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. 2014. 3. C. 7599.

.75 , . . , , ( ) . , privatus cum imperio , . . . , 8271 . . .

. , , , , , , , , , privatus cum imperio.




4- 2013 . . .   privatus cum imperio2. , . , 67 .3 , . , . . , privatus cum imperio, , . . . . 80-  60- , 50- , , . , , . ; . . , , .

, , , , . . , , . .76 ; , , , 4,   , : 5. , . , , . . , : , .

. 8586 . . , 327 ., : , . , . , , . . . , : (magistratus? potestas? imperium domi? iuris dictio? provincia?)? , - , ,  (VIII. 26. 7) prorogatio imperii? , ?6 , , : , , (. 86), (imperii prorogatio), (. 87); . 19 . 89 , - ,   , .

, . 86 . . : , , , , , . , . privatus cum imperio. () privati cum imperio . . . , , ? (. . ) ?

, . 88 . . : , , , . , , , privati cum imperio. , , .77 , , ,   ?

, : (. . privatus), . () pro consule pro praetore , (. 86). , , . , privatus magistratus  , . . . , ? , , , , , , , , , .

. 8889 . . : , , () abrogatio imperii . prorogatio imperii , abrogatio imperii . , , . -, . . , , . ? , ,  ? , ?

. 89 . . : auspicia publica. , auspicia publica . . : 67 . , , ,  , 6762 . privatus? . , , privatus , ,   ; , .

. 90 : , . dux  duco, ere  , . , (dux.  . .) , . . 89, , . . , auspicia publica. , , , dux. , dux  . ?7

, . . . , . 85 : privati .78 cum imperio . -, , (prorogatio) (pro consule pro praetore), . -, , , , , . , -, privati cum imperio , , sine magistratu , . .  (1876 .) . 8. .  . 642 , privati cum imperio . 619620, . 642 (1887 .), . . , , , , 9. privati cum imperio , , , , , . . , : (. . ) pro consule pro praetore, 1) , 2) ; 3) (Richardson 1991, 3).

. 86 . 5. . . , , . , (extra ordinem)   , , , . , . 10 , privatus cum imperio 88 .11 , . 535 , privati imperia extra ordinem12.

.79 . 91, , 83 . , , , . . : ,   . . , , ( 82 ., , , . App. BC. I. 89), , 13.

. 87 . .14 , 30- . .  ( . 73, 72) 30 , . : ( . . . 87), , (. 86), ?

, . . (. 90): (imperium militiae). , . , , , , ; , , .

, . . , . . . , , , , , .

. 88 4947 ., , . : 10 49 .   , , , ,   , , . : , . , , ,   , , ,   (Cic. Att. VIII. 11a, 11b, 11c, 12a, 12b, 12c, 12d).

. 89 . . 131 . , auspicia publica. , , . (Phil. XI. 18) , .80 (rogatus est populus, quem id bellum gerere placeret), , , (duas tamen tribus solas tulit). , ( , , ). , , , , 15.

. . : 19- 43 . , (RGDA I. 1).   : . . , , . , , , - (. . . ). , . 108 .

. 90 (. . 105) . . , (BC. I. 6. 5)16. , , , , : privati, praetores, , , , 17. , , , -, (neque exspectant, quod superioribus annis acciderat, ut de eorum imperio ad populum feratur)18, , -, (lictoresque habent in urbe et Capitolio privati contra omnia vetustatis exempla), . . , . , , , . ( ) 67 66 . ( , ,  , 210 . 88 .). , .81 , , , .

. 92, , . . 19 : , ? 81 . () . , . . -, 82, 81 .  , ,   81 .20 -, . , 82 .,   39 ( ), , 21. , 81 . , . . , (BC. I. 95) (Moralia 203C) , . . , (. 92). , 22, : στρατηγός , . , , . . , (App. BC. I. 90  82 . ; Plut. Pomp. 31. 2  66 . ); , . στρατηγός . . , , . . 23.

.82 79- , (. 92). , , . . . : . , 12 81 .24, , : 81 . , -, 25. . , , , , ,   , 80, 79 ., 26.

, , , , . . , . , , . , , , . , . , (. 93). , . , - , . : 8280 , summum imperium. , , 27 (. 93). , , 50, , ager Romanus, 28. , , , . , . 108, : , . , ? : .83 , . , , : , , .

(. 94)29, . . ( ; ; ), , . , (Plut. Pomp. 17. 3) 70 ., (ibid. 22. 6)? , ? , . 89, . 94, , , ? , - ? , : 78 . , 77 . (. Sall. Hist. I. 77. 22; Plut. Pomp. 16. 3, , , ). , , 67 ., . . .

