Àíòè÷íàÿ ìèôîëîãèÿ â èñòîðè÷åñêîì êîíòåêñòå

The Foreword

Ëþáåçíî ïðåäîñòàâëåíî àâòîðàìè, 2002 ã.

A. V. Ko­lo­bov, V. R. Gushchin, A. Ju. Bra­tuk­hin



The book of­fe­red to at­ten­tion of the rea­der rep­re­sents three in­de­pen­dent es­says joi­ned by com­mon idea. This at­tempt is non­con­ven­tio­nal for Rus­sian scien­ce about an­ti­qui­ty to con­si­der the an­ti­que myth not on­ly as com­po­nent of re­li­gio­us world out­look, that was ma­de al­rea­dy re­pea­ted­ly in the do­mes­tic scien­ti­fic li­te­ra­tu­re by the phi­lo­sop­hers and phi­lo­lo­gists, but al­so as the phe­no­me­non of a po­li­ti­cal his­to­ry, and be­si­des to show the re­cep­tion of the clas­si­cal myth not on­ly in an epi­centre of an an­ti­que ci­vi­li­za­tion, but al­so on its pe­ri­phe­rals, both its sup­por­ters, and op­po­nents1.

The Greek myths and their he­roes are known ra­ther well., Much less we know about ro­le played the my­tho­lo­gy in this or that pe­riod of the Greek his­to­ry and pla­ce it held in li­fe of the se­pa­ra­te peop­le as well. V. R. Gushchin’ sec­tion deals with the­se ques­tions de­vo­ted to At­hens. In this chap­ter is sta­ked a ro­le and pla­ce of my­tho­lo­gy in the At­he­nian his­to­ry and in ac­ti­vi­ty of lea­ders of the At­he­nian po­li­cy.

The re­search of my­tho­lo­gy of the an­cient Greeks has a du­rab­le his­to­ry. The col­lec­tion of in­for­ma­tion about most an­cient pe­riods of the At­he­nian his­to­ry be­gun by the an­cient Greeks them­sel­ves. As the pio­neers of this di­rec­tion we can na­me the playwrights using known my­tho­lo­gi­cal plots. Among them best known are playwrighters Eschy­les, So­phoc­les, Euri­pi­des. The va­luab­le items of in­for­ma­tion on the At­he­nian kings and the he­roes con­tain works of the Greek his­to­rians He­ro­do­tes, Thu­cy­di­des, phi­lo­sop­her Aris­tot­le. The lat­ter was an aut­hor of ma­ny com­po­si­tions, in which it is pos­sib­le to find men­tions both about the he­roes of an an­ti­qui­ty, and about the men­tio­ned abo­ve cha­rac­ters.

Not smal­ler va­lue for lear­ning of the his­to­ry and my­tho­lo­gy ha­ve al­so works of the la­te Greek aut­hors: “Geo­gra­phy” by Stra­bo, nu­me­rous works of the his­to­rian and phi­lo­sop­her Plu­tarch, “the Descrip­tion of Gree­ce” by Pau­sa­nias, and al­so as­sig­ned to Apol­lo­do­res “the My­tho­lo­gi­cal Lib­ra­ry”.

The lear­ning of my­tho­lo­gy of an­cient Greeks star­ted si­mul­ta­neo­us­ly with re­search of their his­to­ry. Ori­gi­nal­ly the my­tho­lo­gy was sur­veyed main­ly in his­to­ri­cal and re­li­gio­us con­text. In the middle of our cen­tu­ry the­re are so­me di­rec­tions for stu­dying va­rio­us as­pects of be­co­ming and evo­lu­tion of the Greek my­tho­lo­gy. One of the scho­lars sur­vey my­tho­lo­gy main­ly as the con­sti­tuent of men­ta­li­ty of the an­cient Greeks2. Ot­hers tend to out­li­ne boun­da­ries of “myth” and “knowled­ge”3. Thirds links the my­tho­lo­gy with re­li­gio­us ri­tual4. The con­tex­tual stu­dying of the Greek my­tho­lo­gy be­gan re­cently5. Howe­ver lear­ning of my­tho­lo­gy in a his­to­ri­cal con­text was not prac­ti­cal­ly un­der­ta­ken, if let alo­ne small units in sur­vey of P. Cartled­ge6. Thus, the pre­sent sec­tion is in­vo­ked to fill a blank, exis­ting in mo­dern re­search scien­ce.

