. .

XII : 1

77/4 (2017), 898914.

.898 . , XII 59 . . . 6000 , , 51 . (17,5 ). . . -, 54 ., . . . , 59 . , ; , .

: XII , , , , ,


Ptolemy XII and Caesar: History of a Debt
Olga Y. Lyubimova

Abstract. The article aims to reconcile Suetonius evidence about 6000 talents Caesar received in his own name and that of Pompey from Ptolemy for the latters establishment on the throne of Egypt, and Plutarchs evidence that at the moment of his death Ptolemy owed Caesar a half of that sum (17500000 drachmas). The article argues against the view of M. Gelzer and M. Siani-Davies, according to which this debt originated in 54 BC, when a Roman banker Gaius Rabirius .899 transferred unpaid debentures of Ptolemy to Caesars name. Additional arguments are proposed in favour of H. Heinen and R. Westalls view that in 59 BC Caesar received only a promissory note but no payment in cash from Ptolemy. An attempt is made to clarify the roles of Pompey and Rabirius in this transaction.

Keywords: Ptolemy XII Auletes, Caesar, Pompey, Rabirius Postumus, Egypt of Ptolemies, Late Roman Republic


XII , , 80 .2 . : -, ( ); -, XI II , , , ; -, , -, 3. 59 . . , 6 .   4. , , ,   , 5. , . . 48 ., : , , , (. . . . . )6. 17,5 (. . ) 2917 7, . . , , , 59 . . : ?

, . , , , , , , .900 8. .

. 9. , 59 . , (Cass. Dio XXXIX. 12. 1: τὰ μὲν οἴκοθεν τὰ δὲ καὶ δανεισάμενος). : , (. . 58 .), (Cic. Rab. Post. 4). , 59 . , ́ 6 . 10. , , , . , , , (Cass. Dio XXXIX. 12. 12). 57 . . , . , . (Cic. Rab. Post. 47; 2526). 55 . . , . . , (Cic. Rab. Post. 1928). , , . , 54 . (Cic. Rab. Post. 22; 3031; 3439). 11 , , , , , (Cic. Rab. Post. 812; 3031; 3738). , , .901 , , (Cic. Rab. Post. 3944; 46). , 12. XIII 48 .13

, . , . , , fides: 59 . 6 . . , 63 ., , , (Suet. Iul. 12; Cass. Dio XXXVII. 27;  . Cic. Rab. perd. 8; Rab. Post. 45). , 59 . .

, , , . . , , 14. , 57 . : , , , , 15. , , 16. , . , . , , , 17; (. . 16), (nihil hoc benignius). .902 , 57 ., (Rab. Post. 5; . 12; 2425), , -, .

: . 븭 , 59 . , , 18, . , 59 . , , , , 19. . , . , 57 . . , , , , ; , .

, , -, , . , . , 57 ., , , (Cic. Rab. Post. 67)20. , 59 . , , , 21. , , , , 57 ., 59 . . , .

.903 , 59 . 6000 , 22. , 144 . : 67 . , (App. Mithr. 94), , (App. Mithr. 104; Plut. Pomp. 33,  7000 = 168 ). 2000 = 48 , 8000 = 192 (Ios. Ant. Iud. XIV. 4. 4; 7. 1). 8333 = 200 (Plut. Pomp. 45. 3)23. 1667 = 40 (Suet. Iul. 25. 1). , 7000 = 168 (Plut. Cat. Min. 38. 1). , 24, 25, , 360 26.

, , . , 58 . - , , . 6 . (Diod. XVII. 52. 6) 12,5 . (Strab. XVII. 1. 13, .904 )27, , , , . , 57 . , , , , , . , , , , 6 . , . , , ,   , ,   170200 (71008300 ),   200 28. , .

, - : 1012 . . , , . , 54 . , , , (Cic. Rab. Post. 3031, . 21). , 29. , , , (Rab. Post. 39), , , 30. , , , 3 . , ́ , .

