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. 2014. 3. . 5974.

.59 . 93 92 . . . , , ,   , ( !) . , , , .

: , , , 90- . .




I . (   . .) . , . 90- dark age. , 1. ? , ? ? , , , .

. , homo novus , , . (-, ) . 105 .   , : 105/104 . . 100 . 2. 3 95 . , .60 , , , , . , , , , , ( 75 . ). , , , , , , , , ( )4, . , , . , 5.

, . . , , 6. . : ; , . , . , ; 7.   , , , . . , . , ,   , ( ), , , , 8.

. . , , ,   ordo equester. .61 , . , . quaestiones repetundarum, , , . , 92 .9 , . , , , , . , . , , , , (Mißwirtschaft) . , 10.

. (fr. 97. 3) (καί τινα ὁ Μάριος αἰτίαν τῆς ἁλώσεως αὐτοῦ ἔσχεν) , 11  , 12. , ( , , ), factio Metellana. , , , . , , 91 . , . , , ( , , 90- ). , , ( ) lex iudiciaria, 105 . , , 13.

. , , , (motives of highest character), .62 . - business classes. , , , . , , , , . , 14, ,   .   15. , homo novus , 16, ; , , 17  , . 90- , , , , (   ), 18.

. . , ,   , , , , , . , ( ) . , (. ),     , , , 19.

, . 20, .63 . , , . , , de repetundis (Liv. Per. 70; Vell. II. 13. 2; Dio Cass. Fr. 97. 1)21.

1990 . . - , 22. , , , ,   23. -   92 ., 94 . , , . : -, (underlying political current) 90- Metelli Mariani, , [] , 24. (Cic. Brut. 115), , -, Mariani , , , 25. , ,   , lex Varia . . , 87 ., 26 27.

, , , , , . , -, , -, , .

.64 . , , , , . 98/97 ( 28 )29, 97  30, 94 .  31; 32.

: L. autem Crasso collega fuit Q. Scaevola pontifex qui, cum animadverteret Crasso propter summam eius in re publica potentiam ac dignitatem senatum in decernendo triumpho gratificari, non dubitavit rei publicae magis quam collegae habere rationem ac ne fieret S. C. intercessit. Idem provinciam, cuius cupiditate plerique etiam boni viri deliquerant, deposuerat ne sumptui esset foratio (Pis. 13 C).

: . . , , , , , , , . , provinciam deposuerat : 1) 33, 2) 34. , provinciam deponere, , 35.

.65 deposuerat , , , . . 95 . , , , 95 . (   ), , 98/97 .

, , - . , , . , , , . . 94 36.

deposuerat , res publica viri boni, cupiditate deliquerant ( viri boni!),   , 37.

(98 97 .) , , 38. , 92 . , quaestio Variana, 39. , , lex Varia.

. - , -   , , 95 ., 103 ., . , , : , .66 , , , (?) , (ζηλωτὴς τῆς ἀρχαίας καὶ σώφρονος ἀγωγῆς). , , 40. - , 97 ., 95 ., gloria iustitiae et abstinentiae (Cic. Att. V. 17. 5), , 41, 42.

- . , , , , , , . , , . ,   - , , . , , , ,   , , . iustitia et abstinentia (. ), , , . : 102 . , , , , . . 100 ., 99 . 43, .

. , (  . ), , , , 96 . , . - (, , ) , . ( , , 98 .44) , factio .67 Metellana45. , 46. , : , , , , 47.

, 9896 ., , , . , , . 94 . 48, (Cic. Att. V. 17. 5), 94, 93 . , 49  93 . , , 93 .50, 92 . factio Metellana , . , ( ) , , , , , factio Metellana, . ,   , .

  , , 80-   , . , . . , , lex Licinia Mucia de civibus redigundis51: , , , 52.

.68 : , ? , , , (. ), , , , , , , 53. , , , 54. , , , . , , inimicitia , . , , , 55. , , , , (Sall. Iug. 86. 5)?56 , , , , 57,   100- . (Mar. 28. 8) (HRR. I2. 188), (ἰδίᾳ δὲ τῷ Μαρίῳ προσκεκρουκώς)58, , , , (τῆς ἕκτης ἔτυχεν ὑπατείας ἀργύριον εἰς τὰς φυλὰς καταβαλὼν πολύ)59. , 60. ,   .

