| | |
. .

: ?*

76/1 (2016), . 85107.

.85 . , . , , 38 . . . , , , , .

: , , , , , , , , ,

Octavians Marriage to Livia: Advantages Or Risks?

Olga V. Lyubimova

Abstract. The author argues that the political consequences of Octavians marriage to Livia were only negative for him. Having divorced Scribonia he displayed his hostile disposition to Sextus Pompey too early and did not have enough time to prepare himself to the new war which led to his defeat in 38 BC. The scandal about Octavians marriage to Livia must have alienated the conservative aristocracy rather than attract it; the episode gave a lot of material for the hostile propaganda.

Keywords: Octavian, Livia, Sextus Pompeius, Roman aristocracy, nobility, Claudii, Livii, Italici, Marcus Livius Drusus, Roman civil wars

.86 , . . , , .   , ; , , 1. , , .   .

, : , , , (Dio Cass. XLVIII. 34. 3), (Tac. Ann. V. 1. 2; Suet. Aug. 62. 2; Claud. 1; Vell. II. 95. 1), , (Dio Cass. XLVIII. 44. 12). (Suet. Claud. 1; Dio Cass. XLVIII. 44. 35), (Suet. Aug. 69. 1)2, (Dio Cass. LIV. 16. 5). (Tac. Ann. V. 1. 2; Suet. Aug. 62. 2; Dio Cass. XLVIII. 34. 3), , , 3. , , .

, , , , . -, . , ( 4) 5. -, . . . , , , ,   , , 6. , -, . . , .87 . , 91 . , 7.

, . . . . , , 8. . , , , 9. , .

. , . , , ,   , 10. , ?

, . , 40 ., (Dio Cass. XLVIII. 3). , (App. BC. V. 53). , , 40 .,  , (App. BC. V. 5153), 11. , , , . 39 .12 , , , ; , (Suet. Tib. 4. 3; Vell. II. 77. 2; App. BC. V. 72). ; , 39 .13 (App. BC. V. 75) , , 39 . .

, . .88 , 17 38 . (Inscr. It. XIII2. 22). (Claud. 1. 1) (XLVIII. 44. 12), , , , . , 38 . , (Claud. 11. 3), , , 14 . 14; , . : , , . . 39 ., sine manu, , 17 38 . , , 15.

, 16 ( ), , 39 .  . . . , , 17. 39 .? ? , , (App. BC. V. 6771; Dio Cass. XXXVIII. 31) , , . , : . , . , , , .89 , (App. BC. V. 77; 80; Dio Cass. XLVIII. 45. 7)18. , 19. . , - 20, , : - 39 . . , . , , 21.

, , : , (App. BC. V. 77. 326; Dio Cass. XLVIII. 46. 1). , , : , , , (App. BC. V. 77. 328; Dio Cass. XLVIII. 43. 1; 45. 7; 46. 1)22. , , , (App. BC. V. 78; Dio Cass. XLVIII. 45. 67), 23. , 38 ., 24.

.90 , ,   , , (App. BC. V. 77; Dio Cass. XLVIII. 45. 4),  , , . , 38 .25, , , (App. BC. V. 79. 334), , , (App. BC. V. 7980; Dio Cass. XLVIII. 24). , , , (App. BC. V. 92; Dio XLVIII. 48. 649. 1).

, , , . . ?

. . . , , , 26. : , . , 38 . , 27, . , , 28. , .

,   , , , (Suet. Tib. 3. 1).   , , , , . , , , (Dio Cass. XLVIII. 44. 3 5); , , , - 29.

.91 , , , , 30. , , . , : (Tib. 4. 23), , . , (dignitas) , , , . , . , , : , , . 4140 . , , , , ,   , . , , (Suet. Tib. 4).

, . , , , 31, 32. , . , 33. , ( ), , . . , 34, : , (App. BC. V. 72. 306; Dio Cass. .92 XLVIII. 36. 4). - . , 35,   , , ,  39 . . , , , , 36, , 37, , .