. -31. , 59 . - , , 6 . , , , 32. .905 , , 58 . . , , , , : . . ( ) , (Rab. Post. 5)33. -, , ( ), 10 . , . , 34.

- , 54 . , . , 3 . , , ,  57 ., , , . , 57 . ( ) , , , , 35. , , , , . 36.

, , .   . , 57 . , (Rab. Post. 5; 25). , - , ( ). , - : Cic. Rab. Post. 14; 22; 29; 41; Fam. I. 1. 3; 5a. 34; Att. I. 12. 137. , . Fam. I. 1. 3 (13 56 .) , . Fam. I. 5a. 34, , : Fam. I. 5 ( 56 .) , . Fam. I. 5. 34 ( 56 .) .906 (-, ), , , , , . Att. I. 12 1 61 ., , ,  . , 57 .38 39, , 5756 . - , 40.

, , , , , , , . , , , , , , , 41. - . , 42. , , (Cic. Off. I. 43; Sall. Cat. 49. 3; 54. 24; Suet. Iul. 26. 228. 1; App. BC. II. 1; 26; 30; Plut. Caes. 5. 4). , , , - . , (Cic. Rab. Post. 4144). , .907 -, , 54 . - 43; , , . , 57 . , (excepit) , , . . 54 .44

57 . , , , . , , fides . . , . ? , , - ?

, -, 5754 . , 54 . , . : ? : 54 ., , 45. , -, .

, , , (Cic. Rab. Post. 22; 39)46. , ,   , (Strab. III. 2. 5). , , , , 47 . , , , .908 .

, , in custodia, , , , , , 48. , (in vinclis  ), 49. , custodia regia (Rab. Post. 22). , , 븭50, , (Caes. BC. III. 104, 110; Val. Max. IV. 1. 15). . , , , , . , 54 . (Cic. Rab. Post. 40), , , , , 51. , , . , - , . , .

. , . . , 59 . 6 . , , . , .909 17,5 , , , 59 ., , , 35 . 5833,33 , (prope sex milia talentorum). , , , , ; , 52.

. . , 59 . , 6 . , , . , 6 . : , , , , 53. , (XXXIX. 12. 1) , 59 . , , 54. , ,   , . , 55. , , . , 48 . 56.

, , , . , , , , , , . .

.910 , 59 . , , . , (. , . 45)57. ,   , . , , . , , , . , : , (abstulerit) , . , - 6 . , . , , , , 58. , 59 . (Cic. Att. II. 9. 12; 18. 12; Plut. Pomp. 48; Caes. 8; Cass. Dio XXXVIII. 7. 5), . , 6 . , 59.

, 59 ., , , suo Pompeique nomine (Iul. 54. 3)? . nomine 60, : . .911 , 61, , , , , , , . , , . , : , , , , , , . nomine , . , , , , .   , 62, 65 . ,  , 63. , .

, 59 . , , ? , 64; 65. , (Cic. Rab. Post. 4). 59 . , 66. , , 59 . , (, , ) , , , .
.912 - , . , 57 .   -, , (Cic. Rab. Post. 45, . ). 54 . , , . , , , , . , , , ( ), 67.

, 68, , , , 57 ., , 69. , , 59 . , , , 70.

, , fides , , , , (Rab. Post. 41), 71. , , , , . , .913 - 72. , 59 ., 57 . .

, 57 . , , , , , 73. , , , , . 57 . , , , . , . .

(Rab. Post. 12; 45; 2425), , , - , , . , . , , 55 ., , 74. , . . , , 48 . (Plut. Caes. 48. 8), . 59 . . , . , - 59 ., , , 57 55 . ,   , 75. , 51 . , 59 .