.69 , , 61, ? , , , principes, , . , , . ,   . , (De or. I. 227233), 62, , (De or. II. 196). , (III. 80). -, , , .

, ? , . , . 101 . , , , , , , , IV63. , , , , , , (. ).

, , , , 64, princeps senatus, 65. , , , . , 105 . (Ann. III. 66. 1), , , 90- , 116 ., 66. , , , suggestio falsi , .70 , (IV. 168d)   , , 90-   67. : (τῆς φυγῆς αἴτιος γενόμενος Ρουτιλίῳ), accusator, , ; , , , ;   , : , , , , . -, , : , , , [] , [] . , . , , -, 68. . ., -, 116 . , , 90- , .

: , accusationes, , , , , . , , , , 69. , , . , 116 . 70, , suggestio falsi 105 . .

, 90- 71, , , .71 72  sodalicii rapinarum , , ,   73. , 74, . , , , , .

, , , , , . , , , . , , , inimici.

, (, , ) , ()  , 75. , - . , ,   , , . , - . ( .) : , . , , , , , . ? - , , (De or. I. 230; . . . ). , , , ( )76, . - .72 , , , 77. , patres, ,   , , - amici78. , - homo novus, , ( ) .   , , , , , . ( , - ,     .)

( ), ? , , ? : , , , , . .

, ? -,   , . ? , (, , ) , . (19 C) , , de repetundis,  , , (Cic. Dom. 50); , , , , , (Flor. III. 17. 35)79.

: (II. 13. 2), . , 105 . (Brut. 115), (Scaur. 3d)80. , .73 , , , ,   , - . , , ,   , , . 81 ? ; , ,   .

. 94 ., 93 . , , , , . , 103 . , - . ( , , ), .



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The Trial of Rutilius Rufus and its Political Context
A. V. Korolenkov

The author presents the following reconstruction of the events connected with the notorious trial of P. Rutilus Rufus. The latter went to Asia together with Q. Mucius Scaevola in 94 BC and returned in 93 BC. In the same year or in the year that followed he was convicted on false charges made not only by publicans (as is generally assumed), but also  and, perhaps, mainly  by influential senators, the consulares M. Aemilius Scaurus, C. Marius and Man. Aquilius. The trial was a significant event, a consularis being convicted for the first time ever since 103 BC, but it did not lead to any changes, nor was it the cause of Drusus bill on judicial reform, as Kallet-Marx reasonably argues. Still, Rutilius trial left a distinctive mark in the Greek and Roman tradition (mainly due to Ciceros efforts, but also presumably to his own, considering his memoirs).

Keywords: trial of P. Rutilius Rufus, roman politics of 90s, Q. Mucius Scaevola, C. Marius, M. Aemilius Scaurus.


  • *   , .

    , 30 2013 . XV . . . , . . , . . . . .

