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1.

.28 .

, . , , . , . , . .1. , , . . , .

  optimates populares. ,   I . . .  .

.29

 1.

I . . . . : . XIX . I . . .   , ,   . . 2. . . 3. . , . , . , . , . . - .4. 5.

20- . XX . . , . , - 6. (. , . . .), , , 7. . . . , ; 8.

.30 30- . XX . . , partes factiones, 9. , . : , , , , homines novi,  , . , 10.

80- . XX . . . . , , (amicitia) 11.

, , , . . , . , . . , ( partes). , factiones. , , . , 12.

.31 , I . . . .  , , 13. , , .

: 1) , ; 2) ; 3) .

. , , factio partes14. factio 15,   factio partes16.


Factio17. , factio partes. , , factio , partes  18. , factiones  , 19. , factiones  , 20.

.32 . . , , 21. factio : Gabinium tres adhuc factiones postulant: L. Lentulus, flaminis filius, Ti. Nero cum bonis subscriptoribus; C. Memmius tribunus pl. cum L. Capitone ( factiones: . , , , . , . ) (Cic., Q. fr., III, 1, V. 15). . . , boni, commilitiones augustus. ( , ) , , ; ,   . , , .

, factio . . 22. , , , (., .: Caes., Bell. Gall., I, 31; Bell. Civ. III, 35; Cic., Fam., VIII, 15, 2; Nep., Pel., I, 2; Phoc., III, 1; Dion, VI, 3). factio. factio (Tac., Hist., I, 13)23. , , . factiones. Factio (Sall., Bell. Iug., 41; Cic., De re pub., I, 45; Caes., Bell. Civ., I, 22; Ps.-Caes. Bell. Gall., VIII, 50). , .33 , . , . , , , . , . , . . , . . , . . , . . .24. Factio (ORF2, 48, Fr., 55; Sall., Bell. Iug., 31; Caes., Bell. Gall., VI, 22; Bell. Civ., I, 22; RGDA, 1)25.

. . , . factio , , (Cic. Att., VII, 9, 4)26. ( , , )27, factio. Populares , . Factio , , , . Sed haec inter bonos amicitia, inter malos factio est (   ,   ) (Sall., Bell. Iug., 31, . . . ). , ,  pauci (). , factio , - 28.

. , . factio, , coitio ( ),  , ; collegium sodalitas ( ); res, causa (, )29. , coniuratio (, ), conspiratio ( ), manus (, , ), castra (. .34 ), , . , 30.

, : , , . , factio, 31. , , , . . , . , , , . . , - consilium, .


Partes32. partes . , factio partes, , factio , partes  . . 33.

.35 , , , partes , , 34. , , , , (Caes., Bell. Gall., VII, 32; Tac., Ann., XVI, 7)35. , , , factio, partes (Lucan., I, 274, 280, 534, 692, II, 59, 229, 391, 513, IV, 403, V, 14 .). partes 36.

partes , 37. 80- . I . . . partes (partes Sullanae Marianae), 40- .  (partes Caesaris, Iulianae, Pompeianae, Pompeiani), 40- 30- .  partes (partes Caesaris Antonii, Antoniniani), (Brutianis Cassianisque partes Cassianae partes)38. partes , 39. , partes. , , partes . : Partium Caesaris, quo modo etiam nunc partes appellantur (partes , partes) (Cic., Brut., II, 4, 5). partes : Nusquam erat Pompeius corpore, adhuc ubique vivebat nomine. Quippe ingens partium eius favor bellum excitaverat Africum ( , . partes ) (Vell. Pat., II, 54).

partes, , .36 . partes , partes. : (Ita omnia in duas partis abstracta sunt) (Sall., Bell. Iug., 41). . [] , (se divisum esse populum Romanum in partes duas)   . . (Caes., Bell. Civ., I, 35; c.: Cic., Att., VII, 3, 5; Fam., X, 31, 2; De re pub., I, 19, 31; Flor., II, 5; Plut., Brut., 4; Dio Cass., XLI, 39). . , , , : omnes civitates [ ] in partes divisae sunt duas (Caes., Bell. Gall., VI, 11; c.: I, 31).

partes 4930 . . . . . . , partes : , , , 40. , . : 1) ( partes)  41; 2) , (Hor., Od., II, 7; Vell. Pat., II, 63); 3) , , , (., .: App., B. C., IV, 89101). (Cic., Fam., X, 30, 3; 34, 1; XI, 20, 3; Caes., Bell. Civ., I, 28, 47, 70, 71, 74, 87; III, 9, 42, 44, 48, 51, 63, 6567, 9395; Ps.-Caes., Bell. Alex., 45; Bell. Afr., 13, 14, 19, 23, 24, 66), (Cic., Fam., VIII, 17, 2; Caes., Bell. Civ., II, 18; Ps.-Caes., Bell. Afr., 87, 88) , , . , partes ( , ), , partes , , , 42.

.37 . . . , partes familiares amici. , partes. , , 43. partes . : , partes . . (res publica libera), , 49 . . . ( , ), 44.

. . . . . , partes , , : , , , (Cic., Fam., XI, 28, 2, . . . ). , . . , , . .45 (.: Cic., Fam., XI, 27, 5).   lepos (), humanitas (), litterae (). 46. 47, amicitia48.

, . . . , , , officia amicitiae ( ) res publica ( partes). , , officia , .38 res publica: , (Cic., Fam., XI, 27, 8, . . . . .: Fam., X, 5, 1; De amicit., 42). , , . , . , [. ] res publica [. ] ; , (Cic., Att., VII, 12, 5, . . . .: Att., VII, 13, 1). [. ]  , (sodalis et familiarissimus) , (coniunctissimus sanguine) , , , (omnibus meis) (Cic., Fam., XII, 14, 7, . . . . .: Cic., Fam., I, 9, 2 ( ); V, 1; V, 2, 6 ( ); VIII, 14, 1; X, 33, 2 ( ); XIV, 14, 2; XVI, 12, 5 (. ); Att., VI, 3, 4 (. - . ); VII, 13, 1 (. , ); VII, 17, 1 (, Att., VII, 7, 7); Plut., Brut., 4 (. )).

partes (Cic., Att., VII, 20, 2; VIII, 3, 2; Fam., IX, 9, 2; Q. fr., III, 6, 1). - , , . (Cic., Fam., VIII, 17, 1 (. ); IX, 25, 3 (. ); X, 31, 2 (   ., , : Vell. Pat., II, 63); XI, 22, 1 (. -); Att., IX, 19, 2). . (, . , . , . , . - .)49 , 50.

, partes , , -, amici, familiares, . , partes .

- .39 51. . . . , . . , , - , . , , , (   . .). , - , , , 52.

, populares, optimates 53. , , .

. , 103 100 . . ., . . , 44 . . . , , . , , - , , , , , (Flor., III, 16, . . . , . . ; .: Cic., Pro Sest., 101; Val. Max., III, 8, 6). [. ] , , , , (Suet., Div. Iul., 1112, . . . ; .: Ps.-Caes., Bell. Afr., 32). ; ,   []   (Cic., Epist. Fr., IV, 20, . . . ).

vindicare plebem in libertatem ( ), pauci sceleri ( ) factio paucorum ( ) (Sall., Iug., .40 42). (Sall., Cat., 20). . : Populum Romanum factione paucorum oppressum in libertatem vindicaret (Caes., Bell. Civ., I, 22). : Rem publicam a dominatione factionis oppressam in libertatem vindicavi (RGDA, 1).

