| |
. .

-

. 2015, 3, . 3045.

.30 , 88 . . , , , , , . , , , , - patres. , .

: I . . ., , , . , . , . .

88- , ,  , . 1 . , , , , , , . , , .

  , , , , , . (ἔτρεφε) (τρισχιλίους μαχαιροφόρους) , . , .31 , 2, . - , , , . , , , , . , , , [] [] (Plut. Sulla. 8; . . . ).

: , , , , [] , , . . , , . , , . , , , , . , . , , , . . . . , , , . . , , , , , , , . , , . . , , , . , , , . . , . , . , , , .32 : (App. BC. I. 5657; . . . 븭).

, :

: , [] , , . ; , , (Liv. Per. 77).

, 3, , , , 4. ?

lex Sulpicia de aere alieno senatorum5, 2000 6 (= 8000 ). , , , 7. .

.  , , , 8,   9. .  , .33 10 , , , ( ) 11. , . .

. . , , . , patres , . . , , , 12.

, , ( ?), , ( ) , , , 13. , ,   . .

. , , , patres 14; , , 15.

. , , 2000 , , . 16.   (μυριάδας τριακοσίας)17 , ( , )18. , (II. 18. 5) (opibus), , . , .34 19, suae alienaeque et fortunae et pudicitiae prodigus (II. 48. 3).

?20 , lex Sulpicia de aere alieno senatorum , .

600 , (ἀντισύγκλητον ὠνόμαζεν: Mar. 35. 2; Sulla. 8. 3). 21, , 22; , , 23, , ,   . . , , . , , 300 , 600, 24. . , ἀντισύγκλητος , . 25,   26. , patres , 450500 27. , , ,   ? , , , , .

, , , .35 ,  , , , . , 28 , patres  senatus congerronum (Most. 1049). : , , 29, , . . 30.

, - , , , . , , patres ,  31, , , - . , , , - , , , , cum tacent, clamant.     , . , , , ,  , senatusconsultum ultimum, , 32.

.36 , . . , 33, . , 34. 35. , , (Cic. Dom. 50), , 91 ., lex de libertinorum suffragiis  , 115 . (auct. de vir. ill. 72. 5). , , , 88 .36, . , . ,   , ( - )  . , (BC. I. 60. 271) , hostes (?) 37. , , , , , , .

- . , 277 . , 50 , . . 7 suo anno, 38, 39. patres , .37 , 40. - , , 91 . (Val. Max. III. 5. 2)41, , , , 42. patres -43.

, , (App. BC. I. 59. 266)? , , : , , . , , .

, ? ,     . , , , cives veteres .

.38 ordo equester? ? , 600 44, (Mar. 35. 2: ἑξακοσίους μὲν εἶχε περὶ αὑτὸν τῶν ἱππικῶν οἷον δορυφόρους;  . Sulla. 8. 3). . , , , , , , 3000 45.

. , 600 46 . , . , 47. , , 48, , 49.

, . , , , , , , , , , 50. ,   , , 80- ; , ,  , . . : , ; , . . , , status quo, 51. , , , , - , 52. .39 , , - . , - , 53, , equites, 54. 88 ., , , , , ,   55, 56. , , , - , , ,   57. , , , , . ,   , 58.

. : , (!  . .)  . , , (wichtigste) , , () [] [] . , (Mommsen, röm. Gesch. II7, 256), . , . , lex Plautia iudiciaria 89 ., 59. , ordo equester, . 60.

. . , 35 , , ; , . . 61. , ,   .40 - , .

, - . , , , . , ( ), ordo equester62.

? 63 , , , 64. , , , , ? ,   , 65. ,   (, , ) . , . , 3- 66, , , . , 67 , 3000 . . (BC. I. 55. 244), , , . , , (ξύλοις δὲ καὶ λίθοις .41 χρωμένων αὐτῶν ἐς ἀλλήλους), , , μάχαιραι. , , . . , , , (τὰ ξιφίδια  μάχαιραι, !), (App. BC. I. 56. 247). , . , , , .