, , . , , , , , . , , , (Dio Cass. XLVIII. 44. 4)38. : . , : , 39. , , , , 40, , - . , , , , . 41 , . 39 ., , ( ) . , , , .93 , . , .

  , (Tib. 3), , , 91 .42 . , , , 207 . , 43. : , I . . . . , , , , , , ; , , , 44. , 91 ., , , . , 45. (Dom. 84) , . , , 46.

, (. . 1). 91 ., ; , 50 . (Cic. Fam. VIII. 14), , , 9391 . , 79 .47 ( 90- )48, , , 54 . . , 92 .49, , 87 . 20-   .94 , .


. 1. .

, , 92 ., 87 ., 82 .50

, . , 92 ., , , 79 ., (. . 1).

,   , , . . 43 ., , , 41 ., . , ; (Vell. II. 65. 2; Suet. Aug. 62. 1; Plut. Ant. 20. 1; Dio Cass. XLVI. 56. 3; XLVIII. 5. 3). , 43 .  , -, , - .

  , ( 56 .), 38 . 51. 52. . 1 38 ., 43 ., (App. BC. IV. 2) 39 . (Dio Cass. XLVIII. 35. 2; App. BC. V. 73)53  .95 54. , , (. ): , ( : Cic. Fam. X. 29; XI. 22)55. , 38 . , , , . 41 . 40 . , , , 39 . , . , - , , . ,   -, . 56, . 36 . (App. BC. V. 98)  , , , , . 34 ., 57, . : , , , , , , . .

. 38 . ,   , 54 . (Ascon. Mil. 34)58. , -, 43 . (App. BC. IV. 44; 51, . , . 54); , , , 25 . (RDGE. 26. Col. c. 1011, , )59. .96 54 ., , , , ; , , .

, , , ( )  . 60 ., 52 . (Ascon. 35: parvolus filius Clodi), 44 . (Cic. Att. XIV. 13a; 13b: puer)60. , 39 . 20 . , , , , . , , , ,   (ILS. 882). . , , , , 38 . 67 , (Dio Cass. XLVIII. 43. 2)61. , , , . (III. 5. 3) , , . , , 3938 . 62.

30- . , 54 ., , , -, 45 . (Cic. Fam. III. 4. 2; Att. XIII. 9. 2). , , . , , 39 . .

, . , , , 91 ., (ILS. 124), 63. . , , , , 77 . . ., .97 64. , .

: , ; , ; , . , 91 . , , 65, 66, . . (Cic. Brut. 109; Tusc. V. 112; Val. Max. VIII. 7. 4). , , , , , , , .

. 88 . (Diod. XXXVII. 2. 10), , . , , 9391 . (. ). , , 93 88 . : , 67. - 137 126 .68, , .

, . . (Gai. Inst. I. 107, . 9990- , 69.   70. : , , ,   , .

, , 91 .; , , 77 ., (. . 2 . 3). , .

.98

. 2. . , 91 .

. 3. . , 77 .

, , . (Vell. II. 71. 2; Dio Cass. XLVIII. 44. 1), . , , , . , , (. . 4)71. 15 . . ,   ,  , , . . 32 , , 72. , 39 ., .99 , 10 , , .


. 4. .

. 4039 . , (App. BC. V. 69; 71). , 34 . (App. BC. V. 73) , . , , 73. , . , , . , , , (App. BC. V. 139). , 34 . 74. , , . , , ; - , , 34 .

, , . , , .100 75, , . , , , ,   76. , , 39 31 .

, - , , 38 . , . (- 38 .), ( 34 .) ( 31 .)77. , , .

. , . , , - 43 ., (. ). , ( ) 78. , - .

, . , 50 ., 43 . , , . , , , , (Dio Cass. LIV. 2. 1; App. IV. 2). (. . ) , - 34 .   , 36 . (Suet. Aug. 16. 3)79. , , , 43 ., , , (App. BC. IV. 12; . Liv. Per. 120; Vell. II. 67; Plut. Ant. 19; Dio Cass. XLVII. 6)80. C , , , . , .