, . 95, . . . : 218 . , 197 . , (Liv. XXXII. 27. 6; 28. 11; . App. Iber. 39). [ 63: , 218211 , , . . Jashemski 1950, 122128.] , ( ) . 79 . , . , . 218 . .   , , . , ? , , , . , 30, , . , ? . , , , .84 , , , 31.

. 9596 . . , 77 . praetor pro consule . , , , . , . , praetor pro consule 32. , , , , 33; , , , , . : , , .

, . . - : , (.  . ) . , cum imperio proconsulare, pro consule, pro consulibus, , . (Cic. Leg. Man. 62; Phil. XI. 18,  . ). . . , (Phil. XI. 18), : Pro consulibus , C 77 ., , (. 96). . -, 80 ., . -, , 79 .34, , , (Ps.-Ascon. 145 Or.). -, ,   , - .

. . . 96 : , . : , (Dio Cass. XXXVI. 24. 13); , , (Dio Cass. XXXVI. 37. 1).

, . 97, . . (61), .85 8371 ., : ? . , , , , , 35. (II. 30. 2), (Pomp. 22. 46) , 70 ., , , , , , .

. 99 XI (1718), , (Sertorianum bellum a senatu privato datum est) : , . , , , ( ) , , 242 . ; , , ( , ) : . , - , , ( ) . , , . . , .

. 99100 . . , , , . : 70 . , ; (Verr. II. 5. 34) : ( ) , , (sic) . . -, , , , . , , (. . . ) , , , , , . -, , 7371 .; 74 .   , (103158). , , , .

.86 . . : B , -, , , , , . , , 67 . , , . , : , , , , , 36.

. . 50- , . . . , . , , , : , , , (. 101). : ? . , (Cic. Fam. I. 9. 25)  : , (. 85) , , (. 90).   , . , , . . , , , . (. 103) , , , . , .   , , , ?   ? . , .87 . . 61 ., , , , .

, , , . . . , (. 102), , , . Q. fr. III. 4. 6. , , , : . Att. IV. 18. 4 , , , , . , . . ; , ( ); ,   ? , ? . . , , . , ? , .

: , ? , , , lex curiata . , lex curiata, , lex curiata . , 54 . , lex curiata (. 103). , , . 101 , - . lex curiata ?

, , , , . 211 . (. 103) . . : , , , . , , (Liv. XXVI. 21. 5) (. 100, . 94). : , . (Liv. XXVI. 21. 13; 17). , 210 . , , .88 (Liv. XXVI. 22. 13); , ( , , ; , ). , , 37, , .

. . , , : , 11 , (Fam. III. 2. 1; Att. VII. 7. 4). . , , , , lex curiata (. 103). . ,   ; , , . , , ? , . , 51 ., . , , (. . . )38; , 39. , , . .   , . , (.  . .) (. 103). , , , , , , , . , , 40, , . . , , . : , , , . (. 86) , , , , , ( .  . .). , , .89 , .

. . . , : , , , (Plut. Pomp. 54; Dio Cass. XL. 50. 4) (. 104). , , : - , ; , , ,   41.

. . , , , - , privati cum imperio (. 104). , , . , , . , privati cum imperio , (. 104). , , . , : , 42. , , : , , , , .

, , , . .   . , , , 8271 . . , privatus cum imperio 43,   , , 66 ., 44. - , (De vir. ill. 77. 4; . .  . ): , , , (. 96). , . 94 - , .90 privatus (De vir. ill. 77. 3), , -, . : , . , 137 . (59. 1), . , 111 . (72. 5), . , 7776 . (74. 3), (75. 4), , - , (73. 9); propraetor, pro praetore pro consule , proconsul  , , (82. 5), , , , 45. , - , (per. 91), . . eques Romanus cum imperio proconsulare. , - , , , .

, . . , , , . , (6163) privatus 8281, 7771 . ( ), , privatus cum imperio, (. 97). , , - , . 66 . , 11 , , ? , , , , . , , , ; .

,   privatus cum imperio ? . . , 67 . , . , ; privatus cum imperio . , .

, . ,   ,  , ( , .91 ), 46. 70- , , , , , , , . , , , , , , .

, . . : privatus cum imperio. - ,   , . , , . . , . : , 210 . (. 97). , , 66 . 8271 ., 210206 .?

. . , . . 95 , , pro consule, pro consulibus, . . (Cic. Leg. Man. 62; Phil. XI. 18). , , , ,   . ; , 77 . , 66 . ( ), , 77 . .

