| | |
. .

: nimium parcus in largienda civitate?*

77/1 (2017), . 6690.

.66 . , 65 . . , , 65 .1 , , , . : , , , , .


: , , , , , , , ,




Marcus Licinius Crassus and the Transpadani: nimium parcus in largienda civitate?

Olga V. Liubimova


Abstract. An attempt is made in the article to reconcile Ciceros characteristic of Crassus as too sparing in admitting men as citizens (Balb. 50) with the prevalent opinion of researchers according to which Crassus tried to grant Roman citizenship to Transpadani during his censorship in 65 BC. The author argues that the statement of Cicero resulted from Crassus .67 backing of lex Papia, also in 65 BC; the law was directed against those peregrini who were sojourning in Rome or had illegally assumed Roman citizenship, but which made a favorable exception for Transpadani. Ciceros statement should be regarded as the continuation of debates during the trial of Balbus who was tried by the jury-court created by the lex Papia and was defended by Crassus along with Cicero.


Keywords: Marcus Licinius Crassus, Quintus Lutatius Catulus, Transpadani, Cisalpine Gaul, Roman citizenship, fictitious Latin colonies, Pompeius Strabo, censorship, lex Papia




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, , , , . , . , , : , nimium parcus in largienda civitate4, . . , 5, . , .68 ( . )  , 6.

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, , .

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; , , 90 . 14. , 89 . , : , , , , , 15.

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, 19. , , . , ; , 20. , . civitates peregrinae. , , , 21.

.71 . 22; . , , , ( , ),   23, . , . ,   , , , , . : ; ; , 24. . , . , , - ( ), , 25.

, 89 . , ( , )26. (. Polyb. III. 40; Liv. Per. 20; Vell. I. 14. 8), . , , , ius civitatis per magistratum adipiscendae27, (conubium, commercium, suffragium migratio), , : , , . , . , : . Transpadani causa Transpadanorum , .72 , , 28. , 29.

, -, , , 68 . , (Suet. Iul. 8). , 66 .  65 . , , (Suet. Iul. 9. 3). , , , 59 .30, . 50- , (. . , : Cic. Fam. VIII. 1. 2; Att. V. 2. 3). , 76 ., , , 31; , . , 49 ., , , (Dio Cass. XLI. 36. 3)32.

, : 65 . , (Cic. Att. I. 1. 2); , 33. 50 . , 48 ., ([Caes.] BG. VIII. 50. 2). , .73 , , , 34, . , : . . ,   , , , 35.

, . 7877 . . , 36, 50- ; , , , , , , , 37. , , 49 ., , 22 (Caes. BC. I. 18. 5), (BC. III. 87. 4, . Cic. Fam. XVI. 12. 4; Att. VII. 7. 6). . , , 38.

, . . , 82 . 77 .39 -, 50- (Cic. QF. II. 3. 4). ? . , 68 ., , .74 40. . , - 41. , - , ,   .

, 6050- :   42. , 56 . , (Cic. QF. II. 3. 4)  , , . , . , 51 ., , 43, (Cic. Att. V. 11. 2)  , (ibid. 3): -, , , . - , , .

, , , 44. . , , 45. 68 ., ,   . 67 66 . .75 (Plut. Pomp. 25. 4; Dio Cass. XXXVI. 43. 24)46. -, : 68 .,   67 66 .  , .

65 ., . 70 .,47 66 . (Cic. Leg. Man. 51, 5960, 63, 66; Vell. II. 32. 12; Val. Max. VIII. 15. 9; Plut. Pomp. 25. 56; 30. 4; Dio Cass. XXXVI. 3036)48. , . , 65 ., , . , , - , . , , , , 65 .

, 70- 60- 49. , , , (Plut. Crass. 3; 7). 70- , , 50. , , 51, . 70 . , , (Plut. Crass. 2. 3; 12. 3)52. 60- , 53. .

