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.211 73 . . . ( , , ) , , . , 73 . . . , , , , , . , , .

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73 .1 , , . , , . , , . 2, . , 114 . , 3, , 113 . , . ( 127 .); , , 4. , .212 , , 73 . , . , 73 .5; , , , 6. - , 73 . 7. .

. (Cat. III. 9), 63 . ,   . (VI. 3. 1), , III 8. , , (Ascon. 91 C). , -, . , , , (Plut. Crass. 1. 45; Inim. Util. 6); , , , , 73 . (post virginum absolutionem [Cic. Cat. III. 9]), , 73 . . (Plut. Crass. 1. 4); , , , , (Cat. Min. 19. 5), . , , ; , 9. . , 61 . (Cic. Brut. 236); , 10.

.213 , , , , . -, (Crass. 1. 2), (ὑπὸ τῶν δικαστῶν)11. -, (διώκων), , ; (Liv. VIII. 15. 7; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. IX. 40. 3; Oros. V. 15. 22; Dio Cass. Fr. 87. 5)12. , -, (Cic. Brut. 236) , 13.

, , 113 ., , : (quaestio perpetua) 73 .14 . . . , , , , : , , , , (Cic. Nat. deor. III. 74). , . , (Ascon. 4546 C): - , , , , , , . , , , , , 16. .214 ; , , . . , , quaesitor . , (consilium), consilium , , 17. , , 73 ., , .

. , , . , , 113 . , 18. , . . , 113 ., 111 ., .215 , . , 73 . , . . .

(III. 7. 9), , , , , , . , 19. . , , 50- ., , 20. , , , , , 111 ., 21. . , , , , 22. , , , , 111 . (Sall. Iug. 27. 2: vir acer et infestus potentiae nobilitatis; 30. 3: odio potentiae nobilitatis; .: 3034). , 113 . , 111 . , . , , , , ( ). , . - ( , ; .: Liv. VIII. 15. 7; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. IX. 40. 3; Oros. V. 15. 22; Dio Cass. Fr. 87. 5). , , , , . , .216 , (.: Val. Max. VI. 8. 1, , )23.

. , 113 ., , , (III. 7. 9), , - 24, , 113 ., praetor, quaesitor25. . , , 111 ., , (.: Sall. Iug. 3233)26. , . , , . . , 113 . . (. Ascon. 45: , summae vir severitatis) : , (quaesitor) , , , , , , . (illo ipso acerrimo iudice quaerente) , , .217 27 (Rosc. 84. . . . ). , 111 ., (Sall. Iug. 32. 5), , , . . , , , 28, . , , : (populus hunc Cassium creavit [Ascon. 46 C]) 29.

, , , . (VI. 8. 1), , (accusatores) , , (iudices) . . , , quaesitor, , 30, 31. (Cic. Sull. 78: illa tormenta regit quaesitor32; .: Rhet ad Herenn. II. 7. 10) , ; , (Cic. Mil. 59)33. . , 111 ., . , ut se iudicibus torquendum traderet, ; ut se praetori torquendum traderet. , , , .218 . , .

, , , quaesitor , 34. , ; , . , , 35. (quaesitor)  , . 36  37, . , 38. , , , , 39. .219 , , . , , (Dio Cass. Fr. 87. 5)40. , , . . , , , . , . , , , .

, 113 .,  , - (Cic. Brut. 122, 124; Inv. I. 80; Schol. Bob. 85 St.)41. . , , , 113 ., , , , quaestio extraordinaria, , 42. 73 . - 43 . 44. , 114/113 ., , , , .220 , , , . , , , 45  . , , , 113 ., (Dio Cass. Fr. 87. 12). , 113 . 73 .   , .

, . , , : 113 . , quaesitor, . , , , . , , : (Crass. 1. 2) , 73 ., , , 113 ., quaesitor. , ; , , . .

. 113 . ,   . , , , 104 . , . 103 .46 .221 , , 90- . ; , 47. , . , , , , , , 48.

, , 73 . , , . , , . , , , . .

, 73 . : 114/113 . , , , (Liv. Per. 89)49. , 113 . , , . , 73 .   , ; , , , -, .

.222 , , 50, , ? . , 12 51. , , ; , , ; (Cic. Att. I. 13. 3). ; , ; (Cic. Att. I. 14. 12, 56; 16. 110).

, , . , , : (Val. Max. VIII. 5. 5; Ascon. 45 C; Schol. Bob. 8889 St.) , (Cic. Att. I. 12. 3; 14. 2)52. : , , 53. . , , , , , , , : , , . , -, , , , ; -, , ( , ) , 54. 62 . (Cic. Att. I. 13. 3). , , , , .223 55. , : (sacrilegium) . , (libera interpretatio): 56. 57, , , 73 .58

, , . (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. VIII. 89. 4; IX. 40. 3; Liv. VIII. 15. 78), , 59. , 73 . . ; . ,   , , (Plut. Crass. 1. 45). , , , , . , , 7473 . , , ,   , .224 60. , 73 . , . , - , , .