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  • 1 : (, , 23 2016 .).
  • 2   .
  • 3  ., : Siani-Davies 1997, 312316; Khrustalyov 2017, 9396.
  • 4Suet. Iul. 54. 3: societates ac regna pretio dedit, ut qui uni Ptolemaeo prope sex milia talentorum suo Pompeique nomine abstulerit.
  • 5Cass. Dio XXXIX. 12. 1: ἐπειδὴ γὰρ πολλά τισι τῶν ῾Ρωμαίων χρήματα, τὰ μὲν οἴκοθεν τὰ δὲ καὶ δανεισάμενος, ὅπως τήν τε ἀρχὴν βεβαιώσηται καὶ φίλος καὶ σύμμαχος ὀνομασθῇ καταναλώκει.
  • 6Plut. Caes. 48. 4: ὤφειλε γὰρ ὁ τοῦ βασιλεύοντος τότε πατὴρ Καίσαρι χιλίας ἑπτακοσίας πεντήκοντα μυριάδας, ὧν τὰς μὲν ἄλλας ἀνῆκε τοῖς παισὶν αὐτοῦ πρότερον ὁ Καῖσαρ, τὰς δὲ χιλίας ἠξίου τότε λαβὼν διαθρέψαι τὸ στράτευμα. 51 .;   ; πρότερον, . , , , XIII 51 ., : Heinen 1967, 80.
  • 7 , , (Rab. Post. 21), 10 .   , 55 .,  240 . .
  • 8, , . Woytek 2003, 158160.
  • 9Gelzer 1969, 116; 1968, 76, 147, 247 ( , 1912 .,   1921 .). : von der Mühll 1914, 26; Fantham 1975, 442; Woytek 2003, 158160.
  • 10Gelzer 1968, 147, n. 2; 247. . , , 59 . 48 . (Shatzman 1971, 364365). . , , , 6 . , , , , (Royer 1967, 425).
  • 11 ; , , 5453 . (. Cic. Rab. Post. 1012; 3637; 42). . 53 . (Lintott 1974, 6768); 5352 .; . 52 . (Klodt 1992, 3334, 4751).  . Siani-Davies 2001, 8173; Morrell 2017, 165171.
  • 12syngraphae (Cic. Rab. Post. 6; cp. Cic. Fam. VII. 17. 1).  . Andreau 1999, 1718.
  • 13Gelzer 1969, 116; 1968, 147, n. 2; 247.
  • 14Cic. Rab. Post. 4: Multa gessit, multa contraxit, magnas partis habuit publicorum; credidit populis; in pluribus provinciis eius versata res est; dedit se etiam regibus; huic ipsi Alexandrino grandem iam antea pecuniam credidit,  , , ; ; ; ; .
  • 15Cic. Rab. Post. 4: Cui egenti et roganti hic infelix pecuniam credidit, nec tum primum; nam regnanti crediderat absens; nec temere se credere putabat, quod erat nemini dubium quin is in regnum restitueretur a senatu populoque Romano,  (.  . .), , (.  . .) ,   , ,  , , , .
  • 16Cic. Rab. Post. 5: iam metuere Postumus cogeretur ne quod crediderat perderet, si credendi constituisset modum.
  • 17Cic. Rab. Post. 5: In dando autem et credendo processit longius nec suam solum pecuniam credidit sed etiam amicorum, stulte.
  • 18Bloedow 1963, 76, Anm. 1.
  • 19Klodt 1992, 99.
  • 20 , 5756, 59 ., , : , , , , () (videbat), , , , (viderat), (Cic. Rab. Post. 6).
  • 21 , , (Rab. Post. 7). , , , -, . . - . , (Siani-Davies 2001, 7576; Morrell 2017, 171176), , , .
  • 22Gelzer 1968, 147, n. 2: The Roman knight . Rabirius Postumus in 59 B. C. had lent King Ptolemy XII the money he needed () to buy his recognition as king from Pompey and Caesar (allegedly about 36 million denarii), 247: At the time ( 59 .  . .) the money had been procured for him (.  . .) mainly by the Roman financier Gaius Rabirius Postumus.
