34Tarn 1932, 605; Marshall 1976, 150. , , (Plin. NH. II. 147: Lucani milites, quorum magnus numerus in exercitu erat), , (Hor. Carm. III. 5. 512).
  • 35. : , , , , , , , . , , , , , ㅻ (VI. 13. 12).
  • 36 2008, 87; Tarn 1932, 606.
  • 37 .: Sherwin-White 1984, 283284.
  • 38Sherwin-White 1984, 284; Wiseman 1996, 401.
  • 39 . : , , , , 养 (Garzetti 1944/1945, 43). , . . , - ( 2014). , , , ( , 4244). , , , 54/53 . . . , , , . , , , , ( , ) .
  • 40 . .: 2012, 105118.
  • 41Regling 1910, 369370. , 53 . . ., . (Garzetti 1944/1945, 430).
  • 42 , . . ,   . (. 1941, 256), , , . . : 2001, 43; 2003, 305.
  • 43 1997, 303; 1966, 49, 52; Sherwin-White 1984, 286; Gelzer 1926, 324; Baumgartner 1895, 1309; Regling 1910, 371.
  • 44 . : Smith 1916, 243.
  • 45 , : , ,   , .
  • 46 , , (., : 1995, 228; 2008, 89; 1966, 50; Rawlinson 1873, 159160; Sykes 1915, 375; Bivar 1983, 5556). , . -, , , , .
  • 47 . , . . , ( 2006, 226). . . - : !  , ! ( 2001, 43; 2003, 305). , , , .
  • 48Plut. Crass. 19. 3. : 1966, 49; Sherwin-White 1984, 286; . , (Drumann, Groebe. 1910, 111, Anm. 5). . . ,   (Rawlinson 1873, 155; 2008, 88).
  • 49 2001, 43; 2003, 305.
  • 50Drumann, Groebe 1910, 111, Anm. 5.
  • 51Tarn 1932, 607; Marshall 1976, 153.
  • 52 . , , (Bivar 1983, 49). . , (Arnaud 1998, 30), , 53 . . .
  • 53 , .
  • 54 (Crass. 19. 7), , , , , ,  - , . , , : .
  • 55Tarn 1932, 607.
  • 56, , (Marshall 1976, 154). , , , (Sherwin-White 1984, 286), .
  • 57 , , , (.: Traina 2010; Weggen 2011). , , .
  • 1409195011 1414090993 1414108070 1523115939 1523134705 1523550432