| | |
. .

38 . . .*

, 76/3 (2016), 642661

.642 . 38 . . . . . , , , . , , . , .

: , , sidus Iulium, , , 38 . . ., , , imperator

Marcus Agrippas Coinage in Gaul in 38 BC

Sabina E. Tariverdieva


Abstract. The matter at issue of this article is golden and silver coinage of Marcus Agrippa during his governorship in Gaul in 38 BC. Comparison of this coinage with contemporary Italian bronze coins shows that the main ideological motive was probably determined by Octavian, but its specific realization belonged to Agrippa. Caesar holds a special place on these coins and .643 his connection with Octavian is stressed by combining the portrait of Caesar with the legend referring to his son, portraits of Caesar and Octavian face to face on the same obverse, Octavians beard, legend DIVI F, the title IMP, which was inherited by Octavian from Caesar. The image of the sidus Iulium above the forehead of Caesar, just as it was on his statue erected by Octavian in his honor, also appears for the first time on these very coins. A modest reverse bearing only the name of Marcus Agrippa and his title as COS DESIG serves as a foil to the importance of the obverse. This coinage had to remind the legionaries serving in Gaul that this province had been conquered by Caesar and that Octavian was his true heir. Besides, this coinage also served as a counterbalance to the coinage of Sextus Pompeius. Also coins of Agrippa would help to restore Octavians renown as a military leader, which had suffered damage in the war with Sextus Pompeius.

Keywords: Marcus Agrippa, Caesars star, sidus Iulium, Octavian, Agrippas governorship in Gaul, coinage of 38 BC, monetary propaganda, Caesars portraits on coins, imperator

40 .1, , , , . , , , 2.

, 37 , , . :

M AGRIPPA COS
DESIG

, , . , , .

3,   , : IMP DIVI IVLI F TER III VIR R P C  , (. 1).

, : DIVOS IVLIVS  , , : DIVI F  , (. 2).

, : IMP CAESAR DIVI IVLI F  , (. . 3).

: , DIVI F, , sidus Iulium, , .644 , , .


. 1. (RRC 534/1)

. 2. (RRC 534/2)


, , - , .



. 3. (RRC 534/3)

, . , , . , , sidus Iulium , ? .645 ? - , ? , 4 ? , , .

, , . , . , , - , , , , , ( ), , . .5 , ( )?

. . , , , 6. . , , 7. RPC , 8. . . (RRC 534) , , (Mint  moving with Octavian), , 9; .646 , 10. . , , , , . , , 11.

, , , , , 12, 13, , . , . , , , 14. , , .

: . , , , , , . , , : (RRC 525, 526)15. , , , .

, 38 .  ? , . . , ,  . . 38 ., 37 .16 , , , .647 , , , , , , 37 .17 , , , . , 37 ., 38 ., . , .

, , (. ). , , , , , 18. , . 40 ., - (App. BC. V. 51; Dio Cass. XLVIII. 20. 3), 19. 40 (RRC 490/3) (497/12), (RRC 518)20. 43, 42 41 . . , , , , , , . moving with Octavian. , , .

, . , 41 . (RRC 518/1)21. , : 22. , ; 23.

  , 40 . (RRC 523). 40 ., .648 , , (App. BC. V. 66). , 24, , , 25.

40 . 39 . , (RRC 529). , 26, . 39 . ; , , RRC 529 . , : ,     27.

(RRC 534), , 37 . (RRC 537538).

, , , RRC 490, 497, 518, 523, 529, 534, 537538, , . 4039 . , 39 .   , . 38 . 37 . (  . ) , .

, , 28. 29. , , ( ), , . , , . , , , , . . , , , , 30. , , , . .649 38- (RRC 534; BMCRR (Gaul),  100102; HCRI 305307) , , (Dio Cass. XLVIII. 35. 1).

, , 39 .31, 39 . (App. BC. V. 75), 39 . , 32. , , . , , , ( ), . , , , , , , , , , , , (. 433534).

, , ,   , , , ; , ( , ).

. , (IMP DIVI IVLI F TER III VIR R P C), , TER IMP. , , . TER IMP, . . 35.

.650


. 4. (RRC 535/1)

. 5. (RRC 535/2)

. 6. (RRC 529/1)

, . . RRC 529 CAESAR IMP, IMP , : ANTON IMP ANTONIVS IMP (. 6).