  • 23 340 = 14167 (Plut. Pomp. 45. 3).
  • 24 , . von der Mühll 1914, 25. . , 40- , . (. Dessau 1911, 613620; White 1995, 157161). - , (Siani-Davies 2001, 3864); , , , (. Cic. Verr. II. 1. 100; 102; Rab. Post. 34). , ([Caes]. Bell. Afr. 8; 26), , (White 1995, 159). , 40- (. ILLRP 399; Ios. Ant. Iud. XIV. 10. 20), (. Syme 1979, 639640; White 1995, 159160). , .
  • 25 , 57 . (Cic. Rab. Post. 5).
  • 26 400 . (Iuv. Sat. XIV. 324326). . . (Braund 1984, 69, . 30).
  • 27. Rostovtzeff 1998 (1941), 1153 1607, n. 86, , , , . . - (Duncan-Jones 1998, 254). . 븭 , 64/63 . 4000 , . , ( ), . Bloedow 1963, 3233; Huß 2001, 681682. , , 4000 (): στέφανος ἀπὸ χρυσῶν τετρακισχιλίων (Ant. Iud. XIV. 3. 1).
  • 28 . Lyubimova 2014, 37.
  • 29. , , (. Sullivan 1991, 245), , -, .
  • 30 , 54 ., , , , (Fam. VII. 17. 1). , , , .
  • 31 Pelling 2011, 384.
  • 32Siani-Davies 1997, 315317; Wiseman 1994, 373.
  • 33Siani-Davies 1997, 323, 334, 336.
  • 34Siani-Davies 1997, 334, 335336.
  • 35 , 57 . , , ,   ,   , , (Shatzman 1971, 365366). . , , 57 ., : Nicolet 1974, 1000.
  • 36Siani-Davies 1997, 336337. . Siani-Davies 2001, 7273, 207208.
  • 37Siani-Davies 1997, 334, n. 107.
  • 38 Woytek 2003, 160, Anm. 29.
  • 39 , . Plut. Pomp. 49; 76. (Cass. Dio XXXIX. 14. 3; Cic. Rab. Post. 6) (Caes. BC. III. 108;  . Westall 2009). . , , (Strab. XVII. 1. 11) , , (Cass. Dio XXXIX. 56. 3).
  • 40 (Cat. Min. 35. 4), 58 ., , (μετὰ δυνάμεως), , . , , , ;  . Olshausen 1963, 48, Anm. 63. (. Caes. BC. III. 4), , , , , (Ios. Ant. Iud. XIV. 6. 2; Bell. Iud. I. 8. 7). (Plut. Crass. 17; 25).
  • 41Cic. Rab. Post. 41: nisi C. Caesaris summa in omnis, incredibilis in hunc eadem liberalitas exstitisset, nos hunc Postumum iam pridem in foro non haberemus. Ille onera multorum huius amicorum excepit unus, quaeque multi homines necessarii secundis Postumi rebus discripta sustinuerunt, nunc eius addictis fortunis universa sustinet.
  • 42  . Alexander 2002, 294, n. 34.
  • 43Klodt 1992, 167168.
  • 44 - , 54 . , , , , 57 . (Siani-Davies 2001, 73), .
  • 45Fantham 1975, 442.
  • 46 , 54 . (Siani-Davies 1997, 335), . ( 55 .  . Ios. Ant. Iud. XIV. 6. 24; Bell. Iud. I. 8. 7).
  • 47 , , (. Khrustalyov 2017, 101103). , , -, .
  • 48Bloedow 1963, 77 ( Mahaffy 1895 ; 븭 ); Olshausen 1963, 6263; Klodt 1992, 133134 ( , , , ); Hölbl 2001, 229; Siani-Davies 2001, 172, . 201 ( , , , - ); Huß 2001, 697 (, , , ).
  • 49 (P. Med. inv. 68. 53), , , , , , (. Balconi 1993, 1415).
  • 50Bloedow 1963, 77.
  • 51 , , , . , ; (Klodt 1992, 164165; Siani-Davies 1997, 336), , , .
