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: otium post negotium*

, 1999, 4. . 5970.

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The roman governor in a provincial city: otium post negotium
A. L. Smyshlyaev

The article develops the subject discussed in the authors paper about the Roman governors behaviour at his working time (Civilis dominatio: the Roman Governor in a Provincial City // VDI. 1997.  3). His present aim is to point out the ways and habits characteristic of the Roman governor in his leizure time and to reveal the links between his conduct and the polis traditions and peculiarities of the Roman provincial government system of the Imperial period.

.70 Evidence of Roman jurists, orators, and writers of 23 c. AD, as well as epigraphical and papyrological sources bring the author to the conclusion that the institution of hospitality (hospitium) and the public polis festivals played an essential part in the governors otium.

The institution of hospitality, banquets and gift-making associated with it permitted the governor to establish informal relations with the most prominent of the city nobles who took part in the sittings of his counsil (consilium) when he sat in judgement, and the relations of friendship and patronate with those whose help was indispensable for his normal functioning. The polis habit of exercising political and administrative control through friends and dependents was still valid in governors practice of the Imperial period.

Participating in public festivals and attending popular spectacles, the governor could get an opportunity to maintain direct contacts with the civil community of the administered city and to take account of the mood and attitudes of mind of ordinary citizens, whom he encountered at popular assemblies and before whom he held his trial.

During the banquets and spectacles, in accordance with the long established etiquette, the governors (like magistrates in the imperial cities and emperors in Rome) were expected to behave generously, politely and democratically, to manifest their fidelity to the city laws and customs and their unity with their subjects.

Thus, the governor spent his otium and negotium within the same circle of persons and in about the same manner, otium being as important for organizing provincial government as negotium.