, 54. optimates, populares , res publica, libertas, pax, . , , . , optimates vindicare plebem in libertatem, pauci sceleri, factio paucorum. , , (, optimates, populares, boni, improbi), . optimus ( optimatus) (Sall., Iug., 22, 92, 102): , optimi quoqui ( ); optimi ; optimus . : ,   ( partes) (Caes., Bell. Civ., I, 12, 39). , optimus (ORF2, 48, Fr., 17). populares . (popularis) ,   (Sall., Iug., 7, 70). boni .

.41 populares, , . . - II  . I . . . pauci: 55. . , populares, 56, . (Caes., Bell. Civ., III, 2021), 47 . . . (Ps.-Caes., Bell. Alex., 65).

, . partes . - 57  . . (Liv., Per., 84; Eutrop., V, 8, 9; VI, 1; Oros., V, 20, 5), (Cic., Att., I, 14, 5; Sall., Cat., 14), . (Cic., Fam., VIII, 6, 5; 17, 2; Vell. Pat., II, 55, 63; Liv., Per., 111, 116; Suet., Div. Iul., 75), . (Cic., Q. fr., I, 4, 3; In Vat., XVII, 40), . (Cic., Att., XIV, 6; Brut., II, 4, 5; Fam., X, 33, 1; Phil., V, 12, 32; XI, 4, 9; XIII, 18, 38; 39, 20; Vell. Pat., II, 86), (Suet., Div Aug., 9, 17; Tib., 6) partes. (. : Cic., Ac., II, 13; : Cic., In Cat., IV, 10; . : Cic., Att., XVI, 16a, 5; In Cat., IV, 9; . : Cic., De gar. resp., 4244; De domo suo, 77, 80; De leg., III, 26; Pro Sest., 116; . : Cic., Phil., I, 37; 58: RGDA, 1). . (Nep., Att., 2; Suet., Div. Iul., 1; Vell. Pat., II, 26), . (Liv., Per., 109110, 113; Vell. Pat., II, 53, 63, 65; Suet., Div. Iul., 35), (Cic., Att., IV, 3, 4; Pro Milone, XVIII, 47), . . (Vell. Pat., II, 74; Tac., Ann., XVI, 7), , (. : Cic., Att., XI, 21, 3; Pro Rosc. Am., 16, 21, 135, 138, 141, 142; . 59: Caes., Bell. Civ., I, 13; Cic., Att., VII, 3, 2, 5; VIII, 3, 23; 12b, 1; 12c, 3; 12d, 1; IX, 6, 4; Flor., II, 19; : Cic., Att., V, 8, 2; Fam., II, 6, 1; VIII, 3, 2; Pro Milone, XXIII, 62; . . : Cic., .42 Att., II, 24, 3; Fam., XV, 18, 1). , partes 60.

, , . , . , , , , , . (partes), , , , . ( partes)   , .


 2. Optimates/boni populares

optimates populares.

optimates populares . , .  , optimates  , , ,   , 61. .  , , 62. , .

, , , . . . . , , .

.43 optimates. , . . optimates. ,   , (etiam libertini); , , , , ; , multitudo (. , ) plebecula (. , ) (Cic., Pro Sest., 96 sqq., . . . ). optimates. , , , , , optimates63.

. , . , . . , . . , . . , 64. . . , , , optimates 65.

. . , , populares optimates, , , 66. , optimates , optimates ( . , . , . , . .). , (homo novus), , : , [. ], , , .44 (Cic., Att., IV, 18, 2, . . . ; .: Att., IV, 2, 5; 5, 2; Fam., I, 9, 10; XIV, 1, 1). , optimates  (Cic., Att., I, 5, 1; VIII, 16, 12; IX, 1, 23)67. , , : [. , 54 .] , , - , ? , , , (Cic., Fam., III, 7, 5, . . . ; .: De re pub., I, 5152). optimates , , .

, optimates (.: Cic., De leg., II, 30; III, 10, 33, 38; Liv., III, 39; VI, 39), , (.: Cic., De re pub., I, 50). . optimates , 68.

, , , (. , .), , optimates : ( ) 69.

. . , optimates , , (die sein Wesen am reinsten repräsentieren)70. . . . , , ,   , , 71.

.45 optimates. . , . , . , . , . , . . , . . . , optimates  , ordo72. . populares , . . 73.

. , . . . . , optimates  , nobilitas, , , , 74. . , . , .

. . . , optimates 63 . . . , , 75. . . . . . , optimates  , : , . 6050- . . ., , , (. . ), 76. , optimates .

.46 , . . , . , . . , . , . , . , . . , . , . . 77. , , optimates , . 78. , mos maiorum.

, optimates , . , , . (Cic., Fam., I, 9, 2; .: Att., V, 17, 5; VI, 8, 5; VII, 2, 67; Fam., I, 5, 34; 5a, 2; 7, 2, 4, 78; Q. fr., II, 3, 2; 4a, 3). , . ( 61 . . .) (Cic., Att., IV, 18, 4). , (Cic., Att., V, 16, 2; .: Att., V, 17, 6; Fam., III, 6 .)79. , , ! . . , (Cic., Fam., III, 11, 4). , . , 43 . . . : , [], ; , (Cic., Fam., XII, 25, 5, . . . ). , , .

.47 , , optimates - 80, , .

optimates . boni ().

. . , , , boni  , , 81. . , , boni.

. . , boni  ; , , ; . optimates  , , , , ;   ; boni   , 82. , optimates boni, . (., .: Cic., Att., I, 13, 2)83.

. . . . 84, boni  , (Cic., Att., I, 19, 4; Phil., XIII, 16; In Cat., IV, 19). , . . , , , optimates85.

.48 . , , , boni , 86.

, . . , . . , optimates boni οἱ ἄριστοι (), οἱ χρηστοί (, )87. . . , boni ( optimates )  , , . οἱ ἄριστοι88. , II . . .89.

, . . , , boni, , . boni optimates. Boni optimi partes (Cic., Att., VII, 23, 1; VIII, 12d). ( ) , optimates, , . boni  , , (otium), , res publica90. , . . . .49 boni: (= οἱ ἄριστοι), (= optimates) (= )91.

, , boni . boni , optimates. . (Cic., Fam., VIII, 4, 2), . (Cic., Fam., XII, 15, 3), . (Cic., Fam., X, 4, 3; 8, 2; 18, 1), . (Cic., Att., XIII, 40, 1; Brut., I, 16, 1), . (Cic., Att., VIII, 12d, 1). . . optimus (Cic., Fam., XI, 19, 2; XII, 11, 1; 12, 4). , , boni optimates, (., .: Cic., Fam., X, 13, 2; 22, 3; 27, 2; XI, 28, 1; XII, 5, 3; 6, 13; 14, 7; 22, 2; 23, 2; XIV, 18; XVI, 12, 1; Brut., II, 5, 3 .). , , , , homo bonus civis bonus (Cic., Fam., VI, 9, 1; XIII, 11, 3; 12, 2; 13, 1; 17, 3; 19, 3; 70, 1), vir bonus (., .: Cic., Att., IV, 6, 1)92.

