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. . , . .

129 . . . *

. 2014. 3. C. 4758.

.47 129 . . . (IIIviri agris iudicandis adsignandis). , , .

: , , , , , , .




133 . (   . .) . , , 1. , 132 . . , , 2. , : , (IIIviri a(gris) i(udicandis) a(dsignandis))3 4. . , , , .

129 ., (BC. I. 19), . . . , 129 . possessiones .48 . , 5. , 129 . , ager publicus6, lex Sempronia agraria . , . , . . , , . , (δικάζειν) . . , , , . 129 . (App. BC. I. 19).

, . . , ( ) . , , 129 . , , 7.

, , . . , , , , (Dio Cass. XXIV. Fr. 84. 2). , , , 8. ( , ) (BC. I. 21): (τὴν δὲ διαίρεσιν τῆς γῆς οἱ κεκτημένοι καὶ ὣς ἐπὶ προφάσεσι ποικίλαις διέφερον επὶ πλεῖστον). , 129 . , .

129 . ? , . . . , , .49 ( ). . . 9. , 10. , 11 , (lex repetundarum et lex Bantina) , . :   (dum magistratum aut inperium habebunt);   () (magistratum imperiumve inierit).

. , , , , . : iubet (sc. Rullus) auspicia coloniarum deducendarum causa Xviros habere, pullarios ( ) eodem iure,  inquit (sc. Rullus),  quo habuerunt IIIviri lege Sempronia (Cic. Leg. agr. II. 31, cp. 32)12. () (auspicia ex tripudiis)13, , 14. . , auspicia minora15, . . , . ( ) (summo cum imperio iudicioque16). , (ibid. 1831). auspicia maxima, , (ibid. 31).

, , . , , , 17 35 (Cic. Leg. agr. II. 18). .50 . ( ) . , , , . , , , , .

( ) , 194 . (Liv. XXXIV. 53. 12). ,   . , . .

, (. . 10), , , . , 129 . , , , . , lex Sempronia agraria consulis praetoris IIIviri a. i. a. iuris dictio17. , 18.

, 129 . . 19. , (coactus abdicare se20), , . , 21. . , , , . . .51 . 133132 . .

  () 22. : [. ] , ,  , , 23. , lex agraria, . (ad dividendum agrum), . ,   , , , , , . , ( . ), , (II. 2. 23),   (Acad. II. 13). , , 24.

, , 25. , . , . , . lex Sempronia de modo agrorum. ager publicus . . , de modo agrorum ager publicus. leges agrariae, 26. (, lex Sempronia agraria) , . , .

, , 27, . .52 , , , , . , , . , 129 .

, , , . , , , . , (iudicium), , , , (, , : Lex repetund. 72; Lex agr. 87). . Contra legem iudiciariam Tiberi Gracchi (Macr. Sat. III. 14. 6). ? , , . , 129 ., . , lex agraria () lex iudiciaria (). , , .

summo cum imperio iudicioque, (Cic. Leg. agr. II. 34; 60; 99). , ? , , , , , , , lex iudiciaria. , , lex agraria.

, , , - , . . , . lex agraria, , ? , , . . . , (App. BC. I. 19). , , . ? , . . lex agraria, , . . lex iudiciaria, .

() . , , (uno versiculo senatus: Cic. Leg. II. 14). (99 .)28, () (100 .) () . (91 .). .53   - 98 . (Cic. Dom. 41, . 50), (trinundinum) (ibid. 41; 53).

. , () (99 .) (Cic. Leg. II. 31)  .     : (Obseq. 46). , , (consilio) . (Cic. Leg. II. 31). , , : , , (Ascon. Pro Corn. P. 61C).

, . (per senatum rescindi oportere: Cic. Dom. 40). , , , . per vim et contra auspicia (vitiose)29, (Cic. Phil. XII. 12; XIII. 5). () (100 .) 30.

, , , . (BC. I. 19) , , , lex Sempronia iudiciaria. , , . . , , , . , lex Rubria31. . 32, (consecravit)33. 34 (App. BC. I. 24). (οἱ μάντεις), , (ἀπαίσιον). , .54 lex Sempronia iudiciaria. , , , ? , , . , , .

: , , , , (, , ). . 125 ., .

. , - . , . ( 194 . ) ( ). lex Sempronia agraria. .

, , , 35: τρεῖς αἱρετοὺς ἄνδρας, ἐναλλασσομένους᾿ κατ ἔτος (App. . I. 9. 37). 36. , , . , , . , , , , 133 37. , , , . . , 131 . . . , , - , . .55 , , 38.

, IIIviri a. i. a. , , . , . , lex Sempronia agraria, 128 .39 IIIviri a. i. a. , , .

() , ,   . , II . 40. 129 . , , . . 133 . , 41. , , , II ., 42. .