.101 , . , , (Plut. Brut. 4041; 45; App. BC. IV. 38; V. 113)81 40 . (Fl. Ioseph. AI. XIV. 13. 1). , , 82, . , , , (App. BC. IV. 38), . . , , (Sat. I. 10. 8586), , 33 .83 , , - , , , .

, , , 39 . , : , 3836 . , , 84. . , 30- 85. .

, - 86. , . . . : , , 87. .102 , , , . , , , , , . , : , , (. App. BC. V. 53)  , . , , , , 88.

30-   , . , , , . , . , . , , . , , , , , , 89. , , ; . , , 38 ., , 36 .  , . , 90. 36 . , , ; , , , . 91, 92, , , , 93. .

.103 , ,   , 94.

: , . 95, , - 91 .   ( ) , 91 .?96 , , , . 91 . , , , . , (Tib. 3. 2), , , , 91 . , , , 97. , , , 91 ., , .

, .

, , ; , , , (Diod. XXXVII. 11). : , 98. , , , . (Vell. II. 15. 1), , (, , ) , , , (Liv. Per. 71; Flor. II. 5. 9; 6. 3)99. ,   - , .

, , , , , (, , ) .104 , . . , 90 ., , (Cic. Balb. 21; Gell. IV. 4. 3). 89 . . . , , (Cic. Arch. 7). . , , , (Liv. Per. 84). 70 . . . , , . . 100. , , . , 101  , 4439 . ( ) 102. , .

, 50 , , , . (II. 15. 2) 300 . (Flor. II. 9. 2425), , (Strabo. V. 4. 11; App. BC. I. 96; Flor. II. 9. 2728). (Dio Cass. XLIII. 52. 2)103. , , 104. ,   , , ,  , 105. , 106. , 39 . , 91 . , . .

, , - , .105 , 107. , 32 . (RGDA. 25), , 91 . 108. 32 . , : , , 44 . (App. BC. III. 46) , , , (Suet. Iul. 84. 2; 86. 1; App. BC. II. 124; 144145)109. , , , , : , .

, . , . , . ( 38 .), 40-  30- , . - ; , , , , . ,   , . , , , . 38 .

, . : , , , , . , , , 110. . : .106 , , , , 111. , : , , .


 / References

Barreth, A. 2002: Livia. First Lady of Imperial Rome. New HavenLondon

Blumenthal, F. 19131914: Die Autobiographie des Augustus. Wiener Studien 35, 113130, 267288; 36, 48103

Broughton, T. R. S. 1951: The Magistrates of the Roman Republic. New York

Brunt, P. A. 1971: Italian Manpower 225 B. C.  A. D. 14. Oxford

Carcopino, J. 1958: Passion et politique chez les Césars. Paris

Carter, J. M. 1970: The Battle of Actium: the Rise and Triumph of Augustus Caesar. New York

Carter, J. M. 1982: Suetonius: Divus Augustus. Bristol

Crawford, M. 1996: Italy and Rome from Sulla to Augustus. In: The Cambridge Ancient History. 2nd ed. X. Cambridge, 414433

Drumann, W. 1964: Geschichte Roms in seinem Übergange von der republikanischen zur monarchischen Verfassung, oder Pompeius, Caesar, Cicero und ihre Zeitgenossen. 2. Aufl. P. Groebe (Hrsg.). Bd. 2. Hildesheim

Flory, M. 1988: Abducta Neroni uxor: The Historiographical Tradition on the Marriage of Octavian and Livia. Transactions of the American Philological Association 118, 343359

Fitzler, K., Seeck, O. 1918: Iulius (132). In: RE. Hlbd. 19, 275381

Goldsworthy, A. 2014: Augustus. First Emperor of Rome. New HavenLondon

Gowing, A. M. 1992: The Triumviral Narratives of Appian and Cassius Dio. Ann Arbor

