. .

65 . . .*

77/3 (2017), 615635.
, , .

.615 . , , 65 . . . , - . , . , , ; . , , . 65 .[1]


: , , , , , 65 ., , , ,




Caesar and the Egyptian Question in 65 BCE

Sabina E. Tariverdieva


Abstract. Plutarch, Cicero and the Bobbio scholiast tell us that the censor of 65 BCE, Marcus Crassus, supported a law about the annexation of Egypt, but he failed because of the opposition of the optimates. Suetonius, however, tells us that it was Caesar who tried to get the Egyptian command .616 that year. According to the dominant view, Crassus wanted to get the Egyptian command for himself and Caesar acted only as his junior ally, but could in no way hope to receive the command for himself. In this article the evidence is re-examined and the conclusion is drawn that it was Caesar who should have got the Egyptian command, rather than Crassus. Also more precise dating of the whole episode at the end of 65 BCE is suggested.


Keywords: Caesar, Egypt, Caesars aedileship, Late Roman Republic, Crassus, chronology of 65 BCE, censorship of Crassus, Catulus, Cato the Younger, Cicero



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  • * . . , 65 . , : Chrustaljow (forthcoming). . . . . . .  
  • 1   .
  • 2 ,   X XI, . .
  • 3 , , , : . Chrustaljow (forthcoming), . 1521. ; . , , (Cic. Leg. agr. II. 4142). , (senatus auctoritas) , (consultum) . . , - , senatus auctoritas, senatus consultum (Badian 1967, 180181). , 65 ., .
  • 4 , Αἴγυπτον ποιεῖν ὑποτελῆ ῾Ρωμαίοις , . Chrustaljow (forthcoming), . 23.
  • 5Cic. Reg. Alex. Fr. 6: Sic est iusta causa belli, sicuti Crassus commemoravit cum Iugurtha fuisse.
  • 6Schol. Bob., p. 92. 3 St.: sed procul dubio nihil aliud agit, quam ut M. Crassi mores denotet.
  • 7 56 . (., : Havas 1977, 4042). 65 . (Crawford 1994, 43; Khrustalyov 2015, 502503).
  • 8 : Sumner 1966. . . .
  • 9Adcock 1966, 3638 ( : ,   ); Butler, Cary 2009, 54; Ward 1972, 244250; Marshall 1976, 66; Khrustalyov 2014, 147148; Chrustaljow (forthcoming), . 31.
  • 10Gelzer 1968, 4041; Havas 1977, 3940. . : Sullivan 1990, 233; Siani-Davies 1997, 312; Billows 2009, 85.
  • 11Hardy 1917, 166167; Afzelius 1940, 221, Anm. 5. , . , (Bloedow 1963, 3638.) , , (. Huß 2001, 680).
  • 12Colombini 1991, 143.
  • 13 . Lyubimova 2015, 154155.
  • 14Strasburger 1938, 113114. (Butler, Cary 2009, 54). . (Olshausen 1963, 34). . , 65 . 50- . , , , , (Gruen 1974, 75, . 117; 2009, 30). . : Balsdon 1967, 3637; Gesche 1976, 24; Fontanella 2005, 155157; Crawford 1994, 44, 47. . , , , , , (Hölbl 2001, 223224). . - , (Sherwin-White 1984, 265).
  • 15Drummond 1999, 153156.
  • 16Sumner 1966, 574575, 579.
  • 17Suet. Iul. 11: Conciliato populi favore temptavit per partem tribunorum, ut sibi Aegyptus provincia plebiscito daretur, nanctus extraordinarii imperii occasionem, quod Alexandrini regem suum socium atque amicum a senatu appellatum expulerant resque vulgo inprobabatur. Nec obtinuit adversante optimatium factione
  • 18Gascou 1984, 348, 414417; Wallace-Hadrill 1983, 17.
  • 19Pelling 2015, 259 (individual actions).
  • 20Gascou 1984, 350355; Wallace-Hadrill 1983, 71; Melior 1999, 148.
  • 21Gascou 1984, 392, 392394, 400405, , , , .
  • 22. Gascou 1984, 801803: , , , , - , . . : Melior 1999, 154157.
  • 23., , Gelzer 1968, 4142.
  • 24 , 65 ., (Iul. 13): deposita provinciae spe pontificatum maximum petit non sine profusissima largitione (Colombini 1991, 142). , , , . , : , . 11, . 13. , .
  • 25Bennet 2016, 16. 2. : Chrustaljow (forthcoming), . 3536.
  • 26 , , , , . Badian 1967, 178192, Shatzman 1971, 363 . (. ). , , , , . , 65 . - , 64/63 . (Mithr. 114) , 65 ., , 64/63 ., (Colombini 1991, 145). . -, , (expulerant), , , . -, 64/63 ., , 65 . 65 . , , .