  • * ( 96-01-00508). CNRS , . . . .
  • 1   facilitas, . . , .
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  • 3 Civilis dominatio: (. 1997.  3).
  • 4 : . .  // . 1997.  1(2). . 6573; . Civilis dominatio . 26 .
  • 5. . , (Saller R. P. Personal Patronage under the Early Empire. Cambr., 1982. P. 159 ff.; Lendon J. E. Empire of Honour. The Art of Government in the Roman World. Oxf., 1997. P. 216 ff.).
  • 6. . ( Palingenesia iuris civilis . ). . ., . . . . .  // . 1985.  4; 1986.  1.
  • 7Eos milites, quibus supervenientibus hospitia praeberi in civitate oportet, per vices ab omnibus, quos id munus contingit, suscipi oportet (D. 49. 4. 3. 13). Cp. Apul. Metam. 10. 1; D. 1. 18. 6. 5.
  • 8 .
  • 9 .
  • 10Leonhard R. Hospitium // RE. 1913. Bd XVII. Sp. 2495; Hands A. R. Charities and Social Aid in Greece and Rome. L., 1968. P. 29; Kondoleon Ch. Domestic and Divine. Roman Mosaics in the House of Dionysos. Ithaca  London, 1995. P. 143.
  • 11 τὰ ξενία ( ) ἡ ξενία () .
  • 12 . , , , (praetorium), , ,   , (Millar F. The Emperor in the Roman World (31 BC  AD 337). L., 1977. P. 30; cp. Saller. Personal Patronage P. 160).
  • 13     : , ,   , , , ,   , (Q. Fr. I. 1. 9; . . . ). ( ) .
  • 14Munus hospitis in domo recipiendi non personae sed patrimonii onus est (D. 49. 4. 3. 14).
  • 15 ( vir primarius et homo honestissimus, in primis inter suos copiosus), , , , , , ⅻ (munus illud suum non esse; se, cum suae partes essent hospitum recipiendorum, tum ipsos tamen praetores et consules recipere solere  Cic. Verr. II. 1. 64; 67). , , (optimum quemque hospitio amicitiaque coniungi dico oportere  Q. Fr. I. 1. 16). , , primus civitatis, vir amplissimus eius civitatis (Verr. II. 4. 15; 17); primus homo (Verr. II 4. 37), homo nobilis (Verr. II. 4. 49), civitatis suae nobilissimus, amplissima cognatione, plurimis amicitiis tota Sicilia multum auctoritate et gratia (Verr. II. 5. 108), homo honestissimus (Verr. II. 5. 21; cp. Caes. BG. 1. 53). , , , , (ὑπόδεξαι τὸν ἡγεμόνα  Mor. 602 C). (Mor. 795 A). , (καὶ κατέλυσεν ἐν τῇ τοῦ Πολέμωνος οἰκία ὡς ἀρίστῃ τῶν κατὰ τὴν Σμύρναν καὶ ἀρίστου ἄνδρος  Philostr. V. S. I. 25. P. 534). , , ξένον καὶ φίλον ἡγεμόνων καὶ ἐπιτρόπων (IGR. III. 495; TAM. II. 667, 668; . Quass F. Zum Einfluss der römischen Nobilität auf das Honoratiorenregime in den Städten des griechischen Ostens // Hermes. 1984. 112. S. 204 ff.).
  • 16 , (Cic. Verr. II. 1. 63; 65).
  • 17 , , , (Cic. Verr. II. 1. 64).
  • 18DArms J. H. Control, Companionship and Clientela: Some Social Functions of the Roman Communal Meal // Échos du Monde Classique  Classical Views. 1984. XXVIII. 3. P. 331; Lendon. Op. cit. P. 216.
  • 19Cic. Verr. II. 1. 65; Plut. Quaest. Conv. 707 B; 708 B; 710 A; Lendon. Op. cit. P. 215.
  • 20Cic. Verr. II. 1. 65; Plut. Quaest. Conv. 708 B.
  • 21, , , . , , , , (Aug. 74. 12). . , (xenia) (D. 1. 16. 6. 3), , (DArms. Control P. 332 f.).
  • 22ἐπιτήδειοι δὲ τῷ μὲν ἡγεμόνα δειπνίζοντι συνδειπνεῖν οἵ τ ἄρχοντες, ἐάν ὦσι φίλοι, καὶ οἱ πρῶτοι τῆς πόλεως (Plut. Quaest. Conv. 679 D).
  • 23. Dio Cass. 65. 10. 6; 69. 7. 3.
  • 24 , , .   .
  • 25, , (Fam. XIII. 67. 1).
  • 26 (Cic. Verr. II. 1. 65).
  • 27 , (Flor. 17). , , . , . , , (Plut. Mor. 602 C; . . 15).
  • 28. Quint. 6. 3. 28; DArms. Control P. 345; idem. The Roman Convivium and the Idea of Equality // Sympotica. A. Symposium on the Symposion / Ed. O. Murray. Oxf., 1990. P. 313 f.; Pellizer E. Outlines of a Morphology of Sympotic Entertainment // Sympotica P. 178 f.
  • 29. Plut. Quaest. Conv. 660 AB; idem. Cato Maior. 25. 2.
  • 30 (εὐφημίας τινὰς), (De laud. ips. 546 DE).
  • 31Alfoldi A. Die monarchische Repräsentation im römischen Kaiserreiche. Darmstadt, 1970. S. 26. Anm. 4; Demandt. Op. cit. S. 65 f.
  • 32 , (Hands. Op. cit. P. 26 ff.; Saller. Personal Patronage P. 123; Braund D. Rome and the Friendly King. The Character of the Client Kingship. N. Y., 1984. P. 59).
  • 33Mierow H. E. The Roman Provincial Governor as he appears in the Digest and Code of Justinian. Colorado Springs. 1926. P. 16; Duyvendak N. Restraining Regulations for Roman Officials in the Roman Provinces // Symbolae Van Oven. Leiden, 1946. P. 333 ff.; Lintott A. Imperium Romanum. Politics and Administration. L.  N. Y., 1993. P. 44, 100 ff.