, . :   , , , ( , , ). , ; , (Cic. Lael. 2), , 89 ., , 68, 69. , . , , . , , -   , , .

plebs urbana. , , , . , (. ), ,   , ; , . , (μείζονος αἰεὶ γιγνομένου τοῦ κακοῦ), (BC. I. 55. 244)70. ,   . , , , . , , : cives novi, 71, , . , .42 . , , - . , Feriae, , 72.   , . , , 90 . ,   , lex Licinia Mucia, , 95 .73 (, , )   lex Plautia  Papiria, lex Iulia, lex Pompeia.

(, , )  , cives novi 35 , , . , , , [ ] , : (οὗ χάριν ἅπαντα ταῦτα ἐγίγνετο, Μάριον εὐθὺς ἐχειροτόνει τοῦ πρὸς Μιθριδάτην πολέμου στρατηγεῖν ἀντὶ Σύλλα) (App. BC. 55. 242; 56. 249).   , cives novi (. . cives veteres !), . ( ) : , 74  , , 75. , .43 , , ( ) , 76, . , , expressis verbis .

, . , , , , ( ) , , . , . , , - .


1. . . 1985: : . .

2. . . 1988: : (- ). .

3. . . 1948: . .

4. . 1994: . . II. .

5. . 1908: . .

6. . . 1983: 9080- I . . . // . 1, 148162.

7. . . 1938: . . I. .

8. . . 1955: ( ). . . . . .

9. . . 1969: . . . . .

10. . . 2006: . . .

11. Angeli Bertinelli M. G. 1997: [Introduzione, commento alla biografia di Silla] // Plutarco. Le Vite di Lisandro e di Silla. Milano, XXIXXXVII, 289418.

12. Arbizu J. M. 2000: Res publica oppressa. Política popular en la crisis de la República (13344 a. C.). Madrid.

13. Arena V. 2012: Libertas and the Practice of Politics in the Late Roman Republic. Cambr.

14. Badian E. 1958: Foreign Clientelae (26470 B. C.). Oxf.

15. Badian E. 1969: Quaestiones Variae // Historia. 18. 4, 447491.

16. Baker G. P. 1927: Sulla the Fortunate. Roman General and Dictator. L.

17. Balsdon J. P. V. D. 1951: Sulla Felix // JRS. 41, 110.

18. Bennett H. 1923: Cinna and His Times. A Critical and Interpretative Study of Roman History during the Period 8784 BC. Diss. PhD. Menasha.

19. Broughton T. R. S. The Magistrates of the Roman Republic. Vol. II. N. Y., 1952.

20. Calabi I. 1950: I commentarii di Silla come fonte storica // Atti della Academia Nazionale dei Lincei. Memorie Classe di Scienze morali, storiche e fililogiche. Serie VIII. Vol. III. Fasc. 5, 247302.

21. Carney T. F. 1961: A Biography of Marius. Assen.

22. Chapman Ch. M. 1979: Cicero and P. Sulpicius Rufus (tr. pl. 88 B. C.) // Acta classica. 22, 6172.

23. Coşkun A. 2004: Zu den Rechtsgrundlagen der römischen Bürgerrechtsvergabe infolge des Bundesgenossenkrieges // Revue Internationale des Droits de lAntiquité. 51, 101132.

24. De Sanctis G. 1976: La guerra sociale. Firenze.

25. Drumann W. 1902: Geschichte Roms in seinem Übergange von der republikanischen zur monarchischen Verfassung oder Pompeius, Caesar, Cicero und ihre Zeitgenossen. 2. Aufl. / P. Groebe (Hrsg.). Bd 2. Lpz.

26. Duruy V. 1880: Histoire des Romains. T. II. P.

.44 27. Evans R. J. 2007: The Sulpician Law on Debt: Implications for the Political Elite and Broader Ramifications // Acta classica. 50, 8194.