.76 , , , ; , , , / : , 78 .  , (App. BC. I. 107, . Sall. Hist. III. 48. 9), 75 .  , (Cic. Verr. II. 1. 155156; Ps.-Ascon. P. 200 Or.), , 67 . , , 66 .  , (. ), 65 .  . , 67 . (Ascon. 6061, 7981 C), , (. ), , (Plut. Caes. 6. 6). , (Sall. Hist. III. 48. 9; Cic. Att. I. 20. 3; Leg. Man. 60; Sest. 101, 122; Cael. 59; Pis. 6; Brut. 222; Plut. Crass. 14. 2; App. BC. I. 105; Dio Cass. XXXVII. 46. 3)54. , , : 68 . . . , , (Suet. Iul. 8), (Cic. Off. III. 88) . (. )55. 43 . , - (Phil. XII. 10: propter multorum annorum iniurias alienati a senatu).

, , 6050- 56. , 60- : 65 . 57, 63 . (Ascon. 83 C), 61 . , (Plut. Crass. 7. 6; Caes. 11. 1). 60- , , : (Vell. II. 43. 3), , , 65 64 . , (Plut. Caes. 6. 6, . 1). 65 . (Suet. Iul. 11, . Plut. Crass. 13. 12), 63 . (Sall. Cat. 49. 2; Vell. II. 43. 3; Plut. Caes. 7. 12; Dio Cass. XXXVII. 37. 2). 63 . .77 , , (Sall. Cat. 49; Plut. Caes. 7. 5; 8. 2; Cic. 21. 4); , , 62 . (Cic. Att. II. 24. 3; Suet. Iul. 15; Dio Cass. XLIV. 12). , 65 . ,   , .

, (. , . 46, 1012) , 65 . , , . - , (Balb. 50).

, 65 ., . ., . , , locus standi 58. , . , 65 . , , . , , , . , , 59. , 65 .; 60.

. , , , ius migrandi, , , 61. , , , 62. : , , 63. , , ius migrandi, , , , .78 64. -, , 65.

. , , . ., , . , , 66. , 65 . , , , , , , . , , . , , : , 67. , , , ( ) , . , ἐς τὴν πολιτείαν αὐτοὺς ἐσάγειν, - , .

. : , - , , , . , , , 68. , . (3 C), , ; conubii, commercii, suffragii migrandi 69, ius civitatis per magistratum adipiscendae 70. .79 ( ) - ? , , , , .

, . . , . , 89 . (civitates peregrinae) , , . , , 71. , , - , . (FIRA I. 176177, N. 20). , . 4942 .,72 .   67 55 .,73 , , , , , 74, . ,   (indigeni) , (foedere), (instituto) , 75.

65 ., - , , , , . , , , (, ) , , .

, , , . -, , 56 ., , .80 , , (Balb. 22). , , ,   , 76. , , .

-, , . (3 C): Pompeius enim non novis colonis eas constituit sed veteribus incolis manentibus ius dedit Latii, ut possent habere ius quod ceterae Latinae coloniae, id est ut petendo magistratus civitatem Romanam adipiscerentur. Petendo   petendi (,   peti), 77. , : , , , , . . , 78. , , 79. -, ut possent habere ius: ius honorum, 80. , : 81. . , , : ( ), .81 -82. , . , - , ,   .

, , . , - , 81 ., , 83. 89 ., , , : 90- , , , 80-  84. , - , , , , , 85.

, , 65 . . 70 ., , 86, 15- - (Cic. Verr. I. 1. 54), (Liv. Per. 98, . Hieron. Chr. 173. 4), ,   ,   87. , (causa Transpadanorum: Cic. Off. III. 88)88, 61 .89 , 65 . , : , : ( .  . .) , - , 90. διὰ τοῦτο, , .82 , 64 . - , 91.

, , 65 ., - , -, , . , , : , 92. , : , (Balb. 50)? ,   , , .

. , 65 64 ., : () (), () (τὴν νῦν ᾿Ιταλίαν), , , 93. ( 42 41 .) , , 94.