, - ex silentio. (per. 59) (XXIV. Fr. 84. 2) , . (BC. I. 21), . (125 .) (ὑπατεύων ἅμα καὶ τὴν γῆν διανέμων). , (124 .) (ἐκ τῶν τὴν γῆν διαιρούντων). , 129 . , .56 , : , . . lex iudiciaria, . , .

(. . cum imperio) . 173 . . (Liv. XLII. 1. 67). , 43. 165 . . (Cic. Leg. agr. II. 82; Gran. Licin. 28. 3637). , . .

, , termini Gracchani. , . , 132130 .44 IIIviri a(gris) i(udicandis) a(dsignandis). , . 74 ., IIIviri a(gris) d(andis) a(dsignandis) i(udicandis) (ILS. 26; ILLRP. 474). . . , . . . , : IIIviri a(gris) i(udicandis) a(dsignandis) (CIL. I2. 643644; ILLRP. 474). iudicatio , .

(lex repetundarum), , , . . 123/122 . IIIviri a(gris) d(andis) a(dsignandis). a. d. a. , 45. , 46. , , 47. , - 129123/122 . agris iudicandis adsignandis . , 129 . : lex iudiciaria IIIviri ad dividendum agrum (Liv. Per. 58). , agris dandis adsignandis, 123/122 ., , .57 , , , , .

(   ,   ) . , 48, . , , , : , ( ) . , 126 . . 49. , (Plut. G. Gr. 2; de vir. ill. 65. 1). , (G. Gr. 2), . , 123 . 125 . . , 50. , 51. , (125 124 .)   . , 120 . . terminus ante quem  123 .52 , 125 124 . , .

, 124 ., . (Plut. G. Gr. 1). 129 . , , , , .

129 . , . : , iudicatio , . 129 . . , . . 125 ., 122 .

.58



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2. . . 2012: : , , . .

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12. Gruen E. S. 1968: Roman Politics and Criminal Courts, 14978 B. C. Cambr. (Mass.).

13. Gsell St. 1928: Histoire ancienne lAfrique du Nord. Vol. VII. P.

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17. Lange L. 1876: Römische Alterthümer. Bd 1. Aufl. 3. B.

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THE 129 BC CRISIS AND THE AGRARIAN REFORM OF TIBERIUS GRACCHUS

R. V. Lapyryonok, A. M. Smorchkov

The authors analyse the key events in the course of Gracchan reforms when judicial power was transferred from triumviri agris iudicandis adsignandis to the consuls. The main objective of the paper is to define the essence of the political compromise which became the basis for this act and its consequences. In the authors opinion judicial powers were granted to the triumviri by the lex Semproniana iudiciaria adopted after the lex Semproniana agraria. The authors believe that in 129 BC the senate managed to repeal this law making a compromise with the Gracchans, i. e. consenting to extend the term of office of the agrarian commission. This compromise did not imply that judicial activities would stop, but they came under the consuls control. The senate found an efficient way to counter the Gracchans plans, so that the agrarian commission became practically inactive. The political defeat of 129 BC forced the opposition to reconsider their strategy. Since that time the Gracchans saw establishing good relations with the allies as one of their priorities and paid special attention to granting Roman citizenship to the Italici.


  • *   , (Vologda State Pedagogical University).

      , (Russian State University for the Humanities).