28. Frank T. 1933: On Some Financial Legislation of the Sullan Period // AJPh. 54. 1, 5458.

29. Fröhlich F. 1901: Cornelius (392) // RE. Bd IV, 15221566.

30. Gabba E. 1976: Republican Rome, the Army and the Allies. Berkeley  Los Angeles.

31. Gerlach F. D. 1856: Marius und Sulla oder Kampf der Demagogie und der Oligarchie. Eine geschichtliche Darstellung. Diss. Basel.

32. Gowing A. M. 2005: Empire and Memory. The Representation of the Roman Republic in Imperial Culture. Cambr.

33. Gruen E. S. 1968: Roman Politics and the Criminal Courts, 14978 B. C. Cambr. (Mass.).

34. Hawthorn J. R. 1962: The Senate after Sulla // G&R. 9. 1, 5360.

35. Heichelheim F. M., Yeo C. A. 1962: A History of the Roman People. Prentice-Hall.

36. Hill H. M. A. 1952: The Roman Middle Class in the Republican Period. Oxf.

37. Ihne W. 1879: Römische Geschichte. Bd V. Lpz.

38. Katz B. R. 1977: Caesar Strabos Struggle for the Consulship and More // RhM. 120. 1, 4563.

39. Keaveney A. 1979: Sulla, Sulpicius and Caesar Strabo // Latomus. 38. 2, 451460.

40. Keaveney A. 1983: What Happened in 88? // Eirene. 20, 5386.

41. Keaveney A. 2005: Sulla: the Last Republican. L. N. Y.

42. Lange L. 1871: Römische Altertümer. Bd III. B.

43. Last H. 1932: The Leges Sulpiciae and the First Capture of Rome // CAH. Vol. IX. 201206.

44. Letzner W. 2000: Lucius Cornelius Sulla: Versuch einer Biographie. Münster.

45. Lintott A. W. 1971: The Tribunate of P. Sulpicius Rufus // CQ. 21. 2, 442453.

46. Long J. 1866: The Decline of the Roman Republic. Vol. II. L.

47. López C. R. 2005: La corruption à la fin de la république Romaine (IIeIer s. av. J. -.): aspects politiques et financiers. Diss. PhD. Neuchâtel.

48. Luce T. J. 1970: Marius and Mithridatic Command // Historia. 19. 2, 161194.

49. Mackay Ch. S. 2009: The Breakdown of the Roman Republic: From Oligarchy to Empire. Cambr.

50. Meier Ch. 1966: Res publica amissa. Eine Studie zu Verfassung und Geschichte der späten römischen Republik. Wiesbaden.

51. Meyer Ed. 1910: Kleine Schriften zur Geschichtstheorie und zur wirtschaftlichen und politischen Geschichte des Altertums. Halle.

52. Millar F. 1986: Politics, Persuasion and the People before the Social War (15090 B. C.) // JRS. 76, 111.

53. Mitchell Th. N. 1975: The Volte-Face of P. Sulpicius Rufus in 88 B. C. // CPh. 70. 3, 197204.

54. Münzer F. 1931: Sulpicius (92) // RE. 2. R. Hlbd 7, 843849.

55. Neumann C. 1881: Geschichte Roms während des Verfalles der Republik. Bd I. Breslau.

56. Nitzsch K. 1885: Geschichte der Römischen Republik. Bd II. Lpz.

57. Nicolet C. 1966: Lordre équestre à lépoque républicaine (31243 av. J -C.). T. I. P.

58. Ooteghem van J. 1964: Caius Marius. Bruxelles.

59. Pareti L. 1953: Storia di Roma e del mondo tomano. Vol. III. Torino.

60. Passerini A. 1934: Caio Mario come uomo politico // Athenaeum. N. S. XII, 1044, 109143, 257297, 348380.

61. Powell J. G. F. 1990: The Tribune Sulpicius // Historia. 39. 4, 446460.

62. Santangelo F. 2007: Sulla, the Elites and the Empire: A Study of Roman Policies in Italy and the Greek East. LeidenBoston.