, . : , τὴν νῦν ᾿Ιταλίαν, , , 81 . ; , lex Papia 95. τὴν νῦν ᾿Ιταλίαν ( ) : τὴν νῦν ᾿Ιταλίαν ? , , , . .83 , , , , . , , τὴν νῦν ᾿Ιταλίαν  96. , , , 97.

lex Papia . , , . , , , . , , 98. , 41 . (XLVIII. 12. 5),  , , 65 . τὴν νῦν ᾿Ιταλίαν .

, , . , III . . ., , , 6542 . 65 . , , ,  , . , ([] , : XXXVII. 9. 5) 99. , ,     , . .

, οἱ τὴν νῦν ᾿Ιταλίαν οἰκοῦντες, , . , , , , , , , , 100. , τὴν νῦν ᾿Ιταλίαν .84 , . , , , , , , .

, , : , . , , . , .

, , , , , . , 65 .,   . ., , 101. . , 63 ., , , 65 . , . . (Leg agr. I. 1; II. 44)102. , , : , . ; , , . , , , , (. . . )103.   -, . , : , , , , , , , , . , , , , , (104), .85 . , ,   , .

, , . , : 61 .  , 56 .  105. , (Cic. Balb. 17). ,   , . , : , . , , , , , , 106.

, , , 65 . . , (Cic. Att. I. 20. 3) . , : , , , , , , , , . , , (Off. III. 47).

, ? , : de facto , , . , . . , , . , , , . ?

, , . , .86 , , , . , , , , . , 107. ,   , , , , , , (Cic. Balb. 58; 43; 59; 63)108. , .

-, , , . . , , , 109. - , .

, , 68 . (Suet. Iul. 8). . . . , , ; 110. , . . , , , 111. , , , , , . , , .87 , : (BC. I. 55) , , 88 . , .

, . 67 . , ( ). ,   , , . , 112, (Ascon. 45; 65; Dio Cass. XXXVI. 42. 14). , 60- - 113.

, (Dio Cass. XXXVI. 42. 34). . , , , , , . , , , , . , , , / , . , . , , .

, , 65 . (, , - ), , , . , , . , , , ; , . 10 , .88 , , , . (50) , , , , . .