: , (RRC 534/1), (RRC 534/2) , (RRC 534/3). , , , . , , . . , TER. , , , 27 ., 36.

. , , 37. , , , , , . ., , .651 38. .-. IMP - , , , , 39.

, . , , , (XLIII. 44. 2; LII. 41. 3), , , (Iul. 76). , , . , , , , , 40.

, . 41 , , , , , , , , , . ,   CIL VI. 2298: feriae quod hoc die Imp(erator) Caesar Hispaniam citeriorem vicit,  , , C. Caesar Caesar42. ,   , . , .

, , , , , , . . , , , , , 43.

.652 , , , ( )44, , . (IMT 1541)45 , . , , . , , , , , 46. , , , , (. )47.

. , , , , - , . , Divus, , Imperator Divus48. , , , ,   C(aius) Divus. , , Divus Imperator, Imperator   , 49.

, 38 . ( ) IMP, . , 50  .653 .   , . , DIVI IVLI F ,   IMP DIVI IVLI F , , 38 . 51. , , , 39 .52

, , , , , , . , , -53, , 54, . , .

. , 38 . . ? , 38 . . . , , , 55. , 40- , . , , , ( ), . , ,  , ( ), ,  , , .

.654


. 7. (RRC 511/1)

, , . 39/38 . (Dio Cass. XLVIII. 45. 410; 46; App. BC. V. 7780), , ( ), . , 38 . , , 56. .-. , , . , , Pius, . . 57 (. 7). , . . 58, Pius. , , , ,   , .

, , . . , 43 31 . -, , 59. -, .655 , , , , . . 60. .



. 8. (RRC 480/5b)

. 61. . . ,   , 62. , , (RRC 528/2a), 63. , :   , . ( , ), : , , , (. . 8), 64. , 44 . 65, 66. ,   , , . , . .656 ,   .

: -, , -, , . , , 67. , , , . sidus Iulium ( ) , 68. ( , ), , , : , , . (RRC 511/1; . . 7): , .

, (. . 1 2.). , , , , . , 69. . , , , . ? ? ? , .   . ,   . , : , . , . : DIVOS IVLIVS DIVI F - , 70.

.657 , : , . , (Dio Cass. XLVIII. 34. 3). , , 39 . , . , , .

, , : , , , , , , .

. , , , . , , ,   (RRC 534/2 RRC 535/1 ),   ( ),     71. , 72, . ( ) , 73, , . , .   , .

, . , M AGRIPPA COS DESIG, - 74. , 75 .658 . , 76. , , , , (. . 76). , , -   , , , . , , . , .

, , . . , 77.   .   , - 78. . , , . , 79. , ,   . , , : , .

, , . , .659 , ? , ?

, , . , , , , . . , , , , , . ?

, , . , , , , (App. BC. V. 66). , , . . , 80. , ( , : BC. V. 75), (Eutrop. VII. 5. 1; Dio XLVIII. 49; Suet. Aug. 21. 1). , , . , , . , , 39 ., , , 81, . 39 . , , 38 . , .

, .

, , ́ , . : , , , , DIVI F. sidus Iulium , , , sidus . IMP, .660 , , .

, , , ( - ). , , 38 ., .

, . , , , ,   - , , . , , .

, 38 . . , 43 ., , 42 ., , -, , . 38 . , . , 38 . , , , , . , , , .