, , XI , 43 . (18). . . , , , 11- (. 98). , XI , : (hostis est iudicatus Dolabella, 16), . .92 . ( ), (1620, . 25), , (2931). , , , . , , , 66 ., , . . , , privatus cum imperio, , , ,   , , . 66 . , . . , , 11- , 43 ., , , - , , . , 77 . privatus, , , , . , 7771 ., , 23 , , , privatus, . . . , , , XI , , , , 77 . (. 99). ,   XI   (. 97, 99). , ,   ,   .

. . , pivatus cum imperio ,   , rector rei publicae, (. 105106). : rector rei publicae . , , privati cum imperio . , , , III  I . ( privati cum imperio) , . , privati cum imperio, , . 202 . . (Liv. XXX. 39. 45), 200 .47, privati : . .93 192 . 48; . 110109 . 49. . , privati cum imperio - , .

. . . : (Pomp. 7), , , . () . , 83 . , privatus cum imperio (. 107). , , . 89 , : 83 . 23- , (. . 91, ). , . . : , , (. 107, . 132). (XXXVIII. 16) , , , , (BC. I. 95), , , . 50.

, . , - , , , . ? , ? , , ? .

: , (-, .  . .),   , 89 ., (. 107). : ? , - / .94 (.  . .) (. 107)? , ? , ?51 ; , .

. . . ,   . , , 23 (Pomp. 6), 24 . 52. , (Liv. XXVI. 18. 7), 24 ; (X. 6. 10) , 27- . . . : (X. 3. 4) , ( 218 .) 17- : 234 ; 210 ., , 24 . 17- , ,  , , . , : , (. 107).   . : 24 , ? , , . , . . , , ? , ,   , .

: , . , , . 83 . 7775 , (. 107108). : ? . : . ( ) , -, (Liv. XXV. 34. 8; 36. 12; 37. 4; XXVI. 17. 3), , , . . , , (Strat. I. 5. 12; IV. 5. 8), , . . , - .95 : , ( ) , -, ? , ( ) - ,   ? .

, . . , . : , 54 ., (Cic. Att. XI. 14. 1). , (. 108). : ? 53. , . . , (Flac. 14). , -,   , - , .

: , ( ) ? . . : (. 108). . . . (I. 13), : , privatus cum imperio, . SC ultimum. , , . privatus cum imperio, , . , , , privatus cum imperio (. 108109).

.96 , , . , , , , . , , privatus cum imperio, privatus. , . , , , , . : . . : privatus cum imperio, . . ? , . . , : , . 89, , , , . , , 43 . , 54. ? privatus cum imperio, , 67 . ( . . , ), .

, , , 8271 ., . , . . 8591 ; , ,   55,  , - , . : , ,  ? ( ) ?

, , , . . , , . . 90 . . dux, (IV. 20) , .97 (dux.  . .) , 56. . , . , , , ; . , spolia opima, 20- 57. . . , .

, . , : , , , . , (217 .) (177 .). , imperium iustus, (. 102). . . (Liv. XXI. 63. 111; XXII. 1. 67; XLI. 10. 113) : , (. 85, . 4; 90). 217 177 ., 54 ., : , , ? ?58

, , , , . , , , :   (Plut. Mar. 28. 2; Pomp. 10. 2; Cic. Mil. 11). - , . , . , (Cic. Att. IX. 15. 2; . Leg. Agr. III. 5; App. BC. I. 9899). : .98 , 59, 60 61, 62 , , 27- 63. , , . , . , : .

, , ; , , , , . , . , 8271 . privatus cum imperio, , , , , . , ,  , , lex curiata de imperio  , 64, , , .

, , . . , , (. 89), ( , ). , (. 104), privati cum imperio , (. 105), , (. 106). 67 . ,   , ( , . . (. 106)),  65 , 8271 . privatus cum imperio. , . . ; , . , , .



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Pompeys imperium Revisited

O. V Lyubimova

The author of the article contests the hypothesis advanced by A. V. Koptev that in the late 80s and in 70s BC Pompey was not a privatus cum imperio, but had twice obtained praetorship and thereby held military commands. It is argued in the article that the theoretical model of imperium and its relationship with auspicia and lex curiata developed by A. V. Koptev contains inherent logical contradictions, and the evidence on which it is based is characterized elsewhere as unreliable by A. V. Koptev himself. Besides, his analysis of the political events of the last decades of the Republic contains a number of factual errors substantially undermining his argumentation. Finally, A. V. Koptev has not succeeded in refuting convincingly the bulk of ancient evidence according to which Pompey had been privatus cum imperio before his first consulship. The author of the article considers improbable A. V. Koptevs view that all this evidence does not reflect the reality, but only political propaganda.