First — intro­duc­to­ry — sec­tion of this es­say are deal with prob­lems of in­ter­re­la­tion of a his­to­ry and my­tho­lo­gy. The aut­hor pays at­ten­tion to a hu­ge ro­le of the he­roic myth. The he­roes were the most es­tee­med my­tho­lo­gi­cal cha­rac­ters. A ques­tion on evo­lu­tion of my­tho­lo­gi­cal con­scio­us­ness is sta­ked he­re du­ring long his­to­ri­cal pe­riod — from ar­chaic age up to the epoch of Pe­ric­les.

Next chap­ter de­vo­ted to the ana­ly­sis of the At­he­nian my­tho­lo­gi­cal tra­di­tion. The my­tho­lo­gy rep­re­sen­ted the cor­pus of the items of in­for­ma­tion applying for his­to­ri­cal re­lia­bi­li­ty. For example. The items of in­for­ma­tion on the At­he­nian kings, in sec­tion are ma­de at­tempts to cla­ri­fy a deg­ree of cre­di­bi­li­ty of my­tho­lo­gi­cal tra­di­tion.

In third, most ex­ten­si­ve part of the unit, is re­gar­ded an is­sue about a ro­le of my­tho­lo­gy and se­pa­ra­te my­tho­lo­gi­cal cha­rac­ters in concre­te his­to­ri­cal events. The speech he­re goes about such per­sons, as So­lon, Pi­sistra­tes, Ki­mon and Pe­ric­les.

The se­cond sec­tion of the books pre­sen­ted by A. V. Ko­lo­bov de­vo­ted to trea­ting of a pla­ce of the an­ti­que myth in re­cep­tion of the sol­diers of Ro­man ar­my of epoch of prin­ci­pa­te. As a main sour­ce are re­sear­ched ico­no­gra­phy and texts of sol­dier’s de­di­ca­ti­ve and gra­ves­to­ne mo­nu­ments from the Bal­kan-Da­nu­be lo­ca­le, main­ly of ter­ri­to­ry of for­mer Ro­man pro­vin­ces Dal­ma­tia and Up­per Moe­sia.

Ro­man Dal­ma­tia co­ve­red not on­ly the Ad­ria­tic coast of Croa­tia, but prac­ti­cal­ly all Bos­nia and Her­ze­go­vi­na, and al­so west of mo­dern Ser­bia. He­re du­ring I Cen­tu­ry A. D. so­me le­gions were dep­loyed. Le­gion camps Bur­num and Ti­lu­rium and the small ba­ses of an auxi­lia­ry troops con­sti­tu­ted so-cal­led “dal­ma­tian li­mes,” pro­tec­ting nu­me­rous ci­ty of the Ad­ria­tic coast from mi­li­tant moun­tain tri­bes. The de­par­tu­re of le­gions in se­cond half of the I Cent. A. D. out of Dal­ma­tia has not re­sul­ted in comple­te de­mi­li­ta­ri­za­tion of a pro­vin­ce. The mi­li­ta­rians were ac­ti­ve­ly in­vol­ved in a par­ti­ci­pa­tion in the ma­na­ge­ment by Dal­ma­tia, ful­fil­led po­li­ce and cus­toms functions, guar­ded mi­nes, built roads. Though one ve­te­ran co­lo­ny — Equ­um he­re was de­ri­va­ted on­ly, the ve­te­rans of le­gions and auxi­lia­ry troops wil­lingly settled in nu­me­rous ci­ties of Dal­ma­tia, and al­so gai­ned es­ta­tes in a country­si­de.