  • 1Badian 1957, 318; Weinrib 1970, 414; 1978, 205.
  • 2. Münzer 1914, 12691273 ( ).
  • 3 (Dig. I. 2. 2. 40) Asiae proconsul, a y - (202 St.)  quaestor (Münzer 1914, 1278; Broughton 1952, II, 8, 9, nt. 6; Alexander 1990, 49,  94, nt. 1). . , (Waddington 1872, 3233; 1978, 206  ). , , legatus pro praetore (Broughton 1952, II, 9, nt. 6; Marshall 1976, 121; Mackay 2009, 119).
  • 4 (Last 1932, 176; Mackay 2009, 120), (fr. 97. 3).
  • 5  . Münzer 1914, 12741276; Alexander 1990, 49,  94.
  • 6 1989, 127128; Ihne 1879, 239241; Last 1932, 176177; Schur 1942, 105, 109; Gruen 1966, 53; Weinrib 1970, 420421; Mackay 2009, 119121.
  • 7 1994, 157. , , , , . . (Bernhardt 1985, 188).
  • 8Badian 1972, 9192. .
  • 9Long 1866, 144; Münzer 1914, 1274; Last 1932, 177; Hendrickson 1933, 155; Balsdon 1937, 10; Broughton 1952, II, 8; Badian 1956, 104; Carney 1961, 4950; Van Ooteghem 1964, 14, 266.
  • 10Meier 1966, 7577.  . .
  • 11 1989, 127; Badian 1957, 343; 1972, 91; Nicolet 1966, 546549; Luce 1970, 166, nt. 26. . , [] . , , . , , conspiratio Mariana, publicanorum. conspiratio publicanorum, .
  • 12Badian 1956, 111; 1957, 328329; Nicolet 1966, 549; Gruen 1966, 54.
  • 13Badian 1956, 113116, 119120; 1957, 325; 328329.
  • 14. : Carney 1961, 50; Luce 1970, 172.
  • 15 (1972, 91) , .
  • 16, (, : Münzer 1933, 439), (Planc. 33; . : Fam. I. 9. 26).
  • 17, , , (Meier 1966, 77 Anm. 89).
  • 18Gruen 1966, 5355, 64; 1968, 204205.
  • 19 2003, 200 . 7.
  • 20Balsdon 1937, 10 ( . ); Badian 1956, 110111, nt. 5 ( . ). . . (1978, 206), : , , (Cic. Rab. Post. 27; Dio Cass. Fr. 97. 4), (Cic. Verr. II. 2. 51). : ; , -,   , , (Cic. Pro Balbo. 28) , , , , ( 2002, 109).
  • 21 , (lex Servilia de repetundis) (Long 1866, 145; Neumann 1881, 448; Nicolet 1966, 540, 543; Alexander 1990, 49,  94), (Ascon. 19 C).
  • 22Kallet-Marx 1990, 122139.
  • 23. Münzer 1914, 1280; Hendrickson 1933, 174; Badian 1958, 218; Fantham 2004, 43.
  • 24Kallet-Marx 1990, 129.
  • 25 . (1964, 266), , , - , .
  • 26 .
  • 27Kallet-Marx 1990, 139.
  • 28 , 99, 98 . (Ihne 1879, 239, Anm. 4; Broughton 1952, II, 46, nt. 2; Brennan 2000, 549); 100 (Sumner 1978, 147) 101 . (Brennan 2000, 549).
  • 29Last 1932, 175176; Kallet-Marx 1989, 305312. (1994, 156), (OGIS 437, 439; Liv. Per. 70). , - (202 St.) - , (. ), (Long 1866, 144, nt. 1).
  • 30Waddington 1872, 37; Broughton 1952, II, 78; Nicolet 1966, 545546 ( 96 .); Marshall 1976, 117131; Sumner 1978, 148149, 153 ( 99 .). 94 .,   97 . (Van Ooteghem 1964, 14, 266). (1872, 36) , 99 ., - 97 ., . , , (Balsdon 1937, 9; Marshall 1976, 117, nt. 2). . 99 . (Herzog 1884, 489).
  • 31Long 1866, 144; Neumann 1881, 445; Münzer 1914, 1274; 1933, 438; Hendrickson 1933, 155; Schur 1942, 104; Badian 1956, 104112; Carney 1961, 49; Luce 1970, 170; Brennan 2000, 550552; Mackay 2009, 119.
  • 32Ihne 1879, 239, Anm. 4; Sherk 1969, 258259,  47; Bernhardt 1985, 290.
  • 33, , , . , (Balsdon 1937, 89). , (Badian 1956, 107), cuius cupiditate plerique etiam boni viri deliquerant (   Marshall 1976, 129130). , , .
  • 34Kallet-Marx 1989, 306 nt. 1 .
  • 35Kallet-Marx 1989, 306. , , .