Keywords: Pompey, Cicero, Livy, imperium, auspices, magistrate, promagistrate, praetor, legate, privatus cum imperio.


  • 1 . . . . .
  • 2 2013, 85111.
  • 3   .
  • 4 2012, 3963.
  • 5Humm 2013, 6084.
  • 6, : , (, , ), , . Liv. VIII. 23. 12: , (. . . ).
  • 7 , (IV. 20) , , . . ; . .
  • 8Mommsen 1876, 642; Richardson 1991, 3.
  • 9Mommsen 1887, 642: Genau genommen ist dies nichts als die Ertheilung eines ausserordentlichen Commandos; der Beschluss zu Gunsten des Philo und derjenige, der dem Privaten P. Scipio im J. 543 proconsularisches Commando in Spanien übertrug, ruhen rechtlich auf demselben Fundament. Indess die für den politischen Sinn der Römer bezeichnende Scheu vor allen Ausnahmestellungen hat begreiflicher Weise sich viel lebhafter aufgelehnt gegen die Uebertragung einer magistratischen Stellung auf einen Privaten als solchen als gegen das Verbleiben eines fungirenden Magistrats in dieser seiner Stellung über die normale Zeit hinaus.
  • 10Gruen 1974, 538.
  • 11Gruen 1974, 537.
  • 12Gruen 1974, 535: Wherein lay the dangerous innovations of the late Republican imperia extra ordinem? Several aspects have been deemed troublesome: the appointment of privati, instead of duly elected magistrates, to important military tasks; the protracted tenure and broad powers accorded to appointees; the increased involvement of the popular assemblies in provincial decisions previously disposed of by the senate. .
  • 13Leach 1978, 25: In fact the twenty-two-year-old Pompey was the general of a private army, a position as illegal as that of Sulla, who had been declared a public enemy several years earlier. There may well have been a certain amount of irony in Sullas reply.
  • 14Carney 1959, 72.
  • 15Astin 1967, 234.
  • 16Provinciae privatis decernuntur duae consulares, reliquae praetoriae. Scipioni obvenit Syria, L. Domitio Gallia; Philippus et Cotta privato consilio praetereuntur, neque eorum sortes deiciuntur. In reliquas provincias praetores mittuntur. Neque exspectant, quod superioribus annis acciderat, ut de eorum imperio ad populum feratur paludatique votis nuncupatis exeant. Consules, quod ante id tempus accidit nunquam, ex urbe proficiscuntur, lictoresque habent in urbe et Capitolio privati contra omnia vetustatis exempla.
  • 17Broughton 1952, 257264.
  • 18Cuff 1958, 466467; Marshall 1972, 894, nt. 27. , , 52 ., ,   49 .
  • 19 : . . , . , ; , (Plut. Pomp. 4, . Plut. Pomp. 9; Sull. 33; Alexander 1990, 6263; Seager 2002, 25).
  • 20Broughton 1952, 73, nt. 12; Brennan 2000, 389; 785, nt. 2.
  • 21Astin 19571958, 64; Sumner 1973, 610; Brennan 2000, 392.
  • 22οἱ μὲν τοῦ Σύλλα στρατηγοὶ τὰς πόλεις ἐπιόντες τὰ ὕποπτα ἐφρούρουν, καὶ Πομπήιος ἔς τε Λιβύην ἐπὶ Κάρβωνα καὶ ἐς Σικελίαν ἐπὶ τοὺς ἐκεῖ Κάρβωνος φίλους ἐστέλλετο.
  • 23Brennan 2000, 11: Consider, for instance, the terms στρατηγός, στρατηγία, and the like in the sources relevant to the later Republic. For Romans, we find the word denoting variously praetor (in the city or in the field), pro praetor (both by prorogation and through a special grant of imperium), and consul. It can also mean pro consule, a category that in turn can be subdivided into prorogued consuls, praetors (or ex-praetors) with enhanced imperium, and privati with special powers. A quaestor or a legatus can be called στρατηγός in our Greek sources. So can individuals holding an illegal command. Naturally, often it is just a generic term for military commander. And sometimes στρατηγοί in the plural is used of a mixed group of individuals of various status.