63. Schur W. 1934: Sallust als Historiker. Stuttgart.

64. Schur W. 1942: Das Zeitalter des Marius und Sulla. Lpz.

65. Shatzman I. 1975: Senatorial Wealth and Roman Politics. Bruxelles.

66. Syme R. 1939: The Roman Revolution. Oxf.

67. Tansey P. 2003: The Death of M. Aemilius Scaurus (Cos. 115 B. C.) // Historia. 52. 3, 378383.

68. Timmer J. M. 2005: Barbatuli iuvenes  Überlegungen zur Stellung der Jugend in der späten römischen Republik // Historische Anthropologie. 13. 2, 197219.

69. Valgiglio E. 1956: Silla e la crisi repubblicana. Firenze.

70. Valgiglio E. 1967: Plutarco. Vita di Silla. Torino.

71. Valgiglio E. 1975: Lautobiografia di Silla nelle biografie di Plutarco // Atti del Convegno: gli storiografi latini tramandati in frammenti. Urbino, 245281.

72. Willems P. 1883: Le sénat de la République romaine: sa composition et ses attributions. . II. P.

73. Williamson C. 2005: The Laws of the Roman People. Public Law in the Expansion and Decline of the Roman Republic. Ann Arbor.


.45

Publius Sulpicius Legislation and its Social and Political Context

Anton V. Korolenkov

The author challenges the accepted view that the 88 BC plebeian tribune P. Sulpicius bills brought him to conflict with the Senate and were backed up by the equites whose interests he defended. In the authors opinion, most senators were relatively well disposed to Sulpicius drafts, while the equites were not his main supporters: they supported him inasmuch as they were connected with the patres favourably disposed to the reformer. Following E. Badian, the author considers the data on the so-called Antisenatus to be unreliable and those on his law limiting senators debts to 2000 denarii to be out of context and ambiguous (these data being the most usual proofs of the mutual hostility of the Senate and Sulpicius). Nor could the bill on accepting the cives novi to all the 35 tribes have caused the senators strong disapproval, as it was just a continuation of the laws of 9089 BC promoting rights of the Italians. The senators who opposed the tribunes bills most of all were the consuls Sulla and Pompeius Rufus. Their opposition caused the interference of the army, thus launching the civil war.

Keywords: 1st century BC civil war in Rome, senators, equites, Publius Sulpicius legislation, Sulla, Marius.