East neighbour of Dal­ma­tia — Up­per Moe­sia — inclu­ded the most part of mo­dern Ser­bia, ter­ri­to­ry of for­mer Yugos­la­vian re­pub­lic of Ma­ce­do­nia, and al­so the northwes­tern part of mo­dern Bul­ga­ria. The­se two pro­vin­ces were si­mi­lar not on­ly by the fact of du­rab­le pre­sen­ce of a Ro­man troops in their ter­ri­to­ry, but al­so by tho­se cir­cumstan­ces, that le­gion gar­ri­son of the Up­per Moe­sia was for­med, main­ly, at the ex­pen­se of transla­tion the­re of troops from Dal­ma­tia. Re­settlers from Dal­ma­tia were in­vol­ved in mas­te­ring of a pro­vin­ce Moe­sia. Sin­ce se­cond half of the I Cent. A. D. up to the end of IV Cent. A. D. Moe­sia was one of the most mi­li­ta­ri­zed ter­ri­to­ries of Ro­man em­pi­re. The main bo­dy of a troops con­centra­ted on Da­nu­be li­mes around of le­gion camps Vi­mi­na­tium and Sin­gi­du­num. The nu­me­rous sub­di­vi­sions of le­gions and of auxi­lia­ries car­ried guards of rich sil­ver, iron and ot­her mi­nes in an in­ter­nal part of a pro­vin­ce. The mi­li­ta­rians ha­ve brought the appre­ciab­le contri­bu­tion in ur­ba­ni­za­tion of a pro­vin­ce. The first ci­ty of the Ro­man Law de­ri­va­ted he­re, was ve­te­ran co­lo­ny Scu­pi. The ve­te­rans con­sti­tu­ted al­so co­re of the po­pu­la­tion of the ci­ties which ha­ve ari­sen near to mi­li­ta­ry camps on li­mes and in mi­ning districts.

The ter­ri­to­ry of the­se pro­vin­ces is se­lec­ted as the object of re­search not ac­ci­den­tal­ly. From most an­cient ti­mes the wes­tern part of the Bal­kan pe­nin­su­la was for a ren­dez­vous point of va­rio­us ci­vi­li­za­tions and cul­tu­ral tra­di­tions. In par­ti­cu­lar, in an an­ti­qui­ty he­re pas­sed boun­da­ry between the Greek and Ro­man sphe­res of cul­tu­ral influen­ce. The at­tempt to de­fi­ne cul­tu­ral self-iden­ti­fi­ca­tion pla­ced he­re sol­diers of Ro­man ar­my, to un­derstand, as far as is deep in their con­scio­us­ness the ima­ges of Ro­man and Greek my­tho­lo­gy were implan­ted, to ob­ser­ve paths of distri­bu­tion con­nec­ted with them ico­no­gra­phy the lear­ning of va­rio­us as­semblies of the inscri­bed mo­nu­ments will help us. Most appre­ciab­le, be­si­des three parts of the third vo­lu­me “Cor­pus inscrip­tio­num La­ti­na­rum”, are the as­semblies “Der An­ti­ken Inschrif­ten aus Jugos­lawien”, pre­pa­red by B. Sa­ria and V. Hof­fi­ler (Zag­reb, 1938) and “Inscrip­tio­nes La­ti­nae quae in Iugos­la­via… re­per­ta”, pub­lis­hed in three parts by A. and J. Sa­sel (Ljublja­na, 1963, 1978, 1986). Sin­ce 1976 in Belgrad un­der edi­tion of F. Pa­pa­zog­lou the is­suing a mul­ti­vo­lu­me se­ries “Inscrip­tio­nes la­ti­nes de la Me­sie Su­pe­rioure”, pro­cee­ding till now be­gan. Sys­te­ma­tic is­suing of the Ro­man epi­gra­phics from Bos­nia — Her­ze­go­vin a in the age of XIX—XX Cen­tu­ries was be­gun on pa­ges of a ma­ga­zi­ne “Glas­nik ze­ma­lijskog mu­zeja u Sa­raje­vu” by the the Austrian fa­mous scho­lar C. Patsch, then has con­ti­nued by our com­pat­riot — emig­rant D. Ser­geevskij. The work by E. Ima­mo­vic “An­tički kultni i vo­tiv­ni spo­me­ni­ci na pod­ručju Bos­ne i Her­ce­go­vi­ne” (Sa­raje­vo, 1977) de­ser­ves a se­pa­ra­te men­tion. The re­gu­lar pub­li­ca­tion of the an­ti­que epi­gra­phics from Dal­ma­tia co­mes true on pa­ges of the Croa­tian scien­ti­fic pe­rio­di­cals “Vjes­nik za his­to­riju i ar­heo­lo­giju Dal­ma­tinsku” (Split), “Dia­do­ra” (Za­dar), “Opus­cu­la ar­chaeo­lo­gi­ca” (Zag­reb). The epi­gra­phi­cal da­ta from an­cient Up­per Moe­sia are pub­lis­hed in ma­ga­zi­nes “Sta­ri­nar” (Beog­rad) and “Zi­va an­ti­ca” (Skopje).