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  • * , , . . , . . . . .   . : Numismatica Ars Classica NA CAG  . 1 (Auction 46, lot 457), 2 (Auction 51, lot 125), 3 (Auction 73, lot 265), 6 (Auction 86, lot 29), 7 (Auction 62, lot 2006), 8 (Auction 63, lot 450); Ira & Larry Goldberg Coins & Collectibles, Inc.  . 4; Numismatik Lanz München  . 5.
  • 1   . ;  . Tariverdieva 2012, 414.
  • 2Eutrop. VII. 45. 1; App. BC. V. 65; Tac. Ann. XII. 27. 1; Strabo IV. 3. 4.  . Roddaz 1984, 71.
  • 3  . .
  • 4 , , ( . Levick 1982, 105107). , , , , (Sutherland 1983, 74). . . -, , (Wallace-Hadrill 1986, 67). , , : , . .
  • 5. : Crawford 1974, 510. , , , , , , , . ., , : RRC 517, 521, 522, 527, 528 .  .  ., , RRC 525, 526, 534, 535, 537 . , , , ( ) .
  • 6Grueber 1910, 410411, n. 1.
  • 7Hill 1975, passim, . 185186. (Roddaz 1984, 594).
  • 8Burnett, Amandry, Ripolles 1992, 161.
  • 9Crawford 1974, 744: Agrippa produced an issue
  • 10Crawford 1969, 3, n. 7.
  • 11Sear 1998, 188.
  • 12Osgood 2006, 173182.
  • 13. Crawford 1969, 35, 125126.
  • 14Mattingly 1946, 9394.
  • 15 33 . (RRC 542/1), (   M(arcus) SILANVS AVG(ur) / Q(uaestor) PRO CO(n)S(ul), ). . ( ) . ( ), , , . , 38 . . , , , ,   , . , , , . .
  • 16Reinhold 1933, 2627, n. 34. X , , , , (X. 4648: Tu procul a patria (nec sit mihi credere tantum) // Alpinas, a! dura, niues et frigora Rheni // me sine sola uides), , , . , Clausen 1994, 305. (Roddaz 1984, 68 n. 209) , 38 . 37 .
  • 17Dio Cass. XLVIII. 49. 3: καὶ Ὅς (ὑπάτευε δὲ μετὰ Λουκίου Γάλλου) τὰ μὲν ἐπινίκια οὐκ ἔπεμψεν
  • 18Hill 1975, 177.
  • 19Hill 1975, 174.
  • 20Hill 1975, 174178.
  • 21 RRC 518/2 , , , . . Crawford 1974, 526527; Sear 1998, 184.
  • 22 (1952, 380) , , (1974, 527) .
  • 23Sear 1998, 184.
  • 24Sear 1998, 185.
  • 25Hill 1975, 178.
  • 26Tariverdieva 2012, 1316.
  • 27Sear 1998, 186187. , (RRC 529/4), , , , , .
  • 28. : Levick 1982, 107, n. 13; Solomatin 1997, 179, . 5.
  • 29Sutherland 1986, 8789.
  • 30 ( ) illegal; . Burnett 1977, 57; Crawford 1974, 604.
  • 31 , , : Reynolds 1982, 7071.
  • 32. Lyubimova 2016, 85107.
  • 33 RRC 535/1 RRC 534/2 , ,   .  . .
  • 34, RRC 481/1, 44 .
  • 35 . , , TER III VIR R P C, . . (Babelon 1885, 5657, 555556). , . , , : , (Grueber 1910, 412; McFayden 1920, 3435; Syme 1958, 185186; Roddaz 1984, 7780; Sear 1998, 188); . , , , , , IMP III. . : Tariverdieva 2012, 1819; . , 40- (Schumacher 1985, 194208; Simpson 1998, 422, n. 20). , .
  • 36Grueber 1910, 411.
  • 37Syme 1958, 185186.
  • 38Syme 1958, 176177.
  • 39Roddaz 1984, 7780.
  • 40Syme 1958, 176177.
  • 41. : Weinstock 1971, 106111.
  • 42Weinstock 1971, 106, n. 4.
  • 43Kraft 1969, 6471. : IMT 1541; RRC 480/3, 480/4, 480/5a, 480/5b (. . 8), 480/17. , DICT QVART DICT (IN) PERPETVO, . . , , . Crawford 1974, 492.