, optimates , . Boni . 160 93, optimates 17 94. , optimates vir bonus , , , (.: Plaut., Pseudol., 11431144; Cato, De agri cult., Pref.). boni , . .50 I . . . multi boni ( ) pauci et validi ( ), , , 95.

populares96 . , .  , , , . , populares ( ), , : , , .97. , populares.   , . , . , ;   , 98.

. , , populares, . ,   , , 99. (popularis ratio) .51 . (   ), ( ) 100.

. . . , . , . , .-. , . , , , , 101. . , , 102, , , , , ; , .   , .     , , , ,   , , , (Sall., Cat., 38, . . . ; .: Sall., Bell. Iug., 41; Cic., De re pub., I, 31; Flor., III, 13). : (duo genera), : , ,   . , , (multitudini iucunda), (Cic., Pro Sest., 96, . . . ; .: Cic., Comm. pet., I, 5).

. . , . II  . I . . . (13388 . . .) .52 . . : A ( , ), B1 ( , ), B2 ( , ) C ( , ). : nobilitas ( A B1) ( B2 C). 103. . . , nobilitas optimates ( ) , 104. , . . , [] , , ; , (qui cum timore aut mala spe vivant) (Cic., Fam., VIII, 14, 3).

, populares, ( ), , , , . .

, , optimates/boni populares . - , , , , . , . , , , . , , factio partes ( ) , .


.53

 3.

optimates .   res publica (restituta), libertas, pax, , , 105. , 106.


Res publica


, res publica, , est res publica res populi (res publica  ) (Cic., De re pub., I, 39)107. , : , , , , , 108. .

, res publica . , res publica , () 109. res publica . . . . . . . res publica civitas, , , 110. . . , , res publica 111.

. . .

, , res publica (res populi),   .54 , 112. , . , res publica = res populi , , , 113. , , , , 114.

res publica . . . rs publica , , , libertas, , . 115.

, res publica optimates. , , 116, , 117. . : , , , , , . [] , (Cic., Att., I, 14, 4). res publica, .

. nihil agens [. , 61 . . .] cum re publica, seiunctus ab optimatibus, a quo nihil speres boni rei publicae Eius autem collega [. .55 , 61 . . .] partium studiosus defensor bonarum ( res publica, ; - res publica, ) (Cic., Att., I, 13, 2). . . : ( ) . ? , . , . , , . , , ?

. 43 . . . . , : Hunc exercitum esse utilem rei publicae ( res publica) (Cic., Brut., I, 11, 2). 7 43 . . . . (sic!) : Crede mihi, hunc exercitum, quem habeo, senatus atque optimi cuiusque esse ( , , , ) (Cic., Fam., XII, 12, 4). , res publica,   senatus et optimi quique! res publica , , , (. : Cic., Fam., X, 18, 3; 32, 5; XII, 10, 2)?

. [ ]  res publica (Cic., Att., I, 16, 7). ,   . , , (Cic., Att., I, 16, 9). , ?

. . , , : [] , , , , . , , partes , (satisfactum etiam partibus et ei rei publicae, quam tu probabas) (Cic., Fam., IX, 9, 2, . . . ). , ei rei publicae, quam tu probabas,  , , ? , ? , , ? , .56 . , ( , .)118.

, res publica  res populi, 119. .57 . . , (ὁ δῆμος  , ) (App., B. C., IV, 91, 92).

Optimates, boni, . Res publica , . res publica optimates , , res publica omnium bonorum ( ), , , , . , res publica omnium bonorum  , ( ) optimates, boni (.: Cic., Fam., I, 8, 34). .

, . , . , , , . , .   , , .

, res publica res nostra, res communis, causa communis, causa publica, ea causa, causa libertatis, causa, summa, () . , res publica ( ) , , .

. - (nobilitatis), , (omnium nobilium) , (causam) (Cic., Pro Rosc. Am., 16). , (quidem roganti nec suam causam, sed publicam) (Cic., Att., IX, 1, 4, . . . , ). (in mea atque in publica causa consulum partes suscepisti) (Cic., Fam., XV, 21, 2, . . . , ). , . - .58 (rebus communibus), [. ] (Cic., Fam., VI, 1, 4, . . . ). (causam perisse), [] (Cic., Att., XIV, 10, 1). [] - , (rem communem) , , - (Cic., Fam., VII, 28, 3, . . . ). , [] [], , , (in communi causa) (Cic., Fam., I, 7, 7, . . . ). [] , , (causam libertatis), (salutis libertatisque communis) (Cic., Fam., XII, 24, 2). [ ]   , (nostras res) (Cic., Fam., XI, 4, 1, . . . ; . : Fam., VIII, 11, 1; Cic., Att., VII, 13, 1; VIII, 1, 3; 11c, 1; Fam., I, 9, 14; V, 17, 2; VI, 1, 5; 10, 5; IX, 5, 2; XII, 4, 1; 5, 2; 9, 1; XIII, 52, 1; XV, 21, 2; Brut., I, 3, 1; II, 1, 3; 3, 1).

, , , . , , . , , ; , , , (causae vero amicissimus) [ , ] (Cic., Att., XV, 6, 1). [ ] , (huic causae); , , [ ] (Cic., Fam., VIII, 17, 1).

, res publica . : , , res publica amissa (), nulla () res publica, res publica perdita () . . , .

, . , , res publica = , , res publica amissa , ( , .59 , aussetzten) , . , res publica . , . , (sic!)120.

. , , . , res publica , . , , (sic!)121. . , , . , , res publica. , mos maiorum, , , res publica122.

, , res publica , .

, res publica (Cic., De off., II, 29; Cic., Att., II, 25, 2; VIII, 11d, 6; Fam., II, 5, 2; Cic., Q. fr., III, 4, 1; 5, 4 .). res publica. , (Cic., Att., IV, 1, 3, . . . ). : , , ,  (dignitas in sententiis dicendis) (libertas in re publica capessenda),  , , . , , , (Cic., Fam., I, 8, 34, . . . ; .: Cic., Fam., II, 5, 2; Q. fr., III, 4, 1).

.60 , dignitas libertas, , 123 (.: Cic., Fam., I, 9, 25; In Verr., II, 1; Pro Marc., 8; Phil., I, 34). , res publica , , . cum dignitate otium: , , , (Cic., Fam., I, 9, 21, . . . ; .: Pro Sest., 98; De orat., I, 1). , 124.

, optimates, res publica. , libera res publica. , res publica , , , , (Cic., Att., VII, 13, 1; IX, 7, 5; Fam., I, 8, 3; IV, 1, 2; X, 1, 1; XII, 2, 3; Q. fr., III, 4, 1 .),  , . , . libera res publica ( , ) (.: Cic., Fam., XI, 5, 3; Att., VIII, 3, 2; 3, 4; 12c, 3; XIV, 4, 1; 14, 6; XV, 13, 4; Fam., XI, 8, 1; XII, 2, 1; 6, 2; 10, 4; Brut., II, 1, 1; 5, 1; De domo suo, 146; De senect., 20 .).

, res publica optimates (res publica omnium bonorum) , optimates . , , optimates . res publica restituta.

.61


Libertas


libertas , 125. , , libertas optimates, populares126. , , , , 127. . , . libertas boni, , .

Optimates , libertas. , , , 128. (tyrannis) (regnum), (servitas)129. , ( , , .), 130. locus communis (., .: Cic., De amit., 41; De leg. ag., II, 8, 15, 20, 32, 35).