The epi­gra­phic ma­te­rial from adja­cent pro­vin­ces is used al­so. The ter­ri­to­ry of for­mer Up­per Pan­no­nia is rich by the Ro­man inscrip­tions es­pe­cial­ly. Com­po­si­tion of this pro­vin­ce inclu­ded grounds of mo­dern Austria, Hun­ga­ry, Slo­ve­nia. This ter­ri­to­ry be­ca­me one of the first ad­van­ced posts of Ro­man mi­li­ta­ry pre­sen­ce in the Bal­kan-Da­nu­be lo­ca­le. The Ro­man troops pla­ced in Up­per Pan­no­nia were clo­se­ly con­nec­ted to Ro­man gar­ri­son of Dal­ma­tia and Up­per Moe­sia. The spe­cial at­ten­tion de­ser­ves the as­semblies of epi­gra­phi­cal ma­te­rial from Car­nun­tum — le­gion camp on Da­nu­be in vi­ci­ni­ties of Vien­na exis­ting about 400 years7, and al­so from ve­te­ran co­lo­ny Sa­va­ria8.

We ha­ve in­vol­ved al­so the epi­gra­phi­cal ma­te­rial from a Ro­man pro­vin­ce No­ri­cum, sur­roun­ding a part of mo­dern Austria and Slo­ve­nia. He­re was a Ro­man co­lo­ny Ce­leia, settled by the nu­me­rous ve­te­rans and de­li­ve­ring a plen­ty of the sol­diers in Ro­man ar­my9.

The nu­mis­ma­tic da­ta pre­sen­ted in mo­no­gra­phic re­sear­ches by M. G. Ab­ram­zon10 and K. Wittwer11 were used al­so. We stu­died the rep­re­sen­ta­tio­nal plots on the wea­pon and equip­ment of Ro­man im­pe­rial ar­my. Rep­re­sen­ta­tion of Ro­man arms be­ca­me a sub­ject of spe­cial re­search on­ly in the la­test ti­me12. Rich ma­te­rial of such kind is pre­sen­ted al­so in ex­cel­lent book by M. Bis­hop and J. Coulston13.

The rep­re­sen­ta­tion of the Ro­man pha­le­ras is a sub­ject of our spe­cial at­ten­tion. Though the spe­cial re­sear­ches on the gi­ven sort of sour­ces are ab­sent, the­re are dep­le­ting re­sear­ches on se­pa­ra­te groups of pha­le­ras, whe­re the approp­ria­te il­lustra­ti­ve ma­te­rial14 is pre­sen­ted.

In spi­te of the fact that in the scien­ti­fic li­te­ra­tu­re the­re are nu­me­rous pub­li­ca­tions con­cer­ning se­pa­ra­te as­pects of spi­ri­tual cul­tu­re (not on­ly re­li­gion) of ar­my and the po­pu­la­tion of fron­tier pro­vin­ces of Ro­man em­pi­re, the links on which the rea­der will find at rea­ding the chap­ters of the se­cond unit of the book the spe­cial re­sear­ches de­vo­ted to a pla­ce of an­ti­que my­tho­lo­gi­cal tra­di­tion in men­ta­li­ty of ar­my of Ro­man em­pi­re till now were not.

In the first chap­ter undres­sed the fea­tu­res of Ro­man my­tho­lo­gy as a who­le are par­sed and the main sta­ges of de­ve­lop­ment “of the Ro­man myth” are ta­ped. The se­cond chap­ter is de­vo­ted to a pla­ce of an­ti­que my­tho­lo­gy in im­pe­rial pro­pa­ga­tion. The cha­rac­ters and ima­ges of an­ti­que my­tho­lo­gy in of­fi­cial pro­pa­ga­tion in­ten­ded for ar­my are par­sed. Be­si­des the prob­lem of per­cep­tion “of the Ro­man myth” in sol­dier’s mass on an ex­tent I—III Cent. is re­sear­ched. The third chap­ter of the unit is de­vo­ted to lear­ning of ima­ges and cha­rac­ters of an­ti­que my­tho­lo­gy pre­sen­ted on mi­li­ta­ry gra­ves­to­ne mo­nu­ments. The cha­rac­ters and ima­ges, as con­nec­ted with treat­ment, tra­di­tio­nal­ly in­he­rent by a clas­si­cal an­ti­qui­ty, of deaths as eter­nal exo­dus in un­derground world, and with distri­bu­ted in II—III Cent. be­liefs in im­mor­ta­li­ty are sur­veyed.