  • 34 (Hands. Op. cit. P. 26, 33; Saller. Personal Patronage P. 127). , ()  (inhumanitas  D. 1. 16. 6. 3). inhumanitas, (Ep. IX. 5): (humanitate),   (honestissimum quemque complecti atque a principibus diligare). , , 100000 (D. 48. 11. 6. 2). , , .
  • 35 , , hospitium amicitia (IGR. III. 495; TAM. II. 667; 668; Liv. 1. 45. 2; Cic. Ad. Q. Fr. I. 1. 16; . Caes. BG. 1. 53; Quass. Zum Einfluss S. 204 f.).
  • 36 : The Acts of the Pagan Martyrs: Acta Alexandrinorum / Ed. H. A. Musurillo. Oxf., 1954.
  • 37 , , , . , (D. 1. 16. 9. 4). , salutatio, . Acta Alexandr. 7. 1. 6669.
  • 38Saller. Personal Patronage P. 152 ff., 163 f. , (commendatione) (Fam. XIII. 10. 4).
  • 39Antequam vero fines provinciae decretae sibi proconsul ingressus sit, edictum debet de adventu suo mittere continens commendationem aliquam sui, si qua ei familiaritas sit cum provincialibus vel coniunctio (D. 1. 16. 4. 3).
  • 40Hellegouarch J. Le vocabulaire latin des relations et des partis politiques sous la République. P., 1963. P. 157 suiv.
  • 41 : 1) , (Apolog. 94); 2)   (Aristid. 50. 87).
  • 42 , xenia, .
  • 43Hands. Op. cit. P. 26 ff.; Saller. Personal Patronage P. 13, 24 f.
  • 44 , , , , , (Flor. IX).
  • 45Saller. Personal Patronage P. 164.
  • 46 , , . , , , (Cic. Att. V. 10. 2; Plut. Cic. 36. 3).
  • 47. . 4.
  • 48  . . Civilis dominatio . 27 .
  • 49Saller. Personal Patronage P. 150 ff.; Wilkins P. J. Legates of Numidia as Municipal Patrons // Chiron. 1993. 23. P. 200 f.
  • 50Saller. Personal Patronage P. 21 f.; gratia amicitia (Hellegouarch. Op. cit. P. 205).
  • 51. D. 5. 1. 15. 1: Iudex tunc litem suam facere intellegitur, cum dolo malo in fraudem legis sententiam dixerit (dolo malo autem videtur hoc facere, si evidens arguatur eius vel gratia, vel inimicitia vel etiam sordes) ( .  . .).
  • 52Pflaum H. G. Essai sur les procurateurs équestres sous le Haut-Empire Romain. P., 1950. P. 168 suiv.; Saller. Personal Patronage P. 165.
  • 53 , - (factiosissimum quemque). , . , - , (quaedam a provinciales ut amicus acceperat) , , (Plin. Ep. IV. 9). , , .
  • 54Lintott. Op. cit. P. 50; cp. Saller. Personal Patronage P. 157.
  • 55Raepsaet-Charlier M.-T. Épouses et families de magistrats dans les provinces romaines aux deux premiers siècles de lempire // Historia. 1982. 31. P. 5669; Duyvendak. Op. cit. P. 334 f.
  • 56 , . , , (D. 48. 19. 6. 1; . Tac. Agr. 19. 2; D. 1. 18. 16). , liberti et familia (CIL. VII. 164 = RIB. I. 445; . Suet. Tib. 19).  . Lintott. Op. cit. P. 52.
  • 57, , , (propinquos, amicos, familiares), , (Ad Pium 8). , , (comes), , , , (Ep. VI. 22. 1). , 165 . . ., (amici), 13 , , , (AE. 1967. 444). , , . Saller. Personal Patronage P. 131 f., 157; Halfmann H. Itinera principum. Geschichte und Typologie der Kaiserreisen im Romischen Reich. Sttutgart, 1986. S. 93.
  • 58Saller R. Roman Kinship: Structure and Sentiment // The Roman Family in Italy. Status, Sentiment, Space / Ed. B. Rawson, P. Weaver. Canberra  Oxford, 1997. P. 31 f.
  • 59  . Hellegouarch. Op. cit. P. 53 suiv.; Toynbee A. J. Hannibals Legacy. The Hannibalic Wars Effects on Roman Life. V. 1. L., 1965. P. 331 f.; Rouland N. Pouvoir politique et dépendance personnelle dans IAntiquité romaine. Genese et rôle des rapports de clientele. Bruxelles, 1979. P. 457 suiv.; Nippel W. Public Order in Ancient Rome. Cambr., 1995. P. 15.
  • 60 (Saller. Personal Patronage P. 13 f.). : Nullum maius boni imperii instrumentum quam bonos amicos esse (Tac. Hist. IV. 7. 3; cp. Plut. Praec. rei publ. ger. 807 D; idem. Cic. 7. 1).
  • 61 , , , , , (. Civilis dominatio . 28 .). , ,   , , (togati cum inlustrioribus provinciarum discumberent  Suet. Iul. 48). (Jos. Fl. Ant. Iud. XV. 77; Plin. Ep. VI. 31; Plut. Cato Min. 37. 5).
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  • 65. Saller. Personal Patronage P. 166.
  • 66 : Menander Rhetor / Ed. D. A. Russel, N. G. Wilson. Oxf., 1981.
  • 67Lex Urs.  127 (FIRA. 1. 21).
  • 68, .
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