Hadas, M 1930: Sextus Pompey. New York

Hillard, T. W. 1973: The Sisters of Clodius Again. Latomus 32, 505514

Hinard, F. 1985: Les proscriptions de la Rome républicaine. Rome

Holmes, T. R. 1928: The Architect of the Roman Empire. 4427 B. C. Oxford

Huntsman, E. D. 1997: The Family and Property of Livia Drusilla. PhD Diss. University of Pennsylvania

Huntsman, E. D. 2009: Livia before Octavian. Ancient Society 39, 161169

Kienast, D. 2009: Augustus. Princeps und Monarch. Darmstadt

Kunst, Ch. 2008: Livia: Macht und Intrigen am Hof des Augustus. Stuttgart

Levi, M. A. 1933: Ottaviano capoparte. Storia politica di Roma durante le ultime lotte de supremazia. Firenze

Levick, B. 1999: Tiberius the Politician. LondonNew York

Lindsay, H. 2009: Adoption in the Roman World. Cambridge

Münzer, F. 1899a: Claudius. In: RE. Bd. 3, 26622667

Münzer, F. 1899b: Claudius (14, 15, 298, 299). In: RE. Bd. III, 2668, 28532855

Münzer, F. 1913: Hiero (19). In: RE. Hlbd. 16, 1515

Münzer, F. 1920: Römische Adelsparteien und Adelsfamilien. Stuttgart

Münzer, F. 1926: Livius (19). In: RE. Hlbd. 25, 881884

Ollendorf, L. 1926: Livia (37). In: RE. Hlbd. 25, 900924

Osgood, J. 2006: Caesars Legacy. Civil War and the Emergence of the Roman Empire. Cambridge

Parfyonov, V. N. 1987: Rim ot Tsezarya do Avgusta. Ocherki sotsialno-politicheskoy istorii [Rome from Caesar to Augustus. Essays on the Socio-Political History]. Saratov = , . . . - .

Parfyonov, V. N. 1993: Zlaya machekha doma tsezarey (istoricheskiy ocherk) [Evil Stepmother for the House of the Caesars (A Historical Essay)]. Antichnyy mir i arkheologiya [Ancient World and Archaeology] 9, 176189 = , . . ( ). . 9, 176189

.107 Pelling, Ch. 1996: The Triumviral Period. In: The Cambridge Ancient History. 2nd ed. X, 169

Pelling, Ch. 2011: Plutarch Caesar. Oxford

Reynolds, J. 1982: Aphrodisias and Rome. London

Scheid, J. 1975: Scribonia Caesaris et les Julio-Claudiens. Problèmes de vocabulaire de parenté. Mélanges de lEcole française de Rome. Antiquité 87, 349375

Schweighäuser, J. 1785: Appiani Alexandrini Romanarum historiarum quae supersunt. Lipsiae

Scott, K. 1933: The Political Propaganda of 4430 B. C. Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome 11, 749

Shotter, D. 1999: Augustus Caesar. London

Sirago, V. A. 1979: Livia Drusilla. Una nova condizione feminine. Invigilata Lucernis. Rivista dellIstituto di Latino Université di Bari 1, 171207

Southern, P. 1998: Augustus. LondonNew York

Suetonius Tranquillus, G. 1964: Zhizn dvenadtsati tsezarey [The Lives of the Twelve Caesars]. M. L. Gasparov, E. M. Shtaerman (eds). Moscow = , . 1964: . . . . . . . . .