.62 (tyrannislibertas). libertas tyrannisregnumservitas : (regem) , (hominem dominandi cupidum aut imperii singularis), , (tyrannum)? , , : ; (quin serviant quidem fieri non potest) (Cic., De re pub., I, 50; .: De off., I, 112; II, 23; III, 19, 32, 82; De amit., 52; De leg. ag., II, 8, 15, 20, 32, 35; Pro Sulla, 25; Att., I, 16, 10; II, 12, 1; 13, 2; 18, 1; 22, 6; XIV, 4, 4; Fam., VI, 19, 1; IX, 19, 1; XI, 5, 3; XI, 8, 1; XII, 1, 1; XII, 1, 2; Q. fr., III, 6, 4; Brut., I, 4, 5). . , : , , , , , , (Cic., Brut., I, 17, 6, . . . ).

libertas optimates , dignitas, auctoritas, , 131. regnum, tyrannis servitas , (.: Cic., Att., IV, 8a, 2; Fam., I, 8, 3; Q. fr., III, 5, 4).

, , libertas , (.: Cic., Pro Sest., 137). , libertas plebis (Cic., Pro Flacco, 137), libertas populi , (., .: Cic., Pro Sull., 86; Pro Sest., 103; De re pub., I, 55; II, 53; III, 23). Libertas plebis   . , , . libertas populi, , 132. Libertas aequitas. .63 , - , (Cic., De re pub., I, 5253; II, 3940), , , , 133. , boni libertas134, , . .

, res publica , optimates . libertas  , . Libertas nobilium . libertas (otium), . , ,  , .


Pax optimates


Pax . ,   . , pax , . pacare, , , ,   , 135. pax, . , pax , . pax (concordia)136. (dissensio), (bellum civile). , , , (impii) civitas.

Pax boni , .64 137. pax . , .

, pax. , boni138. . (Gran. Licinian., p. 15 ed. Flemisch). , , , , (Cic., Comm. pet., XIII, 53, . . . ). , , , , (Cic., Att., IX, 11a, 1, . . . ). optatissima pax ( ) optimates. pax , . , pax .

, . . 59 . . . , (Cic., Att., I, 20, 3, . . . ; .: Att., IX, 11a, 3; Fam., XII, 25, 5; Brut., I, 4, 3; Plut., Cras., 14). , . 59 . : , ; , , , (Cic., Att., II, 20, 3, . . . ). ! , .

. , , 44 . . ., . , .65 , , . . , , . . , . : [] , , , , ,   . , , , (Cic., Att., VII, 7, 5, . . . ). , : , . , , (Cic., Att., VII, 14, 3, . . . ; .: Att., VII, 3, 5; 5, 4; Fam., XVI, 12, 2).

, pax optimates, , . [] , []   (Cic., Att., VIII, 11d, 8, . . . ). [] , - ; , (Cic., Att., VII, 8, 4, . . . ; .: Cic., Att., VII, 4, 2; Att., VIII, 11c, 1; Fam., IX, 6, 2; Caes., Bell. Civ., I, 4, 26; III, 19; Sall., Hist., I, 77, 2).

partes . pax . . res publica, - ! (Cic., Att., VII, 18, 2, . . . ). [] , , , (Cic., Att., X, 4, 3, . . . ; .: Att., VII, 9, 4; 26, 2; Fam., VI, 1, 3; 4, 2).

. . /139. . , , , , (Cic., Att., XIV, 15, 3, . . . ). , , ;   , .66 (Cic., Brut., II, 5, 1, . . . ; .: Cic., Att., XIV, 14, 6; XVI, 1, 4; Fam., X, 27, 1, 2; 6, 1; XI, 6, 3; 18, 2; XII, 3, 1).

pax ,   pacificatorius, pacificator. (Cic., Att., XV, 7, 1; Fam., X, 27, 2; Phil., XII, 3; .: Dio Cass., XLIV, 49)140.

, optimates - , . , . , , . turpa pax ( ) (Cic., Att., VII, 18, 1), .

. , , , , .   . (. 49 . . .), ( )141 (. , . 1). , : . , , . . , , , . , . , . . , orbis terrarum,   ,   , . , 142. . . , , felicitas . 143.

. . 4746 . . . . (RRC,  460/4)144 (. , . 2). , .67 , , , pax, . , , (tropaeum) 48 . . . (CRRBM,  Rome 3989; RRC,  448/1) (. , . 3). tropaeum gallicum. , . , (CRRBM,  Rome 3994; RRC,  448/2). - 17 . . . (Babelon,  Sanquinia 1; CREBM I, Augustus  6970). , , . , ( ) .

pax , . Boni , . 49 . . . , , , , (Cic., Att., VIII, 13, 2, . . . ; .: VIII, 16, 1; IX, 10, 2; 13, 4; Suet., Div. Iul., 75, Nero, 2).

, , , ,   , ,   . optimates libera res publica, libertas, pax . , . , , . , , . , , . , , , , boni .

.68 , , , . , , . ́ , , .


 4.

, optimates, populares . , res publica, libertas, pax145. , libertas, res publica pax .


Res publica


, optimates, . , . . . res publica , . , , res publica , , , , res publica res populi Romani ( ) salus publica ( ).

res publica . De re publica ,   , , , , populares: ,   [ ]  - [] ,     , , ,   , , , , . , .69 res publica, (hanc unam rite rem publicam, id est rem populi) (Cic., De re pub., I, 48). res publica . , , , , (rei publicae commoda) (ORF2, 48, Fr., 30), , : , [. ] , (rei publicae commodaret) (Gran. Licinian., p. 9 ed. Flemisch). .

res publica : (in tanto imperio populi Romani), [] (sibi et rei publicae) (Caes., Bell. Gall., I, 33). . . , , , : [ ] , (in re Caesar non solum publicas, sed etiam privatas iniurias ultus est), . , . ) (Caes., Bell. Gall., I, 12, . . . ). res publica . simul iudiciorum metus, adulatio atque ostentatio sui et potentium, qui in re publica iudiciisque tum plurimum pollebant ( , , ) (Caes., Bell. Civ., I, 4, . . . , ). res publica , populus Romanus (.: Caes., Bell. Gall., I, 20, 31, 3436, 42, 44; II, 1, 3, 15, 34; IV, 16, 22; V, 41; VI, 1; VIII, 6, 52; Bell. Civ., I, 79; .: Ps.-Caes., Bell. Alex., 6567; Bell. Afr., 64, 77, 97).

res publica : [], - , , , (libertatem suam cum re publica venalem habere) (Sall., Epist. ad Caes., II, 5; .: II, 11; Sall., Cat., 4, 18, 20; Bell. Iug., 30, 31, 40). res publica imperium populi Romani: , [] .70 , , (quam per te populi romani imperium maxumum ex magno fieri) (Sall., Epist. ad Caes., II, 4). [], (populi romani summum atque invictum imperium) - (Sall., Epist. ad Caes., II, 12, . . . ).

, , , . , cum grano salis. , populi Romani causa ( ) (Cic., Pro Caec., 76), . communis causa, , , libertas (populi): (populi Romani communis causa); (ad communem causam libertatis et dignitatis); [] (causae communi libertatis); (communem libertatis et civitatis causam) (Cic., In Verr., II, I, 84; V, 143, 169, 170). , , nobilitas.

, , , , res publica ,   rem publicam in libertatem vindicare ( ). , 146. , , .