  • 24Badian 1955, 107118; 1961, 254256; Brennan 2000, 544; Seager 2002, 29; Mader 2006, 397.
  • 25Brennan 2000, 389.
  • 26Smith 1960, 1013.
  • 27 ; , 80 . . . Santangelo 2007, 10, .
  • 28, , . . (Liv. XXVII. 5. 15; 29. 5), , , , . , , (XXXVI. 34. 2, 67 .); , ,  . , 249 . (Liv. Per. 19).
  • 29 , , A. B. , . , (Plut. Pomp. 16;  . Broughton 1952, 90). (BC. I. 107), , , : , .
  • 30Jashemski 1950, 4047.
  • 31Jashemski 1950, 122126, . 101, nt. 1.
  • 32Brennan 2000, 394.
  • 33Balsdon 1939, 5773,  . 59.
  • 34Broughton 1952, 84.
  • 35 120- , , , , . . : Cic. Rep. IV 2; Nicolet 1966, 103106.
  • 36 , , : 56 . , (Broughton 1952, 203204; 211), , . (Cic. Fam. I. 9. 7). . . . , : Shackleton Bailey 2004b, 392. , (. Cic. Q. Fr. III. 4. 2).
  • 37. Liv. XLV. 35. 4; Beard 2007, 202.
  • 38Cic. Fam. XV. 9. 2: ne quid accedat temporis ad id, quod tu mihi et senatus consulto et lege finisti. . Cic. Fam. II. 7. 4; XV. 14. 5.
  • 39  . : Stevens 1938, 180181; Cuff 1958, 447; 455456; Shackleton Bailey 2004a, 304305.
  • 40, . , , , , : Marshall 1972, 892895.
  • 41προκατέλαβον τὴν τοῦ πλήθους ὁρμήν, τῷ Πομπηίῳ τὴν ὑπατείαν, ὥστε μὴ δικτάτορα αὐτὸν λεχθῆναι, καὶ μόνῳ γε, ἵνα μὴ ὁ Καῖσαρ αὐτῷ συνάρξῃ, δόντες.
  • 42 , : 50 ., , 51 . (Cic. Att. V. 15. 1)
  • 43Liv. Per. 89, 91, 97; Vell. II. 30. 2; Val. Max. VIII. 15. 8; Plut. Pomp. 14. 1, 6; 17. 4; 22. 46; App. BC. I. 121; Gran. Lic. XXXVI. 2 C; De vir. ill. 77. 3.
  • 44Cic. Leg. Man. 6163, . Phil. XI. 18.
  • 45 . 46 .: . Broughton 1952, 301.
  • 46Cic. Leg. Man. 51: ? , , , , . . Cic. Leg. Man. 59, , : , , , - ? ( .  . .) (. . . ).
  • 47Liv. XXXI. 50. 1011; Jashemski 1950, 122.
  • 48Jashemski 1950, 115.
  • 49Jashemski 1950, 132.
  • 50 : 2007, 118122; . . , - .
  • 51 , -, ; , . . .
  • 52 : 29 106 . (Vell. II. 53. 4; Plin. NH. XXXVII. 5. 13), 83 . 82 .  , (Plut. Pomp. 8. 2, . 7. 3; Crass. 6. 5). 24 .
  • 53 , . - (Hist. II. 31), (II. 5. 31 ) (58) , . , , . , . . Flacc. 14, -: Cn. Pompeium, quod L. Flacco esset vehementer inimicus, contendisse a Laelio, paterno amico ac pernecessario, ut hunc hoc iudicio arcesseret, . . : , , , , , . , , paternus amicus   , , .
  • 54 RGDA, ., : Cic. Phil. V. 4546; XI. 20; XI. 6; XIV. 28; ad Brut. I. 15. 7; ILS. 112.
  • 55 , Cic. Leg. agr. II. 2627; Phil. XI. 1718; Liv. IV. 20. 6; VIII. 23. 1112; 26. 7; XXI. 63. 111; XXII. 1. 67; XLI. 10. 113.
  • 56  . .
  • 57. Rich 1996 .
  • 58 , (ap. Non. p. 131 L) (ap. Gell. XIII. 15. 4) , , . . (. 89; 97), , . , : (Dahlmann 1935, 11751178), , (Cic. Att. IV. 15. 7; 17. 2; Q. Fr. II. 14. 4; III. 1. 16).
  • 59 86 .: Liv. Per. 80; De vir. ill. 69. 2.
  • 60 8684 ., 8584 82 .
  • 61 84 . (Vell. II. 24. 5; App. BC. I. 78).
  • 62 86 .
  • 63- 82 . (Vell. II. 26. 1; App. BC. I. 87).
  • 64., , Cuff 1958, 464468; 2012, 4142, 54.
  • 65 , , 88 . ? . . .
  • 1418914887 1418915353 1418916582 1440871627 1442164029 1442488895

    , .