  • 44Suet. Iul. 76: Non enim honores modo nimios recepit insuper praenomen Imperatoris; Dio Cass. XLIII. 44. 2: Τό τε τοῦ αὐτοκράτορος ὄνομα ἀλλὰ καθάπαξ τοῦτο δὴ τὸ καὶ νῦν τοῖς τὸ κράτος ἀεὶ ἔχουσι διδόμενον ἐκείνῳ τότε πρώτῳ τε καὶ πρῶτον, ὥσπερ τι κύριον, προσέθεσαν.
  • 45 CIL VI. 2298 , .
  • 46 , , , , (., , RRC 502/1 (4342 .)), (, RRC 506/1 (4342 .)),   .
  • 47 , ( )  . Rubincam 1992.  . Simpson 1998.
  • 48 (Weinstock 1971, 391392), .
  • 49Simpson 1998, 427429. , : Imp. Caesar Divi f. C. f. ().
  • 50Dio Cass. XLIII. 44. 2: τό τε τοῦ αὐτοκράτορος ὄνομα οὐ κατὰ τὸ ἀρχαῖον ἔτι μόνον, ὥσπερ ἄλλοι τε καὶ ἐκεῖνος [ὡς] πολλάκις ἐκ τῶν πολέμων ἐπεκλήθησαν, οὐδ ὡς οἵ τινα αὐτοτελῆ ἡγεμονίαν ἢ καὶ ἄλλην τινὰ ἐξουσίαν λαβόντες ὠνομάζοντο, ἀλλὰ καθάπαξ τοῦτο δὴ τὸ καὶ νῦν τοῖς τὸ κράτος ἀεὶ ἔχουσι διδόμενον ἐκείνῳ τότε πρώτῳ τε καὶ πρῶτον, ὥσπερ τι κύριον, προσέθεσαν. καὶ τοσαύτῃ γε ὑπερβολῇ κολακείας ἐχρήσαντο ὥστε καὶ τοὺς παῖδας τούς τε ἐγγόνους αὐτοῦ οὕτω καλεῖσθαι ψηφίσασθαι, μήτε τέκνον τι αὐτοῦ ἔχοντος καὶ γέροντος ἤδη ὄντος  (.  . .)   , [] , , [] , - ,  [] , , , . , , , , .
  • 51Kraft 1969, 6970.
  • 52RRC 527529.
  • 53McFayden 1920, 3435.
  • 54Reinhold 1933, 26, n. 31; Kraft 1969, 70; Roddaz 1984, 7780.
  • 55Simpson 1998, 422, 424.
  • 56  . Lyubimova 2016, 85107.
  • 57Roddaz 1984, 7780. . (Wallmann, 1989, 174175) , , , , . , , 38 ., .
  • 58Assenmaker 2014, 34. . (Pollini 2012, 168) , , , (military beard). , , . , , , : ( ) ? , pius .
  • 59. , , : RRC 490; 494/16; 494/24; 494/39a; 525/3; 526/2, 4. (Sear 1998, 187).
  • 60. (RRC 526/14). ,   . . . 59.
  • 61., , RRC 528/2a; 521/2; 480/5b. , . Gurval 1997, 4751; Pandey 2013, 418421.
  • 62Pandey 2013, 417; Gurval 1997, 4547.
  • 63Gurval 1997, 50.  . Pollini 2012, 412455.
  • 64 , , , ,   . . : Gurval 1997, 47.
  • 65 , . , : Pandey 2013, 412415.
  • 66 , (Pandey 2013, 429, n. 64): (Plin. HN. II. 23), , , , (Dio Cass. XLV. 7. 1). , , , .
  • 67McFayden 1921, 34. , (Gurval 1997, 5153).
  • 68Babelon 1885, 555; Kraft 1969, 7778; Sear 1998, 188.
  • 69Babelon 1885, 555.
  • 70 , ,   . , HCRI 263 ( 39 .), 273, 275, 276, 279, 281, 282, 285 ( 38 .) ,   ., , HCRI 274, 280, 286, 288 ( 38 .). , , (, HCRI 268), , : RRC 492  43 . : RRC 495  42 . , . . ( RRC 534/2) , (RRC 535/12). . , (RRC 511/1).
  • 71Ramage 1985, 236237.
  • 72Kraft 1969, 91.
  • 73Wallace-Hadrill 1986, 68.
  • 74., , , , , (RRC 480/19).
  • 75Syme 1958, 185186.
  • 76., , RRC 446/1 ( ); RRC 506/1 ( ); RRC 507 ( ).
  • 77 . , , 33 . (RRC 542/1, 542/2).
  • 78. , : RRC 472/13, 45 ., , RRC 480/2, 23, 28, 44 .,   ; RRC 486/1, 43 .,   ; RRC 487/1, 43 .,   . , ,  . Wiseman 1974.
  • 79 (Wallmann 1989, 174).
  • 80 , , . Tariverdieva 2012, 1517.
  • 81Sear 1998, 186187.
  • 1414089515 1399228332 1409609054 1496008035 1497214112 1499593109

    , .