Sumner, G. V. 1974: The Orators in Ciceros Brutus: Prosopography and Chronology. Toronto

Syme, R. 1938: Caesar, the Senate and Italy. The Papers of British School in Rome 14, 131

Syme, R. 1939: The Roman Revolution. Oxford

Syme, R. 1958: Tacitus. Oxford

Syme, R. 1986: The Augustan Aristocracy. Oxford

Tariverdieva, S. E. 2012: Prichiny i itogi illiriyskikh kampaniy Oktaviana [Motives and Results of Octavians Illyrian Campaigns]. Studia historica. Issue XII, 148158 = , . . . Studia historica. . XII, 148158

Tatum, J. 1999: The Patrician Tribune: Publius Clodius Pulcher. Chapel HillLondon

Taylor, L. R. 1971: Party Politics in the Age of Caesar. BerkeleyLos AngelesLondon

Tokarev, A. N. 2011: Stanovlenie ofitsialnoy ideologii printsipata imperatora Avgusta [Making of the Official Ideology of the Emperor Augustus Principate]. Kharkiv = , . . .

Utchenko, S. L. 1969: Drevniy Rim. Sobytiya. Lyudi. Idei [Ancient Rome. Events. Persons. Ideas]. Moscow = , . . . . . . .

Wallmann, P. 1989: Triumviri Rei Publicae Constituendae. Untersuchungen zur politischen Propaganda im Zweiten Triumvirat. Frankfurt am MainBern

Weinrib, E. 1968: The Family Connections of M. Livius Drusus Libo. Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 72, 247278

Weinstock, S. 1971: Divus Julius. Oxford

Wiseman, T. P. 1965: The Mother of Livia Augusta. Historia 14, 333334

Wiseman, T. P. 1970: Pulcher Claudius. Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 74, 207221

Yavetz, Z. 1983: Julius Caesar and His Public Image. Engl. transl. IthakaNew York