  • 36. , 99 / 98 ., 94 .  . . , probable but not provable, 95 . (Sumner 1978, 147148, 150, 153).
  • 37 , , (  Cic. De inv. II. 111) ex consulate, (Val. Max. III. 7. 6; Neumann 1881, 446; Badian 1956, 106107). , (loc. cit.), , , . , , , . , S. C. intercessit, homo privatus, (Marshall 1976, 125126).
  • 38Münzer 1914, 1274; Badian 1956, 105, 110; Gruen 1966, 53, nt. 122; Mackay 2009, 119, nt. 1.
  • 39Balsdon 1937, 10 ( . ). (longtemps après son retour à Rome), (Waddington 1872, 33).
  • 40Diod. XXXVII. 8. 1; Kallet-Marx 1989, 311.
  • 41Cic. Flac. 98: multis avaritiae criminibus testimoniisque convictum.
  • 42Kallet-Marx 1989, 312. , 98 ., 97 . , , ( 2011, 14).
  • 43. Broughton 1951, I, 569, 576; 1952, II, 1.
  • 44 , , : , , 8 ,   18 ( 2013, 116; Broughton 1952, II, 33; Brunt 1988, 445, nt. 3).
  • 45 factiones factio Metellana (Meier 1966, 182190; Brunt 1988, 445446), , (. 2013, 113, . 6).
  • 46- (1990, 131) , factio Metellana 98 . 9897 ., 96 ., , .
  • 47Carney 1961, 49; Luce 1970, 166, nt. 26.
  • 48 (1956, 104) , , , .
  • 49 (1972, 91),   , , . , , (Waddington 1872, 33; Balsdon 1937, 9), .
  • 50 93 . XIX . (Waddington 1872, 33; Herzog 1884, 489).
  • 51 ,   (2003, 202).
  • 52. (1881, 446), , , .
  • 53 . . , , (Brunt 1988, 150152).
  • 54Badian 1972, 91.
  • 55Van Ooteghem 1964, 70, 108, 266 ( ).
  • 56 2003, 200, . 7. Sall. Iug. 6 (, ).
  • 57 (1964, 267) .
  • 58 (1957, 324) , , .
  • 59 (2003, 200, . 7), , Plut. Mar. 2.
  • 60 (loc. cit.) , , , (Μέτελλον ἐκκροῦσαι τῆς ἀρχής), , 100 . (Schur 1942, 87; Carney 1961, 4041, nt. 193; Meier 1966, 138, Anm. 460), , , , . , , . (2003, 200, . 7) 100 . (Rab. Perd. 21). , .
  • 61Badian, 1972, 90. (1968, 204) , , , .
  • 62Van Ooteghem 1964, 266; Kallet-Marx 1990, 135.
  • 63App. Mithr. 11; 2005, 381 . 291, 383, 385.
  • 64Bates 1986, 273; Fantham 2004, 44.
  • 65 , (1957, 320), (!), . , , - factio (Shatzman 1974, 207214).
  • 66 , (Cic. De or. II. 280; Brut. 113; Alexander 1990, 18,  3435).
  • 67Badian 1958, 217219. . : Alexander 1990, 49,  94, nt. 2.
  • 68Kallet-Marx 1990, 134135. - ( 2013, 117, . 38).
  • 69 , , (. ., , ) (Ann. III. 66. 2).
  • 70, : , 115 ., (Badian 1956, 105; Gruen 1968, 122; Kallet-Marx 1990, 134), , 90- , (Badian 1958, 219; Bates 1986, 273).
  • 71Plin. NH. XXXVI. 116: unde M. Scaurus pater, totiens princeps civitatis et Mariani sodalicii rapinarum provincialium sinus; Frank 1955, 150; Shatzman 1974, 202.  . Carney 1958, 236237. .  (1970, 162163, 169) .
  • 72Badian 1956, 120, nt. 3 ( ); Bates 1986, 271, 273. . , (Carney 1958, 236237), , , II ., , . provincia (Frank 1955, 150; Shatzman 1974, 202; Alexander 1981, 8).
  • 73. (1981, 19) , (19 C) , , , , lex de repetundis. .
  • 74 (1986, 271, 274), , , , , , . . Mariani.
  • 75, ,   (Cic. De or. I. 227).
  • 76Cic. Brut. 115. [ ], , [ ] , (Fantham 2004, 44). : ,   (Brut. 115: eorum adhibere neutrum voluit). , , (De or. I. 231), . (1968, 205) , , . .
  • 77. Kallet-Marx 1990, 137138.
  • 78, , (VIII. 15. 6) , . .
  • 79Kallet-Marx 1990, 125. (1986, 274).
  • 80 90 ., , (Kallet-Marx 1990, 138).
  • 81   (Cic. Dom. 50).
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