, 73 . . -, , , 61, ; 62. 114/113 61 . -, (VI. 3. 1) , (Catuli gratia)63. , : , 64 , , 65; 66, 67. .225 , 68. -, , , (Cat. Min. 19. 5). , ( ), -, , ; , , . , (Ant. Rom. II. 67. 3) , (τιμωρίαι τε ἐπὶ τοῖς ἁμαρτανομένοις κεῖνται μεγάλαι, ὧν ἐξετασταί τε καὶ κολασταὶ κατὰ νόμον εἰσὶν οἱ ἱεροφάνται), , , 90 . . . , , (Plin. Ep. IV. 11. 6). , , , , , 73 . . , ; I . .

, , 73 . , . , , , , , , . , .

-, . , , , .226 (, cursum forensem.  . .) , , (Cic. Brut. 236. . . . ). , , 69 , 113 . , , 70. . , (crimen), (scelus), . , , - 71. , . : , , 72.

, . , 113 ., , , 216 .73 , patronus (. . patronus causae) 74; 75. , .227 , , , , (Brut. 5260). 149 . 137 . (Cic. Brut. 106)76; . , , 73 ., 77. 113 . , ,   (Dio Cass. Fr. 87. 12), , 78.

, : , , , : : (Plin. Ep. IV. 11. 12: ex advocato nuntius factus sum; Licinianus recessit; . . . ; .: Plin. Ep. IV. 11. 45; Suet. Dom. 8. 4). , locutus est pro absente. -, , , , 79. advocatus, ( .228 patronus), (Plin. Ep. . 4. 24; 9; 21; IV. 9. 7; V. 20. 1; .: Quint. Inst. XII. 1. 13; Tac. Ann. XI. 5)80. , , .

73 ., . , , , , 81. , (Oros. VI. 3. 1), , -, ; , , . 73 . ( ), , , 113 . , , quaestio.

, . : , (musty recesses) ?82 , . , , , (immanitate tyranni licentia domini), , , . , , (Plin. Ep. IV. 11. 6).   , , , , , 83. , ; , , , , , (Ep. IV. 11. 6: nescio an innocens, certe tamquam innocens. . . . )84. , .229 , , , , , , , 85. , 113 . , , - 86. , , 73 ., , ; , , , . , , , laus, ; . 87 88, (magna) .

, 73 . , , , (διώκων) . , 89. , , - , , , , . . , (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. IX. 40. 3; Liv. VIII. 15. 7; Plut. Quaest. Rom. 83; Dio Cass. Fr. 87. 5; Oros. V. 15. 22). , μηνύω (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. VIII. 89. 4; IX. 40. 3: μήνυσις; Plut. Quaest. Rom. 83: ἐμήνυσε; Dio Cass. Fr. 87. 5: κατεμήνυσεν). (Ant. Rom. II. 69), , , 230 228 .90. , (κατηγορῆσαι) ; (κατήγορος); , , .230 (τινας ἐξ εἰκότων τεκμηρίων καὶ μαρτυριῶν ἀποδείξεις φέροντα οὐκ ἀληθεῖς), . , -, , : , , (., : Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. VIII. 89. 5). , , . 73 . , , , 91 , . , (accusator): , , . διώκων . , , (Plut. Cic. 7. 4: τῶν Σικελιωτῶν διωκόντων), , . , διώκων, , (Ibid. 18. 7). , διώκειν, , (Plut. C. Mar. 29).

, διώκων , 73 . . , , - , , . , κατήγορος , . , (accusatores), .

, , 73 . , , , , (ὑπὸ τῶν δικαστῶν ἀφείθη). , , . 93: δικασταί , 73 . (iudicium, .231 iudices), 94; (Har. resp. 13), , : , (iudicasse) ,   -. , ; (ita est enim interpretatio illa pontificum, ut eidem potestatem habeant iudicum); , , (in iudicio capitis) . , , - - (de caerimoniis virginum iudicasse) (. . . ). (iudicium: Liv. VIII. 15. 8; iudicasse: Ascon. Mil. 46 C). , , [ ] (Cic. Att. IV. 2. 4: religionis iudices pontifices fuisse),   iudex atque arbiter rerum divinarum humanarumque (Fest. 200 L). , δικασταί ( διώκων) : , , , , (Plut. Popl. 7. 5), , (Ibid. 18. 2). , , δικασταί, iudicium.

, , 73 ., . , , ; , . -, 73 . , ( quaesitor, ) , , . , 113 . .232 , , . 113 73 . , 73 . 40- , .