  • * : (XIV . . . , , , 1618. 10. 2014 .). . . . . .
  • 1Utchenko 1969, 195.
  • 2. Carcopino 1958, 7475; Scott 1933, 40; Flory 1988, 352353 , , (Suet. Aug. 69. 1), .
  • 3, . (Kunst 2008, 48), : , - .
  • 4 , . , 34 . (App. BC. V. 53. 222), . , : Scheid 1975, 349375. .
  • 5Carcopino 1958, 78; . (1982, 182).
  • 6Levi 1933, 2, 5358; Syme 1939, 229, 340, 368, 379; Carter 1970, 141142, 172; Sirago 1979, 177181; Carter 1982, 182183; Flory 1988, 345346; Pelling 1996, 24; Huntsman 1997, 5758; Southern 1998, 75; Shotter 1999, 24; Barreth 2002, 2122; Osgood 2006, 232; Kunst 2008, 4447; 49; 5253; 5758; Kienast 2009, 51.
  • 7Parfyonov 1987, 95; 1993, 178, . Barreth 2002, 22, .
  • 8Wallmann 1989, 202203, Anm. 93; Tokarev 2011, 110.
  • 9Goldsworthy 2014, 163, 558, nt. 26, . .
  • 10 , , 41 ., (Suet. Aug. 62. 1; Dio Cass. XLVIII. 5. 3), 40 . (. ).
  • 11Holmes 1928, 220; Pelling 1996, 17, . , . 16.
  • 12Carcopino 1958, 7071; Reynolds 1982, 7071.
  • 13Barreth 2002, 21.
  • 14. Flory 1988, 348, nt. 13; Barreth 2002, 313314, .
  • 15Kunst 2008, 336340; . ILS. 8393, 17 , sine manu .
  • 16. (1958, 79) , - 38 ., 39 ., (1958, 66, nt. 2), (App. BC. V. 53; Dio Cass. XLVIII. 16. 3), . . , , , , . , , 3938 . , . , , , , . , ( ), , . , , 40 ., 39 .
  • 17Fitzler, Seeck 1918, 308; Hadas 1930, 102; Wallmann 1989, 202203; Huntsman 1997, 63.
  • 18Wallmann 1989, 199202.
  • 19Pelling 1996, 24.
  • 20Flory 1988, 345.
  • 21Hadas 1930, 102. . , , (  . ) , .   38 . 39 .: Kunst 2008, 5758.
  • 22 (Aug. 70) , . , , -. , 17 38 ., (nova divorum adulteria): Scott 1933, 31; Flory 1988, 353355; Osgood 2006, 237238. (1982, 191192) , 39/38 .
  • 23Holmes 1928, 108109; Levi 1933, 5860; Gowing 1992, 192193.
  • 24Hadas 1930, 102; Flory 1988, 345; Pelling 1996, 24. (II. 79. 2) , . . (1988, 345), , , . , : , 36 ., . , 39 . , , . , , : Wallmann 1989, 201202, : .
  • 25App. BC. V. 89; . Hadas 1938, 110111.
  • 26. . 3.
  • 27Huntsman 1997, 57.
  • 28Flory 1988, 345346.
  • 29. Kunst 2008, 4849, , . . , , ; : Sirago 1979, 177181. , . . . .
  • 30Carcopino 1958, 7778; Levick 1999, 4; Barreth 2002, 25. . (1988, 347348) , : , .
  • 31Levick 1999, 4.
  • 32, , , (Illyr. 20. 57), (Ἱέρων): Schweighäuser 1785, III, 2, 674; Münzer 1913, 1515; Broughton 1951, 2, 408. , , . , (App. BC. V. 66. 277; Dio Cass. XLVIII. 30. 8), (Dio Cass. LIV 21. 23) (App. BC. V. 80. 337; Suet. Aug. 74).
  • 33Huntsman 1997, 59.
  • 34Huntsman 1997, 6465.
  • 35Huntsman 1997, 6061, 72.
  • 36 .
  • 37 , , : . Cic. Tusc. I. 93.
  • 38. Blumenthal 1913, 285 , .
  • 39Tac. Ann. I. 10; V. 1. 2; XII. 6. 2; Suet. Cal. 25; Aug. 62. 2; 69. 1. , , , . , , . , . 2. , , .  . Flory 1988, 348355.
  • 40Goldsworthy 2014, 164. , petenti Augusto (Tib. 4. 2). (Flory 1988, 346), (Suetonius 1964, 78)  .
  • 41, : , 202 . . ., .
  • 42  . .
  • 43Münzer 1926, 882. : Ollendorf 1926, 901; Sirago 1979, 176, Huntsman 1997, 22; Huntsman 2009, 129131.
  • 44Huntsman 1997, 22, 69.
  • 45Huntsman 2009, 131.
  • 46Levick 1999, nt. 2; Barreth 2002, 348, nt. 12. , . , , , . , 92 .: Kunst 2008, 26. , (Liv. III. 64. 4; App. BC. I. 14).
  • 47Barreth 2002, 348.
  • 48Hillard 1973, .
  • 49Barreth 2002, 348, nt. 12; Kunst 2008, 2627; . , , 92 .: Münzer 1899a, 2666.
  • 50Drumann 1964, 141, 157158.
  • 51Broughton 1952, 2, 390.
  • 52Syme, 1939, 29; Carter 1970, 141; Huntsman 1997, 58; Huntsman 2009, 146; Kunst 2008, 49.
  • 53Reynolds 1982, 6970.
  • 54 . , , (BC. IV 44 51)   38 .,  . : Münzer 1899b, 2668, 28542855. . , , , (Hinard 1985, 453456, . Wiseman 1970, 208), , 39 ., ,  . , .
  • 55 , 38 ., , : (App. BC. IV 130).
  • 56  .: Plut. Ant. 24. 1.
  • 57Broughton 1951, 2, 412; 416; 419.
  • 58Münzer 1899b, 28532854; Münzer 1899b, 2854.
  • 59Münzer 1899b, 2668; Wiseman 1970, 209; Hinard 1985, 455456.
  • 60 19- , , , (in optima spe puer repositus), .  . Wiseman 1970, 211; Tatum 6061.
  • 61Syme 1986, 149. . (1999, 61), , , 31 .
  • 62.  , 43 ., , , , (Ann. IV. 52) : Wiseman 1970, 215217. . : Syme 1986, 146151.
  • 63Drumann 1964, 546547; Münzer 1926, 881882; Levick 1999, 2; Barreth 2002, 8; Kunst 2008, 25.
  • 64Huntsman 1997, 2022.
  • 65 ; ., ., Münzer 1920, 311312.
  • 66. (1997, 2022) , , , .
  • 67 ,   ; , , (Sumner 1974, 6465).
  • 68 (1997, 20, nt. 79) (1974, 6465).
  • 69Cic. Tusc. V. 112, . Münzer 1920, 312
  • 70Lindsay 2009, 7986,
  • 71Weinrib 1968, 250264; Syme 1986, 257258.
  • 72Syme 1986, 258 ( ); Syme 1958, 2, 653655 ( ).
  • 73Huntsman 1997, 60, nt. 39; 2009, 148, nt. 109 ( , ), 154155. . (1970, 142) . . Kunst 2008, 53, .
  • 74, 21 . (CIL. VI. 32338), . (1986, 46; 258) , .
  • 75. Huntsman 2009, 131, nt. 36 (); 155156 (), 157 ().
  • 76Syme 1939, 234237.
  • 77Syme 1939, 229; 237; 368; Carter 1970, 141142.
  • 78Ovid. Fast. VI. 801809; IGR. III. 939.
  • 79 . , , , (Syme 1986, 108). , - , , , 36 . .
  • 80. Syme 1939, 237.
  • 81 (II. 71. 1) , 42 . .
  • 82  . App. BC. V. 102103, 109110;  . Paneg. Messal. 106110; Strabo IV 191; App. Illyr. 17; Dio Cass. XLIX. 38. 3, . Syme 1986,