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  • * . . . . . .   .
  • 1   . ., .
  • 2Dio Cass. XXXVII. 9. 3: οἱ τιμηταὶ περὶ τῶν ὑπὲρ τὸν ᾿Ηριδανὸν οἰκούντων διενεχθέντες (τῷ μὲν γὰρ ἐς τὴν πολιτείαν αὐτοὺς ἐσάγειν ἐδόκει, τῷ δὲ οὔ) οὐδὲν οὐδὲ τῶν ἄλλων ἔπραξαν, ἀλλὰ καὶ τὴν ἀρχὴν ἀπεῖπον.    . (. ).
  • 3Cic. Balb. 50: homo cum gravitate et prudentia praestans, tum vel nimium parcus in largienda civitate.
  • 4Gelzer 1926, 310.
  • 5Tibiletti 1959, 104105, n. 35.
  • 6Voltan 1978, 15.
  • 7 . , (Goudineau 1976, 330).
  • 8 , , , , .
  • 9Reid 1890, 88. 65 . , .
  • 10, Drumann 1964, 97; Mommsen 1941, 137; Deknatel 1901, 2627; Hardy 1916, 73; Meyer 1922, 12; Holmes 1923, 237238; Garzetti 1996, 116; Adcock 1966, 33; Badian 1966, 914, n. 1; Taylor 1971, 46, 52, 122; Wiseman 1969, 65; Wiseman 1971, 40; Marshall 1976, 65; Ward 1977, 128128; Luraschi 1979, 348; 1996, 8182; Williams 2001, 121; Amela Valverde 2002, 7172; Kremer 2006, 188; Bispham 2007, 421, n. 57; Coşkun 2009a, 2; 2010, 52; Cairo 2012, 38; Häussler 2013a, 188; Taylor 2013, 125; Piegdoń 2014, 107108; Tarpin 2015, 207.
  • 11Broughton 1951, 157; Suolahti 1963, 471.
  • 12Gruen 1974, 69, . 410.
  • 13. Kron 2005, 461482 ( ); Williams 2001, 214218; Häussler 2013b ( ); Badian 1966, 906907 ( ). IIIII . . .  . Piegdoń 2010, 175179.
  • 14 . Brunt 1971, 168.
  • 15Ascon. In Pison. 3 C: Pompeius enim non novis colonis eas constituit sed veteribus incolis manentibus ius dedit Latii, ut possent habere ius quod ceterae Latinae coloniae, id est ut petendo magistratus civitatem Romanam adipiscerentur. ,  . Barbati 2013; . , , . Luraschi 1979, 157 n. 92.
  • 16Hardy 1916, 6465.
  • 17Sherwin-White 1973, 157158.
  • 18Ewins 1955, 7679; Luraschi 1979, 154156.
  • 19 ; -, II , , I . . ., , , . 75 . (Sall. Hist. II. 98).  . Laffi 1992, .
  • 20 ius Latii . Spichenko 2006, 5459.
  • 21 , . Luraschi 1979; García Fernández 2001, 23; Kremer 2006, 121133; Barbati 2012; Barbati 2013; Häussler 2013a, 114; Taylor 2013, 123.
  • 22Luraschi 1979.
  • 23  . García Fernández 2001, 1329; Bispham 2007, 173175; Barbati 2012; Barbati 2013.
  • 24Tarpin 2015, 198199.
  • 25Tarpin 2015, . 197199, 213215.
  • 26. Ascon. In Pison. 3 C ( ): Neque illud dici potest, sic eam coloniam esse deductam quemadmodum post plures aetates Cn. Pompeius Strabo, pater Cn. Pompei Magni, Transpadanas colonias deduxerit.  , , , , .
  • 27  . Barbati 2013, 101102.
  • 28 : Catull. 39. 13 (Tarpin 2015, 199, n. 11); . Cic. Att. V. 2. 3; 11. 2 ( : etsi ille magistratum non gesserat, erat tamen Transpadanus); VII. 7. 6; Fam. II. 17. 7; VIII. 1. 2; XII. 5. 2; XVI. 12. 4; Phil. X. 10; Off. III. 88 (causa Transpadanorum); Caes. BC. III. 87. 4; Sall. Cat. 49. 2.
  • 29García Fernández 2001. , , . (Tarpin 2015, 197199), . , : , , .
  • 30Strasburger 1938, 107109; Seager 1964, 341, 343, 345347; Syme 1964, 9498.
  • 31Cic. Off. III. 88: Male etiam Curio, cum causam Transpadanorum aequam esse dicebat, semper autem addebat vincat utilitas.