, 73 . ( , 61 .). 62 ., . , , , . , , , , , . 7473 . , , , ; ( ) , . 73 . , , , , .

, . , , . , , 73 ., , , 113 . . , , , , , , . (accusator) , . , , , , , , , . διώκων δικασταί ; , .




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Olga V. Liubimova

The Trial of Vestals in 73 B. C.: Jury Court or Pontifical Court?

The legal terminology of the sources about the trial of vestals in 73 BC (particularly the mention of judges, prosecutor and advocate) has led some researchers to the conclusion that the case was tried before secular jury court and not before the traditional pontifical college. An attempt is made in the article to argue that in 73 BC there was no permanent jury court for incest cases; and the establishment of an extraordinary court for this case by a special law is improbable because our sources are entirely silent about it, the political situation was unfavorable for such a move and some circumstantial evidences suggest that the case was tried before pontifices. The legal terms of the sources are quite applicable for the pontifical court and there are analogies for them in the reports of ancient authors about the other trials of vestals.

Key words: Vestals, pontifices, incest, Fabia, Licinia, Crassus, Catiline, lex Paeducea.


  • 1   , .
  • 2.: Liv. VIII. 15. 78; XXII. 57. 23; Cic. De leg. II. 22; Har. resp. 13;  .: , 2001, 293, . 26.  .: Johnson 2007, 204254; 2009, 90113.
  • 3 , . ;  .: Moreau 2002, 137141 ( .  . 141144).
  • 4Ascon. 4546 C.  .: Broughton 1951, 534537; Gruen 1968a, 127131, Alexander 1990, 1923, .
  • 5Rawson 1974, 208; Bauman 1992, 61, 233234, not. 3; Johnson 2007, 223226.
  • 6Ravizza 2001, 185208; Ravizza 2006, 910.
  • 7Alexander 1990, 8384; Lewis 2001, 142; Cadoux 2005, 168.
  • 8  .: Keaveney 1992, 193.
  • 9 .: Cadoux 2005, 173178, . .
  • 10  .: Cadoux 2005, 162163.
  • 11Zumpt 1865, 117118; Rawson 1974, 208, not. 100; Bauman 1992, 233234, not. 3; Johnson 2007, 224; Ravizza 2001, 207; Ravizza 2006, 9.
  • 12Bauman 1992, 233234, not. 3; Johnson 2007, 224225.
  • 13Bauman 1992, 61; Johnson 2007, 224225; Ravizza 2001, 207; Ravizza 2006, 910.
  • 14Rawson 1974, 208 (. , , , - , ); Bauman 1992, 61; Johnson 2007, 223225.
  • 15Lewis 2001, 141142.
  • 16Ob quam severitatem, quo tempore Sex. Peducaeus tribunus plebis criminatus est L. Metellum pontificem max. totumque collegium pontificum male iudicasse de incesto virginum Vestalium, quod unam modo Aemiliam damnaverat, absolverat autem duas Marciam et Liciniam, populus hunc Cassium creavit qui de eisdem virginibus quaereret. Isque et ultrasque eas et praeterea complures alias nimia etiam, ut existimatio est, asperitate usus damnavit.
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  • 19  .: Ravizza 2001, 185, not. 1.
  • 20Ravizza 2001, 187196.
  • 21Ravizza 2001, 197.
  • 22Ravizza 2001, 200.
  • 23 , . , , . -, , , , 50- . (Ravizza 2001, 187195), , 113 . . -, . , de repetundis (Ravizza 2001, 196), , de repetundis, , . , .
  • 24apud L. Cassium praetorem, cuius tribunal propter nimiam seueritatem scopulus reorum dicebatur.
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  • 26Carney 1962, 303304. . , .  , , , , .
  • 27. Cic. Brut. 97: .
  • 28Gruen 1968b, 61.
  • 29Brennan 2000, 384386. , (RRC, 428/12).
  • 30 , II ., .: Cerami 2011, 9495.
  • 31Ravizza 2001, 202204. . (Kunkel 1962, 46, Anm. 175).
  • 32Quesitor   , 113 . . , (quaestio de vi), 62 . . (Schol Bob. 84 St.).
  • 33Greenidge 1901, 492493.
  • 34, (Venturini 1996, 217219) , , accusatores .
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  • 37.: Cic. Har. resp. 13, , (in iudicio capitis) (durum atque iniquum). . - (1912, 244) , de capite civis 113 .  .