, , .   .   res publica. .71 , , , res publica (qui ex dominatu Ti. Gracchi privatus in libertatem rem publicam vindicavit) (Cic., Brut., 212, . . . ; .: Ps.-Caes., Bell. Afr., 22). , , , , res publica (rem publicam adflictam et oppressam in veterem dignitatem et libertatem vindicaturus) (Cic., Fam., II, 5, 2, . . . ). [] , res publica (me una cum re publica in libertatem vindicassem) (Cic., Epist., fr., V, 14, . . . ; .: Cic., Pro Flacco, 25; Pro Sest., 144).

res publica res populi: , [populares] , , , (et a regum et a patrum dominatione solere in libertatem rem populi vindicari, non ex liberis populis reges requiri aut potestatem atque opes optimatium) (Cic., De re pub., I, 48, . . . ). . De re publica , .

, , rem publicam in libertatem vindicare res publica populus Romanus plebs. , , , (ut se et populum Romanum factione paucorum oppressum in libertatem vindicaret) (Caes., Bell. Civ., I, 22). , , , (Ti. et C. Gracchus vindicare plebem in libertatem coepere) (Sall., Bell. Iug., 42, . . . ). 111 . . . . : (contionibus populum ad vindicandum hortari) (Sall., Bell. Iug., 30).

, optimates rem publicam in libertatem vindicare , . populares populum Romanum in libertatem vindicare , ́ . . , res publica res populi Romani .

.72 , , - res publica . res publica , res publica res populi res plebis147.


Libertas populi Romani


libertas populares ( , ) , libertas: libertas populares; , .

populares libertas . libertas , , . populares : , , , ,   , , , , (Cic., De re pub., I, 48, . . . ).

, libertas , . 111 . . . . , (Sall., Bell. Iug., 31).

libertas. , , , , , , , , (Sall., Hist., I, 55, 11, . . . ). , dominatio ( = tyrannis, regnum). : , (postquam res publica in paucorum potentium ius atque dicionem concessit), , , , , , , , , (Sall., Cat., 20, . . . ; .: Sall., Bell. Iug., 31; Hist., I, 55, 2; III, 48, 3, 6, 11, 23, 28). populares pauci factio , , factio paucorum (Sall., Bell. Iug., 3, 8, 27, 30, 41, 42; Cat., 20, 30, 39, 58; Hist., I, 55, 12, III, 48, 3, .73 6, 8, 28; Caes., Bell. Gall., VIII, 50, 52; Bell. Civ., I, 22, 85), (., .: Sall., Bell. Iug., 31; Cat., 18, 32, 34).

,   libertas  servitas. , : , , , , , (Sall., Bell. Iug., 31, . . . ; .: Sall., Bell. Iug., 41; Cat., 33, Hist., I, 55, 13; III, 48, 6). (.: Sall., Bell. Iug., 30, 42; Hist., I, 55, 127; III, 48, 1718).

plebem/populum Romanum in libertatem vindicare, , . , . vindex libertatis populi Romani ( ) populares , : (Sall., Bell. Iug., 42), . (Sall., Bell. Iug., 30), (Sall., Cat., 20), . (Caes., Bell. Civ., I, 22; Sall., Epist. ad Caes., II, 2).

, libertas . , - , . . , vindex libertatis, in libertatem vindicare, , . optimates, populares, - .


Pax


Pax , , 148. pax .

, , pauci. populares . , . : , (aut serviendum esse aut per manus libertatem retinendam) .74 (Sall., Bell. Iug., 30; .: Sall., Bell. Iug., 42; Hist., I, 55, 127). , . , . . (Sall., Hist., I, 55, 7; Plut., Lucul., 5; Caes., Bell. Civ., III, 2022).

. . :   ; , . [] , , , (Sall., Hist., III, 48, 1718, . . . ). , 149. pax . (Cic., Fam., X, 31, 5). . . . . , , , 45 . . . , 71 . . . . 150, ,   . (Cic., In Verr., II, 2, 100). ,   LIBERTATIS ([ ] ); , (CRRBM,  Rome 4011; RRC,  473/1) (. , . 4). , 151.

. , populares : [ ] (perniciosis legibus), (vi tribunicia) , , (Saturnini atque Gracchorum casibus). (quarum rerum illo tempore nihil factum, ne cogitatum quidem) (Caes., Bell. Civ., I, 7).

(Caes., Bell. Gall., VIII, 55; Caes., Bell. Civ., I, 4, 5, 9, 26, 32; III, 10; Cic., Att., VIII, 11c, 1; IX, 9, 4). .75 . , , , , PAXS PAX IVL[ia] (Babelon,  Aemilia 1718; CRRBM,  Rome 3964, 3987, 4157, 4162; RRC,  480/6)152 (. , . 56). , . , Pax Iulia (CIL II,  4748, 55; ILS,  68996900; Ptolem., Geogr., II, 5, 5) Colonia Pacensis Forum Iulii Pacatum (CIL XII,  3203; ILS,  6984; Plin., N. H., III, 35). , 153. . , 154. , , . . ὁ εἰρηνοροιός () (Dio Cass., XLIV, 49), pacificator, pacificus. , 155.

. . , (., .: CRRBM,  Rome 3994, 4201, 4236, 4242, 4274, 4292; RRC,  485/1; 494/1012, 24, 41, 42a) (. , . 711). . : , , , , (Cic., Att., XIV, 15, 3, . . . ).

partes pax. . : , ( , ) (Cic., Fam., X, 31, 5, . . . ). . (Cic., Fam., X, 6, 1), . (Cic., Fam., X, 35, 12; .: Cic., Fam., X, 27, 1; XI, 18, 2). , : , , , , .76 , , , , (Cic., Fam., X, 21, 4, . . . ). , , . , (Cic., Fam., X, 15, 3). , temporibus actis: Cum domino pax ista venit ( ) (Lucan., I, 670; .: App., B. C., I, 6).

, , populares pax . , , . . partes. pax .

, , boni, . , , . -, , , . Res publica res populi Romani, res populi res plebis. Libertas . . popularis vindex libertatis populi Romani plebis  . pax populares ,   .

, , .

, . . ( -, consilium). .77 ,   partes, , , . , , partes . optimates populares.

, , . . , ,   -, . , , - .

, : optimates populares. , : res publica, libertas, pax .,  , . res publica res publica omnium bonorum, res populi Romani; libertas  , ; vindex libertatis  optimates, ; pax  , , . , (res publica restituta, vindex libertatis p. R., pax) , .

optimates populares , boni . ,   . , . , , optimates, populares. , , , . , , , .