  • 52Heinen 1967, 7880. , Mahaffy 1895, 432, . 438, . Braund 1984, 5960; 69, n. 36; Klodt 1992, 25, Anm. 14; Sullivan 1991, 244; Huß 2001, 683, Anm. 90; 712713; Alexander 2002, 114, 294 n. 34. , , 59 ., , , (. Graindor 1931, 2627; Olshausen 1963, 37; Canfora 2007, 195; Christmann 2005, 113, Anm. 4). . , , 48 ., 59 . (Rollinger 2009, 75, Anm. 308), , 59 . , 6 . , . . (Rollinger 2009, 125126). . ո , 6 . (Hölbl 2001, 225226).
  • 53  . Shatzman 1971, 364365.
  • 54Westall 2010, 2333.
  • 55Cic. Att. VI. 1. 3; 3. 5. 33 ; 12% 3300 . . Westall 2010, 3031.
  • 56Westall 2010, 3339.
  • 57Woytek 2003, 159.
  • 58 , , , 65 . (Plut. Crass. 13; Cic. De Reg. Alex. Fr. 6; Schol. Bob. 9192 St.).
  • 59 59 . (. , . 32), , . , (legatio libera) , (Cic. Att. II. 4. 2; 5. 1), . , (ad exigendas pecunias: Cic. Att. II. 7. 23, cp. 4. 2), ,   (Cic. Att. II. 7. 3). , , , ( Shatzman 1975, 382, n. 654). - , , (. Cic. Vat. 29). , (I. 83. 89), , , .
  • 60Dvoretskiy 1976, 674, s. v. 1; Lewis, Short 1958, 1213, s. v. I. Cp. Cic. QF. I. 3. 7: acceptam ex aerario pecuniam tuo nomine  , (. . . ); Cic. Verr. II. 1. 106: tutores pecuniam praetori si pupillae nomine dedissent quem ad modum in rationem inducerent non videbant  , , , (. . . ).
  • 61Dvoretskiy 1976, 674, s. v. 9; Lewis, Short 1958, 1213, s. v. II. B. Cp. Cic. Phil. I. 30: quin mihi etiam, quo auctore te in his rebus uti arbitrabantur, et gratias boni viri agebant et tuo nomine gratulabantur  , , , , , (. . . ); Fam. III. 8. 2: legationum tuo nomine proficiscentium  , ( , 51 . ).
  • 62. Siani-Davies 2001, 313315, 322325.
  • 63Cp. Cic. Att. VI. 1. 3: ; ,   ; ( ) .
  • 64Heinen 1967, 80, Anm. 2.
  • 65Westall 2010, 34, 37.
  • 66, , 59 ., ; Olshausen 1963, 3637, Anm. 46; Huß 2001, 581; Hölbl 2001, 224.
  • 67Cic. Rab. Post. 6: Quamquam ad sumptum itineris, ad illam magnificentiam apparatus comitatumque regium suppeditata pecunia a Postumo est, factaeque syngraphae sunt in Albano Cn. Pompei, cum ille Roma profectus esset, tamen non debuit is qui dabat, cur ille qui accipiebat tum sumeret, quaerere. -, cum ille Roma profectus esset (Siani-Davies 2001, 127128), : , iste. , (Fantham 1975, 430); . is,   ille; , ille . (Klodt 1992, 104105; ). -, (Cic. Fam. I. 1. 1). , , , , , .
  • 68 , , (Cic. Rab. Post. 1921).
  • 69 Klodt 1992, 39.
  • 70 , - (. Heinen 1967, 80).
  • 71- , , , (Siani-Davies 1997, 336).
  • 72 , . 54 . , . , 40- , , , , (. , . 24). , , 50 ., 1500 (Plut. Caes. 29. 3; Pomp. 58. 1; App. BC. II. 29), , 50 ., , , , 10 (Vell. II. 43. 4) 60 (Val. Max. IX. 1. 6), . . 417 2500 . , , .
  • 73 Klodt 1992, 4546.
  • 74Klodt 1992, 4546.
  • 75  . Westall 2010, 2728.
  • 1502583372 1502583511 1502583604 1522165642 1523093118 1523115939

    , .