  • 1Plut. Tib. Gr. 21 (. G. Gr. 18); Vell. II. 7. 4; Cic. Dom. 87; App. BC. I. 17.  . Bringmann 2002, 210f.; Gruen 1968, 60; Kornemann 1900, 263.
  • 2Cic. Amic. 37; Plut. Tib. Gr. 20; G. Gr. 4; Sall. Iug. 31. 7; 42. 4; Val. Max. IV. 7. 1; VI. 3. 1d; Vell. II. 7. 3.
  • 3ILS. 2426; CIL. I². 639645; ILLRP. 467475.
  • 4 App. BC. I. 18; Plut. Tib. Gr. 21; Val. Max. VII. 2. 6b.
  • 5Stockton 1979, 92.
  • 6  . Richardson 1980, 111.
  • 7Cic. Fam. IX. 21. 3; Q. fr. II. 3. 3; Amic. 41; Liv. Per. 59; Plut. C. Gr. 10; App. BC. I. 20; Vell. I. 4. 56.
  • 8Liv. Per. 59: eo defuncto seditiones triumvirales actius exarserunt.
  • 9Bauman 1979, 385408.
  • 10Bauman 1979, 401 ( ). . : Bauman 1979, 402403.
  • 11Bauman 1979, 401, nt. 100; 101.
  • 12 (Tib. Gr. 17, . Val. Max. I. 4. 2; De vir. ill. LXIV. 6).   , ,   , , (IIIviri agris iudicandis adsignandis). . Mommsen 1887a, 85, Anm. 2; 1887b, 283, Anm. 5. : Lange 1876, 830; Liebenam 1901, 706.
  • 13Cic. Div. I. 28; II. 7273; Liv. VI. 41. 8; X. 40. 4; Fest. P. 284L, s. v. puls; P. 386L, s. v. sollistimum; P. 498L, s. v. tripudium.
  • 14Cic. Div. I. 2728; 77; II. 20; 7274; Fam. X. 12. 3; Liv. VI. 41. 8; VIII. 30. 2; IX. 14. 4; X. 40. 2; 4; 5; 9; 11; Per. 19; Serv. Ad Aen. VI. 198; Val. Max. I. 4. 3; Dionys. II. 6. 2. . Mommsen 1887a, 79, Anm. 1; 85, Anm. 2; 1894, 99.
  • 15Mommsen 1887b, 631.
  • 16Cic. Leg. agr. II. 34. . : I. 9; II. 45; 60; 99.
  • 17Bauman 1979, 406407.
  • 18. e re publica: Bauman 1979, 405407.
  • 19 . Mommsen 1887a, 627629. , , (Bauman 1968, 42, nt. 35), , . 105 . (Bauman 1968, 4850).  . : 2012, 251253.
  • 20Liv. Per. 19; CIL. I. P. 434; Cic. Cat. IV. 5. Cp. Fest. P. 21L, s. v. abacti.
  • 21Bauman 1968, 3750; Kunkel 1972, 1720.
  • 22. Gabba 1958, 60.
  • 23Liv. Per. 58: promulgavit (sc. Tib. Gracchus) et aliam legem agrariam, qua sibi latius agrum patefaceret, ut iidem triumviri iudicarent, qua publicus ager, qua privatus esset.
  • 24 . Bauman 1979, 393 (. nt. 53).
  • 25., : Bauman 1979, 393 (. nt. 49; 50); Gargola 1995, 149155; Stockton 1979, 4060.
  • 26Tibiletti 1948, 190.
  • 27 lex de modo agrorum. . . lex de modo agrorum. lex agraria (CIL. I2. 585. 2; Crawford 1996, 113). , . (Gell. Noct. Att. VI. 3. 37). . de modo agrorum, . (1948, 235).
  • 28. : Münzer 1937, 15631564.
  • 29Cic. Phil. III. 9; V. 710; VI. 3; XII. 12; XIII. 5.
  • 30App. BC. I. 30. . De vir. ill. LXXIII. 7; Cic. Leg. II. 14.
  • 31Flor. II. 3. 1; Oros. V. 12. 45; De vir. ill. 65.   121 . . , : Plut. G. Gr. 13.
  • 32Liv. Per. 60; App. Lib. 136; BC. I. 24.  . Gsell 1928, 5967.
  • 33Cic. Leg. agr. II. 51; App. Lib. 135; BC. I. 24.
  • 34Plut. G. Gr. 11; App. Lib. 136; BC. I. 24; Oros. V. 12. 12.
  • 35Mommsen 1887b, 632; Botsford 1968, 366. . : Bernstein 1978, 126.
  • 36Stockton 1979, 53, nt. 39. . : Molthagen 1973, 434.
  • 37Stockton 1979, 53, nt. 39.
  • 38. : Molthagen 1973, 436.
  • 39 . . , . . 133 . , 111 ., , lex Sempronia agraria (CIL. I2. 585. 1; Crawford 1996, 113: quei ager publicus populi Romanei in terra Italia P. Mucio L. Calpurnio co(n)s(ulibus) fuit.).
  • 40Kloft 1977, 4749; 5661.
  • 41Cic. De or. II 106; Mil. 8; Diod. XXXIV. 7. 3; Liv. Per. 59; Vell. II 4. 4; Val. Max. VI. 2. 3; De vir. ill. LVIII. 8.
  • 42Kloft 1977, 5056.
  • 43Liv. XLII. 1. 6: senatui placuit, L. Postumium consulem ad agrum publicum a privato terminandum in Campaniam ire . : ibid. 9. 7; 19. 1.
  • 44ILS. 2426; CIL. I2. 639645; ILLRP. 467475.
  • 45CIL. I2. 583. 2; Crawford 1996, 65.
  • 46CIL. I2. 583. 13, 22; Crawford 196, 6667.
  • 47Lapyrionok 2012, 100102.
  • 48Bauman 1979, 408.
  • 49Cic. Brut. 109; Plut. C. Gr. 12; De vir. ill. 65. 1.
  • 50Liv. Per. 60; App. BC. I. 34; Plut. C. Gr. 15.
  • 51. . . , . 123 .: Broughton 1951, 514515. (BC. I. 24), . . , : Fasti Capitolini / Rec. At. Degrassi. Torino, 1954. P. 105.
  • 52Broughton 1951, 513.
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