  • 1., . 1994, 121:   , (sic!), (sic!).
  • 2Drumann 1919, Bd. 5, 662.
  • 3 2002, . 2, 8384; 2002, . 3, 155185.
  • 4 1916, . 2, 1820, 29 .; Meyer 1919, 12, 6869 .; Carcopino 1951, v. 1, 9, 230, 272 .; Hill 1952, 129130; Sherwin-White 1969, 151161; . : Pelham 1911, 25; 1995, . 2, 13, 16 .; 2003, 31, 34 .; Marsh 1931, 118; Heaton 1939, 24, 33, 34 .; Wirszubski 1950, 3940; Abbott 1963, 99, 240242; Ferenczy 1991; 1993, 57; 2005, 210220.
  • 5 1938b, . 1, 171; 1947, 126139; 1949, 1113; 1986, 369; 1963, 141152; 1975, 144151; 1976, 142156; 1979, 117126; 1986, 4852; 1991, 159.
  • 6Gelzer 1912, 4990.
  • 7Münzer 1920, 6, 427; Badian 1958b, 168; Thompson 1962, 37; Scullard 1973, 130.
  • 8Thompson 1962, 37.
  • 9Syme 1939, 11; Strasburger 1939, 773798; Taylor 1949, 713; 1957, 11; Smith 1955, 8688; Vittinghoff 1959, 22; Hellegouarch 1963, 112; 1963, 9394; 1965, 172173; 1976, 194195; Gruen 1968, 95; 1974, 365; Lacey 1970, 4; Earl 1984, 1143; Burckhardt 1990, 7799; Shotter 1994, 1728; Kienast 1999, 11.
  • 10Syme 1939, 11.
  • 11Rouland 1979, 258260; Linderski 1985, 8794; Brunt 1988, 32 sqq., 382502; Wallace-Hadrill 1989, 6387; Eder 1991, 169196; Yakobson 1992, 3252; 1999, 25; Nippel 1995, 78; Morstein-Marx 1998, 259288; 2004, 67; Lintott 1999, 178181; 2006, 4053; Mouritsen 2001, 6778; Millar 2002, 92, 111, 124128, 145148.
  • 12Seager 1972a, 53; 1977, 2324 ( ); Brunt 1988, 443502; Meier 1988, 24 sqq.; Paterson 1993, 105; 1999; Lintott 1999, 175176; Mouritsen 2001, 3, 96; 2001, 136141, . 139; 2003, 49, 51; Millar 2002, 134, 137, 140; 2005, 8899.
  • 13 2003, 35.
  • 14Strasburger 1939, 779; Taylor 1949, 910; Seager 1972a, 53.
  • 15., .: Syme 1939; Carcopino 1951, v. 1, 183; 1977, 56; Brunt 1988, 1, 501; c.: 1947, 130.
  • 16Hellegouarch 1963, 112; 1976, 164; 2005, 99.
  • 17 factio , , , . . 2003, 36: , factiones, 蔻.
  • 18Taylor 1949, 189, note 30; .: Strasburger 1939, 781; . : Hellegouarch 1963, 100.
  • 19Gelzer 1912, 102 sqq; Strasburger 1939, 788.
  • 20Hellegouarch 1963, 112; Gruen 1968, 5; 1976, 51, 59, 195; 1977, 5; Brunt 1988, 444; 2003, 49. . . . , factio  -, consilium (  amici, , ),  , [Wiseman 1968, 213; c.: Adcock 1959, 61].
  • 21 2005, 89.
  • 22Seager 1972a, 5358; .: Wiseman 1968, 212213; Meier 1988, 163; Millar 2002, 134; Lange 2009, 15, note 10.
  • 23.: Seager 1972a, 57; .: Lintott 1999, 175.
  • 24Syme 1939, 17, 19, 343; Badian 1958b, 179, 200; 1976, 305; 1977, 19; Brunt 1988, 467; 2003, 88.
  • 25., .: Taylor 1949, 911; Seager 1972a, 57; 1976, 164; Brunt 1988, 446; 2005, 89.
  • 26., .: 1976, 159160; 2003, 88.
  • 27.: Brunt 1988, 329, 480.
  • 28 2005, 90.
  • 29Hellegouarch 1963, 9195, 109110; 1977, 6.
  • 30Hellegouarch 1963, 9599, 101; c. : 1977, 67.
  • 31 coitio: Lex XII Tab., VIII, 26; Cic., Q. fr., III, 1, 16; Pro Cluen., 148; collegium sodalitas .: Hellegouarch 1963, 109110 ; coniuratio: Sall., Cat., 17, 18, 30; Cic., Fam., XII, 14, 6; Pro Sest., IV, 9; In Cat., IV, 5; De provin. cons., 32; De domo suo, 63; Caes., Bell. Gall., III, 10, 23, 30; Liv., IX, 26; Flor., II, 12; conspiratio: Cic., Fam., V, 9, 1; XI, 13a, 5; Pro Deior., 11; Pro Scaur., 20; Liv., III, 64; V, 11; Epitom., 116; Suet., Div. Iul., 80; Div. Aug., 19; Flor., II, 4; causa: Cic., Fam., VIII, 17, 1; manus: Cic., Att., II, 24, 2; Q. fr., II, 3, 2; Pro Sest., IV, 9; XV, 34; XIX, 42; De domo suo, 6; In Vat., XVII, 40; Caes., Bell. Gall., VII, 4; grex: Cic., In Cat., II, 10; castra: Cic., Pro Rosc. Am., 20, 105; Pro Marcel., 30; Phil., XI, 12, XIII, 30; Fam., X, 18, 3; Sall., Epist ad Caes., I, 2, 5; partes: Cic., Att., XIV, 17, 6; De off., II, 45. .: (scelerata contio) (Cic., De domo sua, 55).
  • 32 pars, , partes [.: 1947, 136; 1963, 94; 1976, 158164]. . 1963, 110112 . . 2003, 4552 , partes , pars. , : , castrum castra. partes (gen. partium), pars, . .: Pars erat quae legatos ad Caesarem miserat, pars erat quae Pompeianarum partium fautores essent ( , ) (Ps.-Caes., Bell. Hisp., 37).
  • 33Hellegouarch 1963, 110115.
  • 34 1976, 164; Lintott 1999, 173.
  • 35Brunt 1988, 447; Meier 1988, 307; 2003, 4749.
  • 36 2003, 4552.
  • 37 1947, 136; Hellegouarch 1963, 113; 1963, 94; 1977, 7; Brunt 1988, 447; Lintott 1999, 173; 2003, 4950.
  • 38 . . 2003, 50.
  • 39 , 5051.
  • 40 1977, 21.
  • 41., .: , , partes (C. Curione, Iulianarum duce partium) (Vell. Pat., II, 55; c.: Caes., Bell. Civ., I, 10; Cic., Brut., I, 16, 11).
  • 42 2003, 5152.
  • 43 2001, 136141, . 139. .: Strasburger 1939, 781; Syme 1939, 21, 157; Taylor 1957, 11; Meier 1988, 24 sqq.
  • 44 2003, 51.
  • 45 1952, 242, 267.
  • 46 , 268.
  • 47Abbott 1911, 270; 1952, 271272; Heuss 1956, 5373; Brunt 1988, 380381; Griffin 1997, 86109; Lintott 1999, 172.
  • 48 amicitia, ., .: Lossmann 1962, 13; Hellegouarch 1963, 4256; Seager 1977, 4050; Brunt 1988, 351381.
  • 49  . . . [Lacey 1974, 5].
  • 50. . -, , [Shackleton-Bailey 1960, 265].