  • 38 , , , , .: Cerami 2011, 9295.
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  • 40Ravizza 2001, 200201.
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  • 43 . 113 . ( ) , , , , (puer: Cic. Brut. 122).
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  • 45 , , , : 236 .  , , II  I . .: Johnson 2007, 228234.
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  • 49.: Keaveney, 2005, 140141, 213; Griffin 1973, 203204, , , . , : de capite civis (.: Strachan-Davidson 1912, 239245; Kunkel 1962, 58; Cerami 2011, 94).
  • 50. , . 56.
  • 51Ravizza 2001, 207208.
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  • 53Tatum 1999, 7475.
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  • 55Cornell 1981, 29.
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  • 57Tatum 1999, 7475.
  • 58. : , ; , (Scheid 1981, 132133). 114/113 ., ; , , 73 . ( ) .
  • 59, 2001, 293; Johnson 2007, 205207; 210211; 2009, 102; 2012, 276.
  • 60  .: Liv. II. 42. 10; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. VIII. 89. 34; IX. 40. 12; Plut. Quaest. Rom. 82; Obseq. 37. .: Cornell 1981, 31; 34; Mustakallio 1992, 5662; Lovisi 1998, 700; 704; Staples 2004, 136.  .: Cornell 1981, 28; Lovisi 1998, 703704; Staples 2004, 136138; 2009, 9396. , 73 . , . (2006, 96), , 72 . (Plut. Crass. 9). (VI. 3. 1) . (2006, 1) 73 ., . . .
  • 61   (Plut. Cat. Min. 19. 5), , (. 9), , , .
  • 62 , 73 . , 61 . (Cic. Att. I. 13. 3).
  • 63  .: 2010, 205212.
  • 64Macrob. Sat. III. 13. 11, ; Taylor 1942, 400401; 411.
  • 65Lewis 2001, 144; Cadoux 2005, 166.
  • 66.: Ascon. 4546 C, : L. Metellum pontificem max. totumque collegium pontificum male iudicasse.
  • 67Johnson 2007, 221223.
  • 68. . , , ,   quaesitor (Lewis 2001, 144, not. 20), , , . Catuli gratia , , (Brut. 133), , . , : gratia -, , , auctoritas (.: Hellegouarch 1963, 307308). , , ; gratia .: Hellegouarch 1963, 203205. ( ) .: Marshall 1985, 127.
  • 69. (Johnson 2007, 224) , , : , , . .: Cadoux 2005, 166.
  • 70Bauman 1992, 61; Johnson 2007, 224225.
  • 71Ravizza 2001, 205207; Ravizza 2006, 910. , . (2001, 205206, not. 72) . (1924/1924, 201214) , prodigium,   . . .: : Koch 1958, 17471752 ( ); Cornell 1981, 2737 ( ).  .: Wildfang 2006, 5657.
  • 72Bauman 1992, 61.
  • 73 145 . (NH. XXVIII. 3. 12), (Per. 20); , 230 228 .  .: Broughton 1951, 227227, not. 2, .
  • 74Kennedy 1968, 428; , 1976, 9; David 1992, 89; Lintott 1999, 179180.
  • 75 , 475 ., (Ant. Rom. IX. 33). , (Liv. III. 12) (Liv. III. 58), laudatores, patroni; (Liv. III. 44. 11) advocati, . . .
  • 76David 1992, 41; , 1976, 3839.
  • 77Lovisi 1998, 718.
  • 78. : Johnson 2007, 241254. . (1992, 5455) , 113 . , , .   (Euseb. Chron. II. 136. 1; Liv. XXII. 57. 2; Oros. IV. 5. 69, .: Suet. Dom. 8. 34; .: 1997, 142). , 113 . , . .: Johnson 2007, 226227; Lewis 2001, 142.
  • 79Gaheis 1912, 678; Sherwin-White 1966, 284; Carlon 2009, 200.
  • 80Lewis, Short 1879, 51 (s. v. advoco); Berger 1953, 352; . 611, 623; 1976, 37; Crook 1995, 146149.
  • 81Lewis 2001, 144145.
  • 82Bauman 1992, 61.
  • 83Sherwin-White 1966, 283.
  • 84  .: 1997, 2830, . 41. .: Tac. Ann. XI. 2 intra cubiculum.
  • 85 , (Lintott 1999, 81), , (Mommsen 1899, 362).
  • 86Scheid 1981, 146.
  • 87, , , (Cic. Dom. 34; 39).
  • 88  .: Taylor 1942, 400403.
  • 89Bauman 1992, 233234, not. 3; Johnson 2007, 224225.
  • 90. . 73.
  • 91Gruen 1968a, 41; Ward 1977, 75.
  • 92Zumpt 1865, 117118; Rawson 1974, 208, not. 100; Bauman 1992, 233234, not. 3; Johnson 2007, 224; Ravizza 2001, 207; Ravizza 2006, 9.
  • 93Lewis 2001, 142. . (Moreau 1982, 91, not. 240).
  • 94. , ( , consilium), , , (Johnson 2007, 223227, ).
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