The third sec­tion of the work pre­pa­red by A. Ju. Bra­tuk­hin is de­vo­ted to the re­cep­tion of an­ti­que my­tho­lo­gy in the ear­ly Chris­tian pat­ris­tic li­te­ra­tu­re. The works of the apo­lo­gists of a chris­tia­ni­ty II—III cen­tu­ries are re­sear­ched, ma­ny of which till now are not transla­ted on Rus­sian. Among of the Greek-spea­king aut­hors being the in­ha­bi­tants of east pro­vin­ces of Ro­man em­pi­re, Kli­ment of Ale­xandria de­ser­ves the spe­cial at­ten­tion. His work “the Ad­mo­ni­tion to Pa­gans” con­tains re­fe­ren­ces to hundreds frag­ments of the an­ti­que aut­hors. In this trea­ti­se con­tain in­te­res­ting, and oc­ca­sio­nal­ly and uni­que item of in­for­ma­tion on the an­ti­que myths and mys­te­ries. The va­luab­le items of in­for­ma­tion on an­ti­que my­tho­lo­gy con­tain al­so works of such Greek-spea­king “fa­thers” of a Chris­tia­ni­ty, as Ius­ti­nus, Ta­tia­nus, At­he­na­go­res, Ori­ge­nes, re­cog­ni­zed even­tual­ly as he­re­tic. The crea­tors of the wes­tern, La­tin-spea­king ear­ly Chris­tian li­te­ra­tu­re were the na­ti­ves of Nor­thern Af­ri­ca. Ter­tul­lian is most known from them. He was fa­mous by the ir­re­con­ci­la­bi­li­ty con­cer­ning an an­cient art. His nu­me­rous com­po­si­tions con­tain the rich in­for­ma­tion on an­ti­que my­tho­lo­gy. Be­si­des in ope­ra­tion abo­ve sec­tion the works by Mi­nu­tius Fe­lix, Cyp­rian, and al­so la­ter apo­lo­gists of the Chris­tian doctri­ne are used: Lac­tan­tius, Amvro­sius, Hie­ro­ni­mus and, cer­tain­ly, Augus­ti­nus. The aut­hor of the unit col­lects so­lid his­to­rio­gra­phic ba­se.

In the first chap­ter undres­sed the main di­rec­tions in in­terpre­ta­tion of the an­ti­que myths by the Chris­tian apo­lo­gists are ta­ped. In the se­cond chap­ter the mo­ti­ves of dif­fe­rent treat­ment by the ear­ly Chris­tian wri­ters, first of all, Ter­tul­lia­nus of Greek, Ro­man, Eas­tern myths are ta­ped. In third, conclu­si­ve chap­ter the aut­hor re­sear­ches a prob­lem of ade­qua­cy of per­cep­tion by the ear­ly Fa­thers of Church of an­ti­que my­tho­lo­gy.

The mo­no­gra­phy is dis­tin­guis­hed with sty­lis­tic va­rie­ty. The aut­hors of the first and se­cond part — his­to­rians, whe­reas the third part is writ­ten by the phi­lo­lo­gist. The aut­hors would li­ke to ho­pe, that the sty­le of pre­sen­ta­tion, cha­rac­te­ris­tic for his­to­ri­cal works, is suc­cessful­ly supple­men­ted by a man­ner, in­he­rent in the phi­lo­lo­gists, of ful­fillment of ope­ra­tion.

So­me words about the aut­hors of this book. V. R. Gushchin as pro­fes­sio­nal scho­lar of an­cient Gree­ce was pre­pa­red in uni­ver­si­ty of Sankt-Pe­ters­burg. He is a for­mer post-gra­dua­te stu­dent of the pro­fes­sor Ed. D. Fro­lov. V. R. Gushchin has deg­ree of a can­di­da­te of his­to­ri­cal scien­ces. Now he is do­cent of fa­cul­ty of a ge­ne­ral his­to­ry at the Perm Pe­da­go­gi­cal Uni­ver­si­ty. V. R. Gushchin is an aut­hor of a num­ber of ar­tic­les on a po­li­ti­cal his­to­ry of At­he­nes on a boun­da­ry of ar­chaic and clas­si­cal ed­ges of the an­cient Greek his­to­ry, inclu­ding in such aut­ho­ri­ta­ti­ve jour­nals as “Clas­si­cal Quar­ter­ly” and “Gree­ce and Ro­me”.