  • 51.: Achard 1981, 8 sqq.; 1982, 794800; Ferrary 1997, 227229.
  • 52 2003, 35. .: Strasburger 1939, 794; Taylor 1949, 13; Wirszubski 1950, 40. ., , : , , ,   , , , , , , , - optimates populares [Brunt 1988, 446].
  • 53Wirszubski 1950, 39.
  • 54. -, , , [Morstein-Marx 2004, 217224], , (ideological monotony). , populares, , . , , , . populares , optimates, , (contio), , , . , . -, [Morstein-Marx 2004, 230240; .: 2009, 188189].
  • 55 .: 2006, 89.
  • 56Caes., Bell. Civ., I, 7: (perniciosis legibus), (vi tribunicia) , , (Saturnini atque Gracchorum casibus). (quarum rerum illo tempore nihil factum, ne cogitatum quidem).
  • 57, . . 1965, 172.
  • 58.: 1969, 312.
  • 59 optimates 50- . . .; . .: Cic., Com. pet., I, 5; XIII, 51; Att., I, 19, 4; II, 20, 4; 21, 1.
  • 60.: Brunt 1988, 35, 38.
  • 61 2002, . 2, 8384.
  • 62.: 1916, . 2, 1820; 1995, . 2, 1617; Meyer 1919, 12, 6869; 2003, 31, 34; Heaton 1939, 24, 33, 34, 38; 1947, 126139; Hill 1952, 51, 114115; Sherwin-White 1969, 151161; 1979, 122; 1986, 4852; 2005, 210220.
  • 63., .: 1962, 628 .; 1963, 8487; 1949; König 2000, 441.
  • 64Strasburger 1939, 773775; Wirszubski 1950, 39, note 3; 1979, 117126; Brunt 1988, 54, note 89; Mouritsen 2001, 134, note 8; Feeley 2006, 5.
  • 65Hellegouarch 1963, 505.
  • 66Feeley 2006, 5.
  • 67.: 1979, 121; Brunt 1988, 54, note 89.
  • 68Wissowa 18941897, Bd. 2, 3940; Strasburger 1939, 773; Badian 1976, 753754; Asmis 2001, 117; 2003, 52.
  • 69.: Strasburger 1939, 773; Hellegouarch 1963, 505; Volkmann 1964, Bd. 4, 320; 1977, 79; 2003, 52.
  • 70Strasburger 1939, 773; .: Volkmann 1964, Bd. 4, 320; 2003, 52.
  • 71Hellegouarch 1963, 505; 1979, 117126.
  • 72Gelzer 1937, 1 sqq; Strasburger 1939, 773798, esp. 773; Hellegouarch 1963, 505; Volkmann 1964, Bd. 4, 320322; Kienast 1999, 11; 2003, 52; Oliveira 2004, 111112; Ward 2004, 105.
  • 73Hellegouarch 1963, 521; c.: Taylor 1949, 13; Meier 1965, 549 sqq; Shotter 1994, 27; Lintott 2006, 52.
  • 74Wirszubski 1950, 3940; Badian 1958b, 280; 1976, 753754; Feeley 2006, 6472.
  • 75 2002, 838, . 36. , . . 1986, 52.
  • 76 2005, 160162.
  • 77Lacey 1970, 67; Gruen 1974, 50; 1977, 79; Achard 1981, 38; Earl 1984, 54; Brunt 1988, 35 sqq, 470471; Shotter 1994, 27; Lintott 1999, 173175; 2006, 4953; Burckhardt 1988, 15 sqq.; 2000, 12701273; López 2005, 258.
  • 78Marco Simón, Pina Polo 2000, 267.
  • 79.: Meier 1965, 564.
  • 80, . . 1965, 172.
  • 81 1986, 5255.
  • 82Hellegouarch 1963, 505.
  • 83.: 1962, 630.
  • 84.: sordes urbis et faex ( ) (Cic., Att., I, 16, 11; . : Cic., Att., I, 19, 4; VII, 3, 5; XVI, 8, 2 .).
  • 85Brunt 1988, 5455.
  • 86Mouritsen 2001, 133134.
  • 87 1962, 628; 1963, 79; Lintott 1999, 174; 2006, 49; 2010, 246 ( . ); .: Burckhardt 1988, 11 sqq.
  • 88. : 2003, 3740; Badian 1976, 753754; Lacey 1970, 3; Strasburger 1939, 774; Volkmann 1964, Bd. 4, 320.
  • 89 1954, 2132, . 32; 1963, 8384. optimates. optimus, ops (, , , , ) op- -tum- [Hellegouarch 1963, 500; Walde 1954, Bd. 2, 216217]. optimates . optumates, (Enn., Trag., CV ed. Joycelyn). , , , optimates (Serv., In Ver. Aen., IV, 682). , , , () , . , optimates οἱ ἄριστοι II  . I . . ., . optimates (. I . . .) ([Cic.], Rhet. ad Heren., IV, 12, 45) [Strasburger 1939, 773; Walde 1954, Bd. 2, 217; Wirszubski 1950, 39, note 1].
  • 90Lacey 1970, 316.
  • 91 1976, 142156.
  • 92 , οἱ ἄνδρες ἀγαθοί, οἱ ἄνδρες ἄριστοι (viri boni), οἱ ἄριστοι , res publica (Plut., Brut., 12). ., c.: Λεύκιος Οὐαλέριος Λευκίου υἱὸς στρατηγὸς συνεβουλεύσατο τῇ συγκλήτῳ εἴδοις Δεκεμβρίαις ἐν τῷ τῆς Ὁμονοίας ναῷ περὶ ὧν Ἀλέξανδρος Ἰάσονος καὶ Νουμήνιος Ἀντιόχου καὶ Ἀλέξανδρος Δωροθέου Ἰουδαίων πρεσβευταί, ἄνδρες ἀγαθοὶ καὶ σύμμαχοι ( . , , : , , , , , [] ) (Joseph. Flav., Antiq. Jud., XIV, 145146, . . . ).
  • 93 1976, 143152.
  • 94Hellegouarch 1963, 504.
  • 95 1970, 6385, . 7178.
  • 96 populares, , , . , , [Syme 1939, 65]. . . , , , [Wirszubski 1950, 3940; Shotter 1994, 2728]. . populares (mob-panderers) [Shotter 1994, 27]. . . optimates [Strasburger 1939, 773]. .
  • 97Strasburger 1939, 782785, 794; Syme 1939, 65; Taylor 1949, 1124; Wirszubski 1950, 3940; 1963, 9094 ( ); Lacey 1970, 6; Badian 1976, 753754; 1977, 910; 2009, 199232; Levick 1978, 89; Earl 1984, 54; Paterson 1985, 3738; Brunt 1988, 35, 53; Shotter 1994, 2728; Tatum 1999, 17; Lintott 1999, 174; 2006, 5253; Piňeiro 2003, 199 sqq.; Ward 2004, 105; Morstein-Marx 2004, 66 sqq., 204207; 2005, 7787, 155162 ( ); 2010, 241247 ( . ); Roddaz 2005, 98109; Feeley 2006, 64 sqq. ( ); Glockemann 2010, 4 sqq.
  • 98Wirszubski 1950, 40; Bleicken 1962, 7; Badian 1976, 754; 1977, 910; Brunt 1988, 53; Tatum 1999, 56.
  • 99Meier 1965, 555; .: Meier 1988, 116 sqq; 1995, 40 sqq.; Kolb 1995, 250.
  • 100Meier 1965, 567; .: Malitz 2004.
  • 101Seager 1972b, 328338; Perelli 1982, 561; Mackie 1992, 4973; Ferrary 1997, 227229; Burckhardt 2000, 1271.   -, , . , , , , [Morstein-Marx 2004, 207230].