  • 27 , : Braund 1983, 2427 ( ), Siani-Davies 1997, 307 .
  • 28. : Chrustaljow (forthcoming), . 31; Strasburger 1938, 114 . , ( ) , : Chrustaljow (forthcoming), . 71. , , . , argumentum ex silentio . . : Ward 1972, 247.
  • 29Drummond 1999, 154.
  • 30Drummond 1999, 155156.
  • 31 , , (Drummond 1999, 156, . 129).
  • 32 , - (   ): . Vanderbroek 1987, 3436.
  • 33 , , 65 . (Colombini 1991, 148149). : , , 65 .; , ( ), , 65 . , .
  • 34 . , Suet. Iul. 19. 2; Plut. Crass. 12. 3 etc. 70 . . Lyubimova 2013, 136157.
  • 35., , . 28; Strasburger 1938, 114; Marshall 1976, 66; Drummond 1999, 156 .
  • 36. : Sumner 1970, 89.
  • 37Sumner 1970, 89.
  • 38Broughton 1951, 343.
  • 39Liv. XXXV. 23. 67; 24. 6; Jashemsky 1950, 115.
  • 40Chrustaljow (forthcoming), . 33.
  • 41 77 . , . . (Vervaet 2009, 406412).
  • 42Stockton 1971, 76, n. 24.
  • 43 . Brunt 1971, 471472.
  • 44 -. , , , . . Hofmann-Löbl 1996, 144151, . 148149 Anm. 18.
  • 45Balsdon 1962, 134135. . . (Lyubimova 2015, 169172).
  • 46CIL VI 1276 = CIL I 749 = ILS 875 = ILLRP 378: Cn(aeus) Calpurnius / Cn(aei) f(ilius) Piso / quaestor pro pr(aetore) ex s(enatus) c(onsulto) / provinciam Hispaniam / citeriorem obtinuit.
  • 47Stockton 1971, 76, n. 24. , , : ex s(enatus) s(ententia), : ex s(enatus) c(onsulto).
  • 48 . , (Havas 1977, 39).
  • 49 . Lyubimova, Tariverdieva 2015, 6697.
  • 50 : , ( , ; . Broughton 1986, 105), , (Sumner 1972, 138). . , .-. , , , (Günther 1999, 321337). , , , (. Cornell, Bispham 2013, 590; Osgood 2010, 334336). , . . , , , , , (Osgood 2010, 319336). , 65 . , , .
  • 51Cf. Gell. NA. V. 6. 1115; Plin. NH. XVI. 7. , , . : Maxfield 1981, 7074.
  • 52 ,   , 205 ., , , 212 . (Liv. XXV. 5. 24). , . , , . (Münzer 1999, 240241), 141 ., , . , ( , . Broughton 1951, 479), , , .
  • 53. , , , 60- , , (Syme 1964, 9799).
  • 54Ward 1977, 140; Marshall 1976, 7071; Lyubimova 2015, 169172. . , . 44.
  • 55 . (Ward 1972, 247248, ).
  • 56 , 65 . , . Lyubimova 2017, 6690. . : Billows 2009, 85.
  • 57 , , . Ward 1972, 250 n. 28; Rawson 1991, 408415. , 64 . , . . (Taylor 1942, 18).
  • 58Ward 1972, passim; Mitchell 1979, 167169.
  • 59Drummond 1999, 155; Fontanella 2005, 159.
  • 60Chrustaljow (forthcoming), . 3843.
  • 61Scullard 1981, 97100.
  • 62Scullard 1981, 183186.
  • 63Scullard 1981, 233; Suolahti 1963, 3247, . 4142.
  • 64Sumner 1972, 7.
  • 65Broughton 1951, 163, n. 5; 1986, 170; : Bellemore 1996, 504508. . , (Fehrle 1983) , , . , . , . : Bellemore 1996. τιμητής ( , ., , Plut. Cam. 2, 14; Coriol. 1; Aemil. 38; Cato Mai. 3, 16, 19; Comp. Arist. et Cat. 2; Flam. 18, 19; Mar. 5; Pomp. 22; Gracch. 1, 23; Cic. 27), τιμητικός (ἀνήρ) (: Crass. 1; Gracch. 4).
  • 66 , , , . , , , , . , , . . Broughton 1951; Suolahti 1963, Pt. IV.
  • 67 . Lintott 1999, 120.
  • 68 iudex quaestionis, : ( 65 . ), , , . . (Greenidge 1901, 432433); . , (Lintott 1968, 121122). , . , iudex quaestionis de sicariis et veneficis , , . . . , , iudices quaestionis, , .   - ,  (Sumner 1971, 247; Taylor 1968, 2022). , iudices quaestionis , , , .
  • 69, , , (Plut. Crass. 17; [Caes]. B. Afr. 26 etc.), 65 . , 64 ., . 64 .
  • 70Colombini 1991, 147, 149.
  • 71 : , , - , , - . . . 68.
  • 72. , (Pelling 2011, 173174). , 65 . , (ibid., 153).
  • 73Suet. Iul. 9: Cicero in quadam ad Axium epistula referens Caesarem in consulatu confirmasse regnum, de quo aedilis cogitarat.
  • 74Colombini 1991, 146147.
  • 75Allen 1953, 227236.
  • 76Allen 1953, 233, 236.
  • :

  • [1] 64 . . ., (Leg. agr. II. 44) , 65 . . .  . . .
  • 1448179296 1448179765 1448180465 1517153487 1517203731 1518981655