  • 32 (, Gelzer 1968, 222; Kremer 2006, 125126; Billows 2009, 212; Taylor 2013, 126) , ( CIL XII. 2. 600), -, , . Luraschi 1983, 290291; Barbati 2012, 36; Barbati 2013, 92.
  • 33Cic. Phil. II. 76: municipia coloniasque Galliae, a qua nos tum cum consulatus petebatur, non rogabatur, petere consulatum solebamus. . Cic. QF. II. 3. 4.
  • 34 , 90 .,   , 100 .
  • 35. Taylor 1971, 46, 58; Wiseman 1971, 139140; Brunt 1971, 168, n. 4; Luraschi 1979, 349352; Taylor 2013, 124131. . . , 89 ., , -. , 70 . , (Taylor 2013, 128). , , .
  • 36Badian 2000, 276277.
  • 37 . Hardy 1916, 72; Brunt 1971, 202, 465468.  . Cic. Fam. II. 17. 7.
  • 38Voltan 1978, 910; Wiseman 1971, 3940; Gruen 1974, 409411, 460461.
  • 39Badian 2000, 229, 268, 277, . Amela Valverde 2002, 6971.
  • 40Ward 1977, 122123.
  • 41Pina Polo 2015, 3241.
  • 42 . (Amela Valverde 2002, 74). . . , , , 70 . , : (. , . 35), (Plin. NH. III. 138: Cottianae civitates XV, quae non fuerant hostiles, item adtributae municipiis lege Pompeia), Laus Pompeia Alba Pompeia (Taylor 2013, 128). , , , , , , (Amela Valverde 2002, 65). , , .
  • 43 . -, 89 . , , . 59 . , ,   181 . (. Barbati 2013, 8586, ). , , (Suet. Iul. 28. 3; Plut. Caes. 29. 23; App. BC. II. 26).
  • 44Marshall 1976, 65.
  • 45Ewins 1955, 75, 8586.
  • 46 . Taylor 1941, 14.
  • 47  . Liubimova 2013a.
  • 48. Rodgers 2008, 297306: , 67 ., 66 .; , , 66 .
  • 49. Gruen 1974, 410: Crassus, always on the lookout for expanded clientelae
  • 50. Liubimova 2013b.
  • 51. Liubimova 2013.
  • 52Rawson 1970, 3334.
  • 53  . Ward 1972.
  • 54. Gruen 1974, 5051; Arena 2011, 303305.
  • 55. Tibiletti 1959, 103105; Taylor 2013, 119120; Wiseman 1969; Kron 2005, 446450, , , , - .
  • 56 , 63 . . , 67 ., , , (Sall. Cat. 49. 2).
  • 57Ward 1972.
  • 58Hardy 1918, 73.
  • 59Hardy 1918, 7475. (2013, 125).
  • 60 , 65 .  . Astin 1985, 181182. .  . Voltan 1978, 1416.
  • 61Luraschi 1979, 348, n. 7172.
  • 62 . Broadhead 2001, 7480; Tarpin 2014, 164.
  • 63Tarpin 2014, 174.
  • 64 . Broadhead 2001, 7480.
  • 65Luraschi 1983, 297; 1996, 81.
  • 66Tibiletti 1959, 102105.
  • 67Tibiletti 1959, 104105, n. 35; Luraschi 1983, 297.
  • 68Voltan 1978, 1516.
  • 69. Barbati 2013, 100101 .
  • 70 . , , 89 . ius civitatis per magistratum adipiscendae; , , 89 . , , , (Mouritsen 1998, 106108). ;  . Coşkun 2009a, 137140. ius civitatis per magistratum adipiscendae , , . . : Bispham 2007, 173, n. 58; Kendall 2013, 718719.
  • 71 Liv. IX. 20. 10, , 12 : Barbati 2013, 97, n. 117. 7374 . . . , 91 . . . 18 (. Spichenko 2006, 152).
  • 72Luraschi 1983, 301.
  • 73Barbati 2013, 95.
  • 74FIRA I. 176177, N. 20: in quoque municipio colonia praefectura | quoiusque IIvir(i) eiusve, qui ibei lege foedere pl(ebei)ve sc(ito) s(enatus)|ve c(onsulto) institutove iure dicundo praefuit.
  • 75Luraschi 1983; Barbati 2013, 8495.
  • 76Barbati 2013, 81, n. 87.
  • 77 : gerendo magistratus, per magistratus, petendis magistratibus, gerendis magistratibus ( . Luraschi 1983, 272277; Barbati 2013, 9799), . (1983, 275277) petendi magistratus , (petendi magistratus), magistratus adipiscerentur  , , ().