  • 102 35 .
  • 103 1977, 1518.
  • 104 , 1617.
  • 105., .: 1994, 3; Gowing 2005, 4 .
  • 106.: Syme 1939, 9; 1985, 36; 2001a, 8; Sumi 2005, 11.
  • 107., .: Schofield 1999, 63; . : Castritius 1982, 9.
  • 108Schofield 1999, 66; .: Judge 1974, 280285, esp. 285; 2004, 13.
  • 109Wirszubski 1950, 100 sqq.; Drexler 1957, 247281; Stark 1967, 56; 1985, 1617; Meier 1988, 1; 1990, 53; Stanton 1998, v. 1, 282288; 2005, 1314.
  • 110 1984, 46; Brunt 1988, 299.
  • 111 2004, 25.
  • 112 1995, . 2, 427.
  • 113Schofield 1999, 6384.
  • 114.: North 1990, 321; Lintott 1999; Millar 2002. . . . 2003, 4660 . . , . , . , . . . - [Mouritsen 2001, 9192, 144; Reese 2004, 3540; Ward 2004, 101119; Morstein-Marx 2004, 119 sqq.].
  • 115 1994, 1112; .: Earl 1990, 49.
  • 116.: Syme 1939, 153.
  • 117.: Carcopino 1947b, t. 2, 72; 1979, 117; Morstein-Marx 2004, 194 sqq., 206.
  • 118 : Cic., Att., IV, 8a, 2; IV, 18, 2; V, 3, 1; VII, 4, 2; VII, 5, 4 (   , , , ); VII, 9, 3 ( [] , (sic!)); VIII, 1, 2; 3, 34; 12a, 4; 12c, 3 ( ); 12d, 1 ( , , , ( )); IX, 7, 1; 11a, 2; XI, 10, 2; Fam., I, 7, 10 ( [. ] , (qui sit rei publicae status) , (status hic rei publicae) ):   (in re publica) ?, (rei publicae) ? ? . . . : [ ] [ in re publica, ] (Cic., Fam., V, 8, 34); I, 9, 4, 910, 12; IV, 7, 5; 13, 5; V, 2, 6; VI, 1, 3, 6; 6, 2; 9, 1; 17, 1; VII, 3, 4; VIII, 4, 4; 5, 3; IX, 2, 5; 14, 3, 8; 20, 1; 24, 2; X, 8, 2; 10, 1; 14, 2; 24, 24 (. ); 26, 3 ( [] , ); 32, 5 ( (res publica) (maior pars senatus) (sic!)  . ); 34, 2 ( [] , (nec senatui nec rei publicae)); XI, 10, 1 ( ); 23, 1; XII, 5, 1; 7, 12; 10, 1; 11, 12; 12, 1, 2; 14, 3, 6 (   . ); 24, 12; 28, 1; XV, 15, 1; XVI, 11, 3; 12, 1; Q. fr., I, 2, 15; III, 4, 2; Brut., I, 5, 1; 10, 2; 12, 3; 15, 1; 18, 1, 2; II, 1, 3; 2, 1, 3; 4, 2 .
  • 119.: [] , , , [ De re publica, , res publica  ]. , moderatorem illum rei publicae (. .   ), ? , , : , , , moderatori rei publicae (beata civium vita),  (opibus firma), (copiis locuples), (gloria ampla), (virtute honesta). , . , . [ ], , , (ut nos beati simus); (Cic., Att., VIII, 11, 12). , , boni. Ops, gloria, virtus, honestas  , sordes urbis et faex. , , , . , nos, . nos, , - . .
  • 120Meier 1988, 2.
  • 121Schofield 1999, 66.
  • 122Bringmann 2002a, 113123.
  • 123Wirszubski 1950, 1517; 1954, 113; Adcock 1959, 13; Balsdon 1960, 4446; Bleicken 1962, 1416; Scheer 1971, 185; 1986, 21; Sumi 2005, 86.
  • 124 cum dignitate otium . . . [Wirszubski 1954, 113; Balsdon 1960, 4650; .: Brunt 1988, 55].
  • 125., .: Wissowa 18941897, Bd. 2, 20312034; Blanchet 1904, 1199; Syme 1939, 155161; Wirszubski 1950, 9196; Bleicken1962, 120; Hellegouarch 1963, 542559; Hammond 1963, 93113; 1965, 171; Kunkel 1969, 6893; 1972, 4161; Sousa 1974, 4749; Brunt 1988, 321334; Yoshimura 1988, 122; Fears 1997, 139; Vanotti 1999, 161179; Barchiesi 1997, 8789; Marco Simón, Pina Polo 2000, p. 261292; Mouritsen 2001, 915; Roller 2001, 230 sqq.; 2001, 164167; Welwei 2004, 217229; Sumi 2005, 8689.
  • 126., .: Syme 1939, 155161; Wirszubski 1950, 9196; Bleicken 1962, 1; Hellegouarch 1963, 542559; 1965, 171; Sousa 1974, 4749; Brunt 1988, 321334; Vanotti 1999, 161179; Marco Simón, Pina Polo 2000, p. 261292; Mouritsen 2001, 1014; 2001, 164167; Welwei 2004, 217229; Morstein-Marx 2004, 217222; Sumi 2005, 86.
  • 127 2006, 711.
  • 128.: 1965, 171.
  • 129., .: (rationi agrariae) , , - (novam quandam potentiam) (Cic., Att., I, 19, 4, . . . ).
  • 130.: Bleicken 1962, 4; Morstein-Marx 2004, 220 sqq.
  • 131Syme 1939, 155; Wirszubski 1950, 9196; Bleicken 1962, 6; Hellegouarch 1963, 559; Kunkel 1969, 8586; Brunt 1988, 326330; Fears 1997, 10; Mouritsen 2001, 10; 2001, 167; Welwei 2004, 220; Sumi 2005, 8789.
  • 132 2001, 166167.
  • 133Brunt 1988, 325326; 2001, 166167.
  • 134Hellegouarch 1963, 542 sqq.
  • 135Syme 1939, 304; Koch 1949, 2430 sqq.; Weinstock 1960, 4446; Stier 1975, 354; Straub 1986, Bd. 2, 2638; 1994, . 1, 1112; 2001, 4647; Botermann 2002, 279298.
  • 136., .: Koch 1949, 2430; Weinstock 1960, 45.
  • 137., .: Ramage 1987, 86; 1994, . 1, 1112.
  • 138Syme 1939, 156.
  • 139Welch 1998, v. 1, 244256.
  • 140.: Syme 1939, 156.
  • 141Weinstock 1960, 45.
  • 142CRRBM, v. 1, p. 503, note 2.
  • 143RRC, p. 460,  440.
  • 144.: Weinstock 1960, 45.
  • 145Syme 1939, 153156; Mackie 1992, 53 sqq.
  • 146Welwei 2004, 217; .: Wirszubski 1950, 103104; Walser 1955, 353; Scheer 1971, 183185; Sousa 1974, 4748; Mouritsen 2001, 910.
  • 147. , res publica (Cic., Att., I, 18, 3; Fam., VIII, 9, 2).
  • 148., .: Koch 1949, 24302436; Weinstock 1960, 4446.
  • 149 2002, 118.
  • 150Broughton 1986, v. 2, 127.
  • 151 , , . C.: Cic., In Piso, 29: Cedant arma togae ( , ).
  • 152. : Weinstock 1960, 46; .: Koch 1949, 2430; Mastino, Ibba 2006.
  • 153Weinstock 1960, 46.
  • 154Ibid.; .: Meyer 1919, 515.
  • 155Weinstock 1960, 46.
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