A. Ju. Bra­tuk­hin is al­so the pu­pil of uni­ver­si­ty of Sankt-Pe­ters­burg. He has comple­ted doc­to­ral stu­dies on the fa­cul­ty of clas­si­cal phi­lo­lo­gy un­der the di­rec­tion of the pro­fes­sor A. I. Zait­zev and comple­tes ope­ra­tion abo­ve a can­di­da­te the­sis, which sub­ject is con­nec­ted to the re­cep­tion of an­ti­que my­tho­lo­gy in ear­ly Chris­tian li­te­ra­tu­re. Now — tea­cher of the La­tin lan­gua­ge in Perm Sta­te Uni­ver­si­ty. He is gran­tee of the Rus­sian Hu­ma­ni­ta­rian Scien­ti­fic Foun­da­tion (1998). A. Ju. Bra­tuk­hin has pub­lis­hed his own transla­tion and com­men­ta­ry of the trea­ti­se “Ad­mo­ni­tion to the Pa­gans” by the ear­ly Chris­tian wri­ter Cli­ment of Ale­xandria (St.-Pe­ters­burg, 1998).

The sec­tion “An­ti­que my­tho­lo­gy and ar­my of im­pe­rial Ro­me” is pre­pa­red by A. V. Ko­lo­bov. Af­ter the ter­mi­na­tion of doc­to­ral stu­dies at chair of the an­cient his­to­ry of the an­cient world at the Mos­cow Sta­te Uni­ver­si­ty un­der the di­rec­tion of the pro­fes­sor I. L. Mayak and af­ter sub­scri­bing a can­di­da­te the­sis he works on chair of a his­to­ry of the an­cient world and Middle Ages at the Perm Sta­te Uni­ver­si­ty. Now — se­nior lec­tu­rer and ma­na­ger by this chair. A. V. Ko­lo­bov is aut­hor of nu­me­rous ar­tic­les in do­mes­tic and fo­reign scien­ti­fic pe­rio­di­cals, book “Ro­man Le­gions Out­si­de of Fields of Battles” (Perm, 1999), one of the aut­hors of the high school tu­to­rial “Re­li­gion in a His­to­ry and Cul­tu­re” (Mos­cow, 1998).


  • 1At­tempts to stu­dy myth as his­to­ri­cal fact were ma­de by so­me So­viet scho­lars of an­ti­qui­ty at end of 1960-th: Ut­chen­ko S. L. Fact i mif v is­to­rii // Vestnik drev­nej is­to­rii (Moskva). 1998. N 4. S. 4—15. Un­for­tu­na­te­ly this the­me was not de­ve­lo­ped by Mar­xist his­to­ri­cal scien­ce of an­ti­qui­ty.
  • 2Kes­si­dy F. H. Ot mi­fa k lo­go­su. Moskva, 1972.,
  • 3Lloyd G. E. R. Scien­ce, Folklo­re and Ideo­lo­gy. Cambrid­ge, 1983.
  • 4Bur­kert W. Struc­tu­re and His­to­ry in Greek My­tho­lo­gy and Ri­tual. Ber­ke­ley; Los An­ge­les, 1979.
  • 5Bux­ton R. Ima­gi­na­ry Gree­ce. The Con­text of My­tho­lo­gy. Cambrid­ge, 1995.
  • 6Cartled­ge P. The Greeks. A Portrait of Self and Ot­hers. Ox­ford, 1993.
  • 7Vor­beck A. Inschrif­ten aus Car­nun­tum. Wien, 1954.
  • 8Die roe­mi­sche Stein­denkma­ler aus Sa­va­ria / Hrsg. A. Moc­sy, T. Czentle­le­ky. Bu­da­pest, 1971.
  • 9Kol­sek V. Ce­leia — Stein­denkma­ler. Ljublja­na, 1967.
  • 10Ab­ram­zon M. G. Rimska­ja ar­mija i ee li­der po dan­nym nu­miz­ma­ti­ki. Che­lya­binsk, 1994; Ab­ram­zon M. G. Mo­ne­ty kak sredstvo pro­pa­gan­dy ofi­cial’noj po­li­ti­ki Rimskoj im­pe­rii. Moskva, 1995.
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