    202205.

  • 83Syme 1986, 205207; . nt. 36, , 36 . .
  • 84Syme 1939, 229, 237239, 368.
  • 85Syme 1986, 108, 205207.
  • 86Levi 1933, 2, 5358; Flory 1988, 345346; Carter 1982, 182183; Southern 1998, 175; Kunst 2008, 4447, 49, 5253.
  • 87Wallmann 1989, 202203, Anm. 93; Tokarev 2011, 110 (. Goldsworthy 2014, 163). , , . (1997, 58). , , ; , . . , , , , : Kunst 2008, 5253.
  • 88 . Flory 1988, 348359; Kunst 2008, 4952.
  • 89Syme 1939, 239.
  • 90Flory 1988, 345346.
  • 91. Tariverdieva 2012, 148158, .
  • 92. Tokarev 2011, 118126, .
  • 93Syme 1939, 239242; Parfyonov 1987, 9499.
  • 94Parfyonov 1987, 95; Parfyonov 1993, 178, Barreth 2002, 7, 22.
  • 95Barreth 2002, 22.
  • 96Huntsman 1997, 2021; 2009, 129, nt. 30.
  • 97quem in simili dissensione multa varie molientem diversa factio per fraudem interemit.
  • 98 . Broughton 1951, 2, 2122.
  • 99 , .
  • 100Taylor 1971, 52.
  • 101Syme 1938, 1822; 2931; 1939, 7896.
  • 102Syme 1939, 235237; 244.
  • 103, (Caes. 55. 5) 320 150 ., , -, (. Suet. Iul. 41. 3): Pelling 2011, 414.
  • 104. Yavetz 1983, 137150, .
  • 105Brunt 1971, 326332; Osgood 2006, 108144.
  • 106Crawford 1996, 430433; Osgood 2006, 173182.
  • 107.  , , , (ILS. 124, 125), , , . . , : Wiseman 1965, 334. ୸, , . . , - : , .
  • 108Osgood 2006, 358, nt. 30.
  • 109  . Taylor 1971, 174175; Weinstock 1971, 223227, .
  • 110Southern 1998, 75.
  • 111Wallmann 1989, 203, Anm. 93.
  • 1291159590 1291159995 1291164233 1467463271 1470581298 1472277517

    , .