  • 78Barbati 2013, 81, n. 87: Pompeo infatti non costituì le colonie transpadane con nuovi coloni ma diede ai vecchi abitanti residenti il ius Latii, di modo che potessero avere il diritto delle altre colonie latine, ossia che i magistrati ottenessero la cittadinanza romana richiedendola. . : ut petitione magistratus civitatem Romanam adipiscerentur: daß (ihre) Beamten auf Antrag das (römische) Bürgerrecht erhielten (Coşkun 2009b, 233238). , .
  • 79Barbati 2013, 9899.
  • 80Luraschi 1983, 274275, n. 56; 321, n. 250; Coşkun 2009b, 141, n, 430; Barbati 2013, 99.
  • 81Barbati 2013, 99, 105106.
  • 82Coşkun 2009b, 233236. , .
  • 83Barbati 2013, 106.
  • 84Badian 1966, 907908; 1968, 103, n. 145, Ewins 1955, 7576.
  • 85Coşkun 2009b, 238.
  • 86Taylor 2013, 128131.
  • 87. Kron 2005, 441453, .
  • 88 65 . (Münzer 1921, 865; Meyer 1922, 12; Voltan 1978, 24), 76 . (Luraschi 1979, 346; 1983, 297, n. 149), .
  • 89  . Nicolet 1980, 122125.
  • 90Dio. Cass. XXXVII. 9. 45: καὶ διὰ τοῦτο καὶ οἱ διάδοχοι αὐτῶν ἐν τῷ ὑστέρῳ ἔτει οὐδὲν ἐποίησαν, ἐμποδισάντων σφᾶς τῶν δημάρχων πρὸς τὸν τῆς βουλῆς κατάλογον δέει τοῦ μὴ τῆς γερουσίας αὐτοὺς ἐκπεσεῖν.
  • 91 . , , . Broughton 1951, 161.
  • 92Tibiletti 1959, 105, n. 35.
  • 93Dio. Cass. XXXVII. 9. 5: κἀν τούτῳ πάντες οἱ ἐν τῇ ῾Ρώμῃ διατρίβοντες, πλὴν τῶν τὴν νῦν ᾿Ιταλίαν οἰκούντων, ἐξέπεσον Γαΐου τινὸς Παπίου δημάρχου γνώμῃ, ἐπειδὴ ἐπεπόλαζον καὶ οὐκ ἐδόκουν ἐπιτήδειοί σφισιν εἶναι συνοικεῖν.
  • 94  . Broughton 1915, 160; Tibiletti 1959, 104; Ward 1972, 245246; 1977, 130132.
  • 95Hardy 1916, 7782. Holmes 1923, 237238; Wiseman 1969, 65; Gruen 1974, 410411; Luraschi 1979, 87, 349 n. 72 ( ); 1983, 297, n. 149; Cairo 2012, 38, n. 16; Barbati 2013, 93. . , , , unless they had homes in Italy south of the Alps (Balsdon 1979, 100101).
  • 96Hardy 1916, 79.
  • 97, , , , τὴν νῦν ᾿Ιταλίαν  , 65 . (Coşkun 2009a, 123, n. 384). , .
  • 98Voltan 1978, 1819.
  • 99Hardy 1916, 79: somewhat foolish conjecture.
  • 100Hardy 1916, 81.
  • 101Tibiletti 1959, 104, n. 34; Ward 1972, 245246; 1977, 130132; Voltan 1978, 1819.
  • 102. . . , : Sumner 1966, 578582; Ward 1972, 251258.
  • 103Cic. Leg. agr. I. 13: Deinde etiam in reliquum tempus diligentissime sancit ut, quod quisque imperator habeat pecuniae, protinus ad xviros deferat. Hic tamen excipit Pompeium simillime, ut mihi videtur, atque ut illa lege qua peregrini Roma eiciuntur Glaucippus excipitur. Non enim hac exceptione unus adficitur beneficio, sed unus privatur iniuria. , , ,  . Ward 1972, 257.
  • 104, , , , .
  • 105. Coşkun 2010, 5459, .
  • 106. , lex Tullia de ambitu (Cic. Mur. 35; 6768), , , (Sull. 310; 14; 20; 48; 8387). .
  • 107Ward 1972, 246; Voltan 1978, 20.
  • 108, 10 , , , .
  • 109. , . 35.
  • 110Millar 2002, 151152, 158161.
  • 111Korolenkov 2015, 4142.
  • 112 (XXXVI. 42. 3).
  • 113  . Liubimova 2015, 167169 . 94, , , : Kron 2005, 446447; Courrier 2014, 479480.
  • 1291164233 1405475021 1409175206 1500237535 1501077859 1502581961

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