  • 1, , (VI. 5. 7), , , (Mattingly 1975, 264266 .  . , . gens Sulpicia : Duruy 1880, 570). , , , (Angelli Bertinelli 1997, 326).
  • 2. (1879, 280) zwanzigtausend Denare, . (1952, 141)  2000 .
  • 3 1985, 53; 1948, 240; 1908, 233; 2006, 50; Baker 1927, 177178; Drumann 1902, 371; Keaveney 1983, 6667; Letzner 2000, 132; Mackay 2009, 137; Santangelo 2007, 6; Schur 1942, 131; Willems 1883, 104 etc. . , , 88 .
  • 4 1988, 95; 1948, 240; 1969, 34; Gabba 1976, 84; Pareti 1953, 556.
  • 5 1988, 95; 1948, 240; 1983, 153; 1969, 34; Schur 1942, 130. , lex de aere alieno senatorum , ( 1988, 95; Baker 1927, 177178; Gerlach 1856, 28; Keaveney 1983, 55; Ooteghem 1964, 280281; Pareti 1953, 556; Passerini 1934, 363, 365; Schur 1942, 130). , rogationes (. Liv. Per. 77), . . , 89 . (López 2005, 300); , .
  • 6 (Sulla. 8. 4) , , 2000 (δισχιλίας δραχμὰς).
  • 7 1988, 95; 1948, 240; 1994, 184185; 1983, 153; 1969, 34; Angeli Bertinelli 1997, 327; Arbizu 2000, 146; Baker 1927, 177; De Sanctis 1976, 107; Duruy 1880, 570; Gerlach 1856, 28; Heichelheim, Yeo 1962, 199; Lange 1871, 121; Last 1932, 202; Neumann 1881, 512; Ooteghem 1964, 280281; Pareti 1953, 557; Valgiglio 1967, 42.
  • 8 1994, 185. . . (1983, 150, . 23) , , , ,   , .
  • 9Heichelheim, Yeo 1962, 199; Angeli Bertinelli 1997, 327.
  • 10 . (1879, 280).
  • 11Frank 1933, 56.
  • 12Arbizu 2000, 146.
  • 13. : Nicolet 1966, 285311.
  • 14 , , XIX . (. Lange 1871, 121).
  • 15Evans 2007, 8594.
  • 16 : Long 1866, 219.
  • 17, (Shatzman 1975, 286; De Sanctis 1976, 107; Evans 2007, 85).
  • 18 , (López 2005, 275;  . Valgiglio 1975, 263), , - .
  • 19   6 . (Cic. Phil. II. 45; Plut. Ant. 2. 5), , , 12 ., .
  • 20 , , (Carney 1961, 54, nt. 250; Ooteghem 1964, 281; Pareti 1953, 557; Passerini 1934, 365; Schur 1942, 130).   , (Shatzman 1975, 269, nt. 61; Keaveney 1983, 55). , .
  • 21Arbizu 2000, 147; Baker 1927, 178; De Sanctis 1976, 114; Drumann 1902, 371; Gerlach 1856, 28; Keaveney 1983, 5455; Long 1866, 221222; Meier 1966, 28, Anm. 66; Münzer 1931, 847; Neumann 1881, 512; Schur 1942, 130.
  • 22 1994, 186. . , 8 (Valgiglio 1975, 263).
  • 23 16 (Balsdon 1951, 2).
  • 24Badian 1958, 234. nt. 1; 1969, 485, nt. 110.
  • 25 . , quos in consilium senatus vicem vocabat (Lintott 1971, 422, nt. 3).
  • 26Keaveney 1983, 55.
  • 27Hawthorn 1962, 5354; Santangelo 2007, 100.
  • 28 (1983, 54  jocularly).
  • 29Schur 1934, 246 ( ).
  • 30 , , ἀντισύγκλητος. , - (Calabi 1950, 249; Keaveney 2005, 217, nt. 2; Ooteghem 1964, 18; Valgiglio 1975, 245251), (Suet. De gramm. 12) (supplevit)   , , . . - ( ;  . Calabi 1950, 249; , , (Luc. 1. 4), , ).
  • 31 , , ( 1908, 233; 1938, 221; 2006, 50; Bennett 1923, 2; Schur 1942, 131).
  • 32 , patres senatusconsultum ultimum, . (Sulla. 8), (ἀπραξίας δὲ διὰ ταῦτα τῶν ὑπάτων ψηφισαμένων), . (Willems 1883, 250251, nt. 5), . (Arena 2012, 204). . , , iustitium, tumultus, etc.,   , , Feriae, iustitium (Keaveney 1983, 5758).
  • 33Hawthorn 1962, 54 ( 25 ).
