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.38 , (Leg. agr. II. 44; . Suet. Iul. 9. 2; Plut. Crass. 13), , (Cat. IV. 9)29, (Cic. Att. I. 17. 9), (Att. I. 16. 5; QF II. 3. 24; II. 7. 2)30, (Att. II. 22. 5; Fam. I. 9. 4; XIV. 2. 2), (Fam. I. 9. 20), (Att. IV. 13). 55 . (IV. 13. 2) (homo nequam); , . , , 31. , 32.

, , . , , (Parad. 46), , , (. . ) (quaestus) . (XXI. 63. 3): , 218 . , . ,  , , 33, (Cic. Verr. II. 5. 45)34. , ,   35, 36, .39 (Off. I. 151; Senect. 5157). , , (Crass. 2. 7) , , (Comp. Nic. et Crass. 1. 2). , 37. , , , , , 38; , . , , 39; , 40.

: , , , , , (43). : . , , (Plut. Crass. 6. 6). , (Crass. 2. 3) : , , . , . , , . , : , (Plut. Crass. 6. 7;  . ). , - .

, , (Comp. Nic. et Crass. 1. 2), . , 73 ., , , , , . , (Plut. Crass. 1, 2;  . Oros. VI. 3. 1; Cic. Cat. III. 9)41. , , , .40 ,   42. , , .

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: , . , , .

, 84 . 2500 . , , (Plut. Crass. 6. 1). , , (Plut. Crass. 4). , 43. , - 2500 , (Plut. loc. cit.). , , . , -, , 44.

, 82 . , , (Crass. 6. 5). .41 , , : , ;   ,   ;   , , , , , 45. . , -, , , , , . , .

, : , (aerarium expilas). , : , , , (praeda), (aerarium) , , , , 46.

, , , : , 47 48, (Cic. Att. I. 17. 9) (Cic. Att. IV. 13. 1; Dio Cass. XXXIX. 39;   Plut. Crass. 20). / (aerarium expilare), , , (aerarium exhaurire: Leg. agr. II. 10, 15, 98; . Pis. 38. 57; Vat. 5; Sest. 103, effondere: Leg. agr. I. 15).

. (NH. XXXIII. 5. 14) , 49. . -, , , ; , . 50. -, (Iul. 54) , 59 . , , , - (Plin. NH. XXXIII. 5. 15), , , , 50- , . , . , , .42 . , , , . , - , .

(Parad. 43, . 46) , , . : ; , , . , , , , , , (Off. III. 7374; . . )51. , , 52. , : , , , , ; , , (Off. III. 75). , , , , , , 53. , .

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, , , . : , , . . , (BC. I. 118) , , 56. . , , , (Parad. 45), , . , 72 . , , , . . , , 57. , (, , ). , .

, , , . 58, (fructus  , reditus annuus  ), . , 7271 . , 59. , : 60. ; , . .44 , , . : , , , , , . , , , . . ( ).

, . , : , , , , (Parad. 46). , , 61 .: , , : , , , (Att. I. 16. 5; . . ). , , , , ; , . Att. I. 14. 34 , , 61. , . , (Cic. In Clod. et Cur. Fr. I. 6; II. 2. 4; Schol. Bob. 331333 Or.), , , 300 400 (Schol. Bob. 331 Or.), 31 (Cic. Att. I. 16. 5). , . , , . ,   62.

, , . , 66 . , , , , , , . , , (Cic. Att. I. 4. 2; Val. Max. IX. 12. 7; Plut. Cic. 9)63.

.45 (Parad. 46), (Tac. Ann. XI. 5; XIII. 42; XV. 20; Cic. Att. I. 20. 7). : , 63 . (Cic. Mur. 10; 48), , 56 . (Schol. Bob. p. 292 Or.; Cic. Cael. 18. 23), , 56 . (Cic. Balb. 17. 50). , , . , . , 73 ., , 64. (Cic. Cael. 9). , , , ; (Cic. Balb. 58; 43; 59; 6363). ; 56 . 65. , , , 66. , : (Plut. Cic. 7.3, 8; Tac. Ann. XI. 7)67, (Gell. XII. 12)68, , (Ps.-Sall. In Cic. 45; Dio Cass. XLVI. 6).

, , : (Crass. 3. 2; 7. 2) , . , , . , 69.

intercidas pecuniarum in coitionibus candidatorum (Parad. 46). intercidas intercessiones (pecuniarum), , , .46 70, impensas (pecuniarum), 71. coitio , , 72. , , , ; , 55 ., de sodaliciis, , 73. ; coitio , , ; 74.

, 64 ., , , 75, (83 ) , , . , , (Ascon. loc. cit.), , , (Sall. Cat. 21. 2; Cic. Cat. II. 18)76. 64 63 . 77.

, ,  60 . (Suet. Iul. 19. 1). , , , , 78. 79. , , 60 . , 80. .

, , , .47 (Crass. 7. 2). , , , , .

, 81 (Parad. 46), , , , , 6160 . 59 .: , , , 82. , (. : (societates)83 , ). (Crass. 2. 57) , 84. 85; , , 86 , (Plut. Cat. Mai. 21. 6), , , 48% (Cic. Att. V. 21. 1013; VI. 1. 57; 2. 79)87. , 6159 . , , (Cic. Flacc. 32)88. , , , (Att. I. 17. 9). , , . , 89.

.48 . , : , (BC. I. 7; . . . 븭). , I . (Sall. Hist. III. 48. 27; Cic. Mil. 26, 50, 74, 87, 98; Hor. Carm. II. 18. 2528). , (Crass. 2. 7; Comp. Nic. et Crass. 1. 2), , , , 90.

possessiones vacuas. . . 91, . , , 92; , , ,  . , , , (Plut. Crass. 2. 3; 6. 6; Comp. Nic. et Crass. 1. 12). , - , , , , (Plut. Crass. 6. 7)93. , . 94, 95, . , , . , , . . .

, , : , , , , , . . . , , , .49 (Plut. Crass. 17)96. ; , (. Vell. II. 46. 2; Plut. Crass. 18; Dio Cass. XL. 12. 1; 27. 3) , (Fin. III. 75). , ( ) 55 ., ; , 97. ,   , ; , . . .

65 . , . , ; , (Schol. Bob. 349 Or.; . Plut. Crass. 13). , , . (. Suet. Iul. 11), , , . : ( ) , : , (. Sall. Cat. 17. 7; Plut. Pomp. 43)98.

, (. Plut. Comp. Nic. et Crass. 34. 1), . 54 . (Fam. I. 9. 20) , , , ( ), . . , , , , -, , -, (XXXIX. 60. 1). , . : , (Dio Cass. XXXIX. 60. 4); .50 , , 99. . . , 55 . 100, . , , . , , .

, , , , , , , , , . , : , ( ). . (Vell. II. 46. 2; Plut. Crass. 23); , , . , , , . , .

, . , , ( , , , , , ), ,   . , , , (Crass. 2. 35; Comp. Nic. et Crass. 34. 1). , , , ; . , , . , , , , , . , , .

(. . 24), , .51 (Sall. Cat. 48. 5; Vell. II. 30. 6; Plut. Pomp. 22; Crass. 7; Cic. 15)101. , , (Fin. II. 57). , , , , , -,     -.




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.53


Crassus the Profit-Seeker: the Character of Crassus in Ciceros Paradoxa Stoicorum

O. V. Lyubimova

Ciceros Paradoxa is chronologically the first source dealing with Crassuss self-interest in detail. In this treatise Cicero accuses Crassus of a number of unseemly deeds performed for the sake of profit and creates an impression that all the political activity of the triumvir had no other end but profit. However, analyzing the accounts of the same facts in other sources (including Ciceros) one can see that wealth was not Crassus end in itself, but a means of exercising political influence (the fact Cicero himself could not but realize). The sixth paradox was composed as an element of an imaginary invective against Crassus and became a basis for developing the image of Crassus the Profit-Seeker, which sometimes overshadows that of Crassus the Politician.


  • * , , (, 27   1 2012 .)
  • 1. Cic. Fin. II. 57; III. 75; Off. I. 25, 109; III. 75; Sen. Ep. 119. 9; Flor. II. 13. 9; Dio Cass. XL. 27. 3.
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  • 4Adcock 1966.
  • 5 2007.
  • 6Marshall 1976, 147149; Ward 1977, 6882; Shatzman 1975, 116122.
  • 7   .
  • 8, , ex Nanneianis (Att. I. 16. 5), , , ;  . .
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  • 17Molager 1971, 23; Wassmann 1996, 106107. , , (Att. XII. 40. 1; XIII. 27. 2; 46. 2).
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  • 22. Wassmann 1996, 129.
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  • 26 . , (1968, 8183).
  • 27   , (Verr. II. 5. 5; Balb. 17, 51; Mur. 48; Sest. 39; Cael. 9), (Fam. V. 8).
  • 28. Cic. Phil. II. 7: (.  . .) (. . . ).
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  • 31  . Marshall 1976, 3438.
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  • 37 . Adcock 1966, 1516; Ward 1977, 71.
  • 38 ; . DArms 1981, 3947.
  • 39. . (1971, 7782) , ,   . Ē (1981, 47) : , , , .
  • 40. Wiseman 1971, 82  .
  • 41.  (2005, 163) .
  • 42. Cadoux 2005, 177; Ravizza 2006, 9. , (Cic. Cat. III. 9). , , , (Brut. 236). , (Plut. Cat. Min. 19. 5;  . Cadoux 2005, 173179). , , , . , 113 ., , .
  • 43Badian 1984, 266267.
  • 44. (1977, 6061), , , . . (1996, 77) , .
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  • 52 . . , , (Off. III. 74). , , , , (Ward 1977, 76, nt. 62). , , 4946 . , . . Münzer 1932b, 19481950. , , .
  • 53 , , , , , Off. III. 74.
  • 54. . 23. ( ) ( ). . , (1986, 7174).
  • 55. Gelzer 1926, 300; Ward 1977, 6869; Garzetti 1996, 73.
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  • 58Whitehead 1986, 72.
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  • 60. Ward 1977, 69, nt. 40. , 70 . , (Plut. Crass. 2. 2), .
  • 61 , : Gelzer 1926, 298; Shackleton Bailey 1965, 316317; Shatzman 1975, 117120; Marshall 1976, 183188; Ward 1977, 227230. , , Frank 1919, 396415; Wiseman 1968, 297299; Tatum 1999, 8285.  . Marshall 1976, 183188; Tatum 1999, 8285. ,   Parad. 46 Att. I. 16. 5  .
  • 62 (., , Sall. Cat. 48. 9; Plut. Crass. 13); , (Plut. Cic. 29). ; , 61 . , .
  • 63. . (2007, 237) , .
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  • 65Marshall 1976, 120121, 125; Ward 1977, 258; Gruen 1995, 302303; Tatum 1999, 206.
  • 66 ; , , . , .
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  • 68Berry 1996, 4041.
  • 69 (Comm. Pet. 1920; 38) , . . Smutny 1951, 52; Nicolet 1980, 300301.
  • 70. , : Cicero 1908, 24; . (Cicero 1942, 296297) . (Ciceron 1971, 126, 150). . intercidas pecuniarum (Ronnick 1991, 132), the intervention of money (Ronnick 1991, 145).
  • 71Birt 1930, 100, . . : Cicero 1953, 21.
  • 72Taylor 1971, 36, 68; Gelzer 1969, 123.
  • 73  . Alexander 2002, 133134, . , , 54 ., , : Att. IV. 17. 2.
  • 74 55 . , factio: Gelzer 1969, 124.
  • 75Cic. In toga cand. fr. 1: valde in hoc largitionis quaestu noti.
  • 76Marshall 1976, 76; Billows 2009, 95.
  • 77  ., , Salmon 1935, 302316; Ward 1977, 172173.
  • 78. Stanton, Marshall 1975, 205219, .
  • 79. .
  • 80, (Hor. Carm. 1. 1).
  • 81ad defaenerandas diripiendasque provincias; . . : 2000, 471.
  • 82  . Cic. Planc. 3435; Suet. Iul. 20. 3; App. BC. II. 13;  . Cic. Att. I. 17. 9.
  • 83. . : 2000, 471. .
  • 84, , , , . . Shatzman 1975, 376; Ward 1977, 7374.
  • 85  . DArms 1981, 3947; Andreau 1999, 17, 27.
  • 86 (Parad. 2).
  • 87 , , .
  • 88  ., , : Taylor 1971, 130131; Badian 1972, 103104; Shatzman 1975, 377. . , , : , , ; . Cic. Vat. 29.
  • 89. (BC. II. 13) , : , . , , (. . . ). , , : , Garzetti 1996, 129130; Cadoux 1956, 157, nt. 1; Stanton, Marshall 1975, 218; Marshall 1976, 9798; Ward 1977, 211212, nt. 53.
  • 90. . (2007, 238239) , , , -, , , , , , .
  • 91 2000, 471.
  • 92. Cicero 1942, 299: empty properties; Ciceron 1971, 126: biens-fonds abandonnés; Ronnick 1991, 145: vacant properties.
  • 93 προγράψαι τινάς ( ) προγράψαι τινά ( - []): Plutarchus 1994, 133. , , , -, .
  • 94Gelzer 1926, 298. . , , - (Cic. Att. I. 16. 5). , , (Q. Cic. Comm. Pet. 9), , . , .
  • 95. App. BC. I. 95; Cic. Cluent. 25; Q. Cic. Comm. Pet. 9.
  • 96. , (1976, 153). 55 . , (Dio Cass. XXXIX. 39. 1).
  • 97 . , (1942, 253). : . Molager 1971, 15; Ronnick 1991, 2, nt. 4.
  • 98. Salmon 1935, 305; Ward 1972, 248250; 1977, 132135 ( ).
  • 99. Marshall 1976, 140142. , (XXXIX. 60. 1) , ,  χρήματα (), (δωροδοκήσειν  XXXIX. 60. 3). , . , , .
  • 100Fantham 1975, 431; Ward 1977, 278279.
  • 101. Shatzman 1975, 116122; Gruen 1995, 6768.
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