  • 34Badian 1958, 232; Luce 1970, 193194 + nt. 132. , ,   (BC. I. 55. 242 249)  , , ( . Liv. Per. 77; Vell. Pat. II. 18. 6; Plut. Mar. 34. 1; Sulla. 8. 56; Last 1932, 204; Valgiglio 1956, 712; Van Ooteghem 1964, 280281; 2006, 49). (BC. I. 55. 242), cives novi 35 , , (. ).
  • 35. Keaveney 1979, 454 + nt. 11.
  • 36Tansey 2003, 382383 ( 88 .).
  • 37 , , , (Plut. Sulla. 9. 34; Broughton 1952, 40), , (BC. I. 80. 369), , .
  • 38 , , 98 . , , , (. Keaveney 2005, 45).
  • 39Plut. Sulla. 6. 1819; Fröhlich 1901, 15311532. , , , .
  • 40 89 ., , , , , (Plut. Sulla. 6. 16; Polyaen. VIII. 9. 1; Oros. V. 16. 22).
  • 41, ,   116 45 . (Syme 1939, 18). , , ( !), , . , , (neque in tanta civitate qui illud decretum reprehenderet inventus est), , , , (. Gowing 2005, 5961).
  • 42Liv. Per. 77; App. BC. I. 56. 247; Vell. Pat. II. 18. 6; Drumann 1902, 432.
  • 43 , : Baker 1927, 178; Luce 1970, 191, nt. 129; Schur 1942, 128. , , , , ( .  (1975, 199) , , : Katz 1977, 62; Keaveney 1979, 460). : (91 90 .) , , , , . , , .
  • 44, , , . Jugendbanden , -, (Timmer 2005, 202203), , , , .
  • 45Plut. Sulla. 8. 2; Pareti 1953, 556.
  • 46. , , (Meier 1966, 218).
  • 47Keaveney 1983, 54, nt. 4; 2005, 48.
  • 48, 35 (Valgiglio 1967, 41).
  • 49. (1983, 53) , .
  • 50 1948, 240; 1955, 114; 1969, 34; Gabba 1976, 84; Hill 1952, 141; Nitzsch 1885, 143144.
  • 51 1983, 160; Gabba 1976, 8284.
  • 52Keaveney 2005, 8990.
  • 53 . , , , (Meier 1966, 217, Anm. 65).
  • 54 ( ) . . (1985, 54).
  • 55. Meier 1966, 7576.
  • 56Gabba 1976, 8384; Gruen 1968, 191192; Nicolet 1966, 549.
  • 57. Meier 1966, 7577.
  • 58Williamson 2005, 330.
  • 59Meyer 1910, 433, Anm. 1.
  • 60 , , , (Nicolet 1966, 175176).
  • 61Meier 1966, 217220; Badian 1969, 486487.
  • 62 . (1968, 204), equites were not basically men of politics.
  • 63, , ( 1994, 187; Bennett 1923, 2), , , , .
  • 64., , 1938, 221; Badian 1958, 233.
  • 65 (BC. I. 55. 242) - (Μάριος ὑπηγάγετό οἱ συμπράσσειν ἐς τοῦτο Πούπλιον Σουλπίκιον), , (Drumann 1908, 370; 1938, 221; Neumann 1881, 511; Valgiglio 1956, 7). . (1976, 109) , , .
  • 66 : 1938, 221; Evans 2007, 86; Ihne 1879, 286; Keaveney 2005, 48; Lange 1871, 122; Long 1866, 221; Münzer 1931, 847; Neumann 1881, 512; Schur 1942, 130; Shatzman 1975, 286. (1994, 186) , 3- .  . Lintott 1971, 442443.
  • 67 . . : Chapman 1979, 6172.
  • 68 88-, 89 (Münzer 1931, 848; Lintott 1971, 446449; Mitchell 1975, 197204), , , (Badian 1969, 482483; Katz 1977, 4547; Powell 1990, 453)  , 87 . .
  • 69Keaveney 1983, 52; Letzner 2000, 130; Powell 1990, 459.
  • 70 : Neumann 1881, 513; Nitzsch 1885, 145; Keaveney 2005, 48.
  • 71App. BC. I. 55. 244: οἱ δἀρχαιότεροι ἐγκρατῶς τοῖς νεοπολίταις διεφέροντο.
  • 72 ( 1955, 226; Carney 1961, 54; Mackay 2009, 138). . (2005, 203) Plut. Mar. 35. 2 : , , (ἐπελθὼν δὲ μεθ᾽ ὅπλων ἐκκλησιάζουσι τοῖς ὑπάτοις),   contio (Keaveney 1983, 58; Letzner 2000, 132).
  • 73. Millar 1986, 910.
  • 74Last 1932, 204. , cives novi ( 1988, 95; Nitzsch 1885, 145; Coşkun 2004, 128).
  • 75. , , , (Powell 1990, 451). , , ,   . (BC. I. 56. 249), cives novi, (. Last 1932, 205).
  • 76 . . .
  • 1407695008 1407695009 1407695012 1470581298 